Electronic Control Weapons Articles and Resources

 


 

Contents

1.   AELE Monthly Law Journal articles

2.   Selected law review articles

3.   IACP Legal Officers Section conference papers, visual presentations and materials

4.   IACP The Police Chief articles

5.   IACP staff documents

6.   Scholarly articles, books and resources

7.   Specimen Taser deployment policies

8.   Research and informational documents

9.   Websites

 

Click here for summaries of electronic control weapons (ECW) cases

 


 

1.   AELE Monthly Law Journal articles (chronological – newest to oldest)

 

1.      Use of an Electronic Control Weapon (ECW) on a Person Suffering from Delirium or Other Agitated Condition - Part 1 ,    2015 (3) AELE Mo. L. J. 101

2.      Pointing and Threatening to Use Electronic Control Weapons, 2013 (8) AELE Mo. L. J. 101

3.      The Use of Electronic Control Weapons Against Handcuffed or Restrained Persons - Part 2, 2012 (10) AELE Mo. L. J. 101

4.      The Use of Electronic Control Weapons Against Handcuffed or Restrained Persons - Part 1, 2012 (9) AELE Mo. L. J. 101

5.      Weapon Confusion and Civil Liability, 2012 (6) AELE Mo. L. J. 101.

6.      Ninth Circuit finds that the use of a TASER constituted excessive force: Two cases involved noncompliant subjects, 2011 (12) AELE Mo. L. J. 101.

7.       Second Circuit Panel Allows Stun Mode to Gain Compliance of Chained Protestors, 2011 (5) AELE Mo. L. J. 501.

8.      Force and the Fatigue Threshold: The Point of No Return, 2010 (6) AELE Mo. L. J. 501.

9.      Taser Electronic Control Devices: An “Intermediate” Use of Force?, 2010 (2) AELE Mo. L. J. 101.

10.  Legal Aspects of Training Injuries - Part Two, 2007 (9) AELE Mo. L. J. 201.

11.  Civil Liability for Use of Tasers, stunguns, and other electronic control devices--Part III: Use Against Detainees and Disabled or Disturbed Persons, 2007 (5) AELE Mo. L .J. 101.

12.  Electronic Control Devices: Liability and Training Aspects, by Edmund Zigmund, FLETC, 2007 (5) AELE Mo. L. J. 501.

13.  Civil Liability for Use of Tasers, Stunguns, and Other Electronic Control Devices - Part II: Use Against Juveniles, And Inadequate Training Claims, 2007 (4) AELE Mo. L. J. 101.

14.  Civil Liability for Use of Tasers, Stunguns, and Other Electronic Control Devices - Part I: 4th Amendment claims for excessive force. 2007 (3) AELE Mo. L. J. 101.

15. Use of an Electronic Control Weapon on a Person Suffering from Delirium or Other Agitated Condition, Part 1, 2015 (3) AELE Mo. L. J. 101

16. Use of an Electronic Control Weapon on a Person Suffering from Delirium or Other Agitated Condition, Part 2, 2015 (4) AELE Mo. L. J. 101

 

2. Selected law review articles (chronological – newest to oldest)

 

1)      Simply stunning! A Proposed Solution for Regulating the use of TASERs by Law Enforcement in the Seventh Circuit, by M. Beard, 49 Valpariso U. L. Rev. 907 (Spring 2015)

2)       Power Down: TASERs, The Fourth Amendment and Police Accountability in the Fourth Circuit, 91 No. Car. L. Rev. 606 (Jan. 2013).

3)       Shocking the Conscience: What Police Tasers and Weapon Technology Reveal About Excessive Force Law, 59 (5) UCLA Law Review 1342 (2012).

4)       Don't Daze, Phase, or Lase Me, Bro! Fourth Amendment Excessive-Force Claims, Future Nonlethal Weapons, and Why Requiring an Injury Cannot Withstand a Constitutional or Practical Challenge, by Douglas B. McKechnie, 60 U. Kan. L. Rev. 139 (Oct. 2011).

5)       Tase Me One More Time: An Analysis of the Ninth Circuit's Interpretation of the Fourth Amendment, Qualified Immunity, and Tasers in Brooks v. City of Seattle, by Joseph G. Walker, 2011 BYU L. Rev. 227 (2011).

6)       Note: The Shocking Truth: Law Enforcement’s Use and Abuse of TASERS and the Need for Reform, by Michelle E. McStravick, 56 Vill. L. Rev. 363 (2011).

7)       Taser Use by Law Enforcement: Report of the Use of Force Working Group, by David A. Harris, 71 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 719 (Summer, 2010).

8)       Don’t Tase Me Bro: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Laws Governing Taser Use by Law Enforcement, by Fabian Jeff, 63 Fla. L. Rev. 763 (Jul. 2010).

9)       Shocking the Second Amendment: Invalidating States Prohibitions on Taser with District of Columbia v. Heller, by Ron F. Wright, 20 Alb. L.J. Sci. & Tech. 159 (2010).

10)   Note: Municipal Liability Under 42 U.S.C. §1983 for Failing to Equip Police With Tasers, by Donald L. Nevins, III, 28 Quinnipiac L. Rev. 225 (2009).

11)   Annotation: When Does Use of [the Taser] Constitute [a] Violation of Constitutional Rights, by Jay M. Zitter, 45 A.L.R.6th 1 (2009).

12)   Liability for Police Use of the Taser: A Case Study in Overcoming Police Rationalization, by Stephen M. Ryals, 806 PLI/Lit 1005 (Oct. 2009).

13)   “Tase Me Bro!” An Argument for Clear and Effective Taser Regulation, by Matthew J. Spriggs, 70 Ohio St. L.J. 487 (2009).

14)   Note: An Excessively Painful Encounter: The Reasonableness of Pain and de Minimis Injuries for Fourth Amendment Excessive Force Claims, by Bryan N. Georgiady, 59 Syracuse L. Rev. 123 (2008).

15)   Comment: Police Use of Tasers: The Truth is “Shocking,” by Elizabeth Seals, 38 Golden Gate U.L. Rev. 109 (Fall, 2007). 

16)   Stunning Trends in Shocking Crimes: A Comprehensive Analysis of Taser Weapons, by Shaun H. Kedir, 20 J. L. & Health (Cleve. St. Univ.) 357 (2007).

17)   Excessive Force, Civil Liability, and the Taser in the Nation’s Courts: Implications for Law Enforcement Policy and Practice, by Michael R. Smith, et al., 30 (3) Policing 398 (Oct. 2007).

18)   Jumping the Gun: Can Municipalities Be Held Liable Under 42 U.S.C. §1983 for Failing to Provide Police Officers with Less-Lethal Weapons? By Melissa A. Celli, 39 (1) Suffolk U. L. Rev. 185 (Jan. 2005).

 

3. IACP Legal Officers Section conference papers, visual presentations and materials

1)   TASER electronic control devices – Force update (2011) by Michael Brave.

2)   Electronic Control Weapon Liability (2010) by Eric Daigle.

3)   Electronic Control Device Legislation: General Themes (2005) by Eric Edwards.

4)   Electronic Control Device State statutes (2005) by Eric Edwards.

5)   The Taser – a visual aid presentation [PowerPoint] (2004) by Eric Edwards.

 

4. IACP The Police Chief articles

1)      Electronic Control Devices: Where Are We Now? by E. Daigle (Jan. 2012).   

2)      What Every Police Chief Should Know About Electronic Control Devices, by C. Ferrell (Dec. 2010).

3)      Legal Training and Concerns for Conducted Energy Weapons, by E. Daigle & J. Peters (Nov. 2010).

4)      Taser Use and the Use-of-Force Continuum: Examining the Effect of Policy Change, by M. Miller (Sep. 2010)                     

5)      Bryan v. McPherson - A New Standard for the Use of Electronic Control Devices?, by M. Brave & M. O’Linn (Feb. 2010).

6)      Mistaken Use of a Firearm Instead of Electronic Control Weapon, by C. Milazzo (Dec. 2008). 

7)      Electronic Control Weapons: Liability Issues, by R. Means & E. Edwards (Feb. 2005).

 

5. IACP staff documents

1)     IACP Executive Brief on Electro-Muscular Disruption Technology, entitled “Electro-Muscular Disruption Technology: A Nine Step Strategy for Effective Deployment.” (Nov. 2008).

2)     IACP Model Policy and Concepts & Issues Paper No 64,, Electronic Control Weapons  (Apr. 2010, replacing Aug. 2005). Available for a fee. (Free for IACP members).

3)     IACP Training Keys #397 - The Taser; #567 - The Advanced Taser; #575 - ECW Update; #583 - ECW Update (2005).

4)     IACP Training Keys #671 – Excited Delirium Syndrome (2012).

 

6. Scholarly articles, books and resources

1)     Cardiac Fibrillation Risks with TASER® Conducted Electrical Weapons. PowerPoint® presentation, by Panescu, Kroll, and Brave, IEEE in Medicine, Milano (2015)

2)     Exposures to Conducted Electrical Weapons (Including TASER® Devices): How Many and for How Long are Acceptable? by James Jauchem, Ph.D., 60 Journal of Forensic Sciences S116–S129 (Nov. 2014)

3)     Examining the Effects of the TASER on Cognitive Functioning: Findings from a pilot study with police recruits by Michael D. White et al., J. Exp. Criminol., DOI 10.1007/s11292-013-9197-9 (2014).

4)     TASER Conducted Electrical Weapons: Misconceptions in the Scientific/Medical and Other Literature, J. R. Jauchem, Forensic Sci. Med. Pathol. (Dec. 2014) Abstract

5)     The Influence of Agency Policies on Conducted Energy Device Use and Police Use of Lethal Force, by Ferdik et al., 17 (4) Police Quarterly 328-358 (Dec. 2014). Abstract.

6)     The ignitability of petrol vapours and potential for vapour phase explosion by use of TASER® law enforcement electronic control device, Science & Justice Journal, Forensic Science Society (2014). Abstract.

7)     TASER Electronic Control Devices and Cardiac Arrests: Coincidental or Causal? Mark W. Kroll, et al., 129 Circulation (AHA) 93-100 (2014).

8)     Taser Use in Canadian Police Forces, by Katie Yakasovich (undated)

9)     Incapacitation Recovery Times from a Conductive Electrical Weapon Exposure. Forensic Science Medicine & Pathology (Springer).  J.C. Criscione & Mark Kroll, DOI 10.1007/s12024-014-9551-x. (2014).

10)  TASER Electronic Control Devices Can Cause Cardiac Arrest in Humans, Douglas P. Zipes. 129 Circulation (AHA) 101-111 (2014).

11)  The Neurocognitive Effects of Simulated Use-of-Force Scenarios. 2013 Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology 1-9. D. Dawes, J/ Ho et al. (DOI) 10.1007/s12024-013-9510-y.

12)  A Quantum of Force: The Consequences of Counting Routine Conducted Energy Weapon Punctures as Injuries, Justice Quarterly 2013. DOI:10.1080/07418825.2013.788729 Abstract.

13)  Markers of Acidosis and Stress in a Sprint, Versus a Conducted Electrical Weapon, Jeffrey Ho & Donald Dawes et al., Forensic Science International (2013). Levels of acidosis and catecholamines were less among subjects exposed to the Taser X26 than among subjects who sprinted 20 yards or more. Abstract

14)  Electrical Safety of Conducted Electrical Weapons Relative to Requirements of Relevant Electrical Standards, Panescu, et al., 2013 Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc.5342-5347. Abstract.

15)  Multiple and prolonged Taser deployments, Crime and Misconduct Commission, Brisbane, Australia (Jun. 2013).

16)  The Karbon Arms Multi-Purpose Immobilization Device: A Characterization Study, Hughes, et al., Weapons & Protective Services Technologies Center and Penn State (2013).

17)  An Analysis of Written Conductive Energy Device Policies: Are Municipal Policing Agencies Meeting PERF Recommendations? by K. Thomas et al., 23 Criminal Justice Policy Review 399-426 (Dec. 1, 2012). Abstract

18)  Sudden Cardiac Arrest and Death Following Application of Shocks From a Taser Electronic Control Device, Douglas P. Zipes M.D., 125 (20) Circulation (AHA) 2417-2422 (May 22, 2012). Abstract.

19)  The Braidwood Commission Reports on Taser use in Canada: An Evidence-Based Policy Review, 35 (2) Policing 356-381 (2012).  Abstract.

20)  The BART Shooting 1-1-09. Visual presentation by retired Capt. Greg Meyer, LAPD Police Academy (2012).

21)  Sudden Cardiac Arrest and Death Associated with Application of Shocks from a TASER Electronic Control Device, Circulation (Apr. 2012). Abstract.

22)  Electronic Control Devices - Where are we now? (Daigle Law Group, Nov. 2011).

23)  Police Use of Force, Tasers and Other Less-Lethal Weapons, NIJ (May 2011).

24)  Study of Deaths Following Electro Muscular Disruption, NIJ (May 2011).

25)  The Respiratory, Metabolic, and Neuroendocrine Effects of a New Generation Electronic Control Device [TASER X3], Donald Dawes, et al., 207 (1) Forensic Science International 55-60 (Apr. 2011). Abstract.

26)  COPS 2011 Elect ronic Control Weapon Guidelines (Apr. 2011).

27)  T aking Tasers Seriously: The Need for Better Regulation of Stun Guns in New York, New York Civil Liberties Union (October 2011).

28)  Canadian National Guidelines for Taser use by Law Enforcement. Modified Oct. 2010.

29)  How are Taser weapons used by the NSW Police Force? A Special Report to Parliament under s. 31 of the Ombudsman Act 1974, by Ombudsman, New South Wales (Oct. 2012).\Policy and Training Recommendations Related to Police Use of CEDs: Overview of Findings from a Comprehensive National Study, by Geoffrey Alpert & Roger Dunham, 13 (3) Police Quarterly 235-259 (Sep. 2010). Abstract

30)  Police Use of Force: The Impact of Less-Lethal Weapons and Tactics, by Philip Bulman, NIJ Journal, Issue #267, pg. 4 (Winter 2010).

31)  The Effect of Less-Lethal Weapons on Injuries in Police Use-of-Force Events, John M. MacDonald, et al, 99 (12) American Journal of Public Health 2268-2274 (Dec. 2009); abstract.

32)  Report of the Nova Scotia Panel of Mental Health and Medical Experts Review of Excited Delirium (Jun. 2009).

33)  Report of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Science and Public Health on Use of Tasers by Law Enforcement Agencies. (Jun. 2009).

34)  Safety and Injury Profile of Conducted Electrical Weapons Used By Law Enforcement Officers Against Criminal Suspects, William P. Bozeman, M.D., et al., 53 (4) Annals of Emergency Medicine 480-9 (Apr. 2009); abstract.

35)  TASER Electronic Control Devices: Physiology, Pathology, and Law, by Mark W. Kroll and Jeffrey D. Ho (Editors), ISBN 978-0-387-85474-8 (Springer, Mar. 2009).

36)  Less Lethal Weapon - Effectiveness, Use of Force, and Suspect & Officer Injuries:  A Five-Year Analysis, NCJRS Doc. 224081 (Sep. 2008).

37)  Deaths Following Electro-Muscular Disruption by National Institute of Justice, Interim Report (June 2008).

38)  Safety and Injury Profile of Conducted Electrical Weapons Used by Law Enforcement Officers Against Criminal Suspects, Wake Forest University School of Medicine (2008).

39)  Department of Defense Nonlethal Weapons and Equipment Review: A Research Guide for Civil Law Enforcement and Corrections. National Institute of Justice Special Report NCJ 205293 (Oct. 2004).

40)  Book: Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death: Separating Evidence from Conjecture, by Howard E. Williams, ISBN 978-0-398-07776-1 (2008). Summarizes 213 deaths following a Taser application. Amazon.com listing.

41)  Commentary on Conducted Energy Weapon Safety and Associated Research, by Chris Lawrence, 8 (4) Law Enforcement Executive Forum 21-30 (2008).

42)  Sudden Death, “Excited” Delirium, and Issues of Force: Part II - Electronic Control Devices, by John G. Peters, Jr., Police & Security News, (May-Jun. 2006).

43)  Use of Tasers by Law Enforcement Agencies: Guidelines and Recommendations. Stanford Univ. Criminal Justice Center (2006).  Appendix.

44)  Use of Tasers by Selected Law Enforcement Agencies, Government Accountability Office (May 2005).

45)  Department of Defense Nonlethal Weapons and Equipment Review: A Research Guide for Civil Law Enforcement and Corrections. National Institute of Justice Special Report NCJ 205293 (Oct. 2004).

46)  Use of Force Continuum: Medical Aspects. Undated, DoJ/COPS, Gary M. Vilke, MD

 

7. Specimen Taser deployment policies

1)       LAAW Sample Taser Policy and Electronic Control Device Research Index

2)       IACP Model Policy and Concepts & Issues Paper No 64, Electronic Control Weapons (Apr. 2010, replacing Aug. 2005). Order info. (Free for IACP members).

3)       PERF, 2011 Electronic Control Weapon Guidelines

4)       PATC Legal & Liability Risk Management Institute Model Policy

5)       Sample Policy with Commentary, by Prof. Lorie Fridell, Ph.D. (An AELE exclusive).

6)       Illinois Law Enforcement Training and Standards Board Policy Development Guidelines for Deployment of Electro-Muscular Disruption Devices (2007).

7)       New Jersey Attorney General’s Policy Use of Electronic Stun Guns (Conducted Energy Devices) by Law Enforcement (2010).

8)      Use of Force policy, Las Vegas Metro Police Dept. (2012).

9)      Specimen ECW policy for a Ninth Circuit Police Dept. (2013).

 

8. Research and informational documents

1)     Electronic Control Device Research Index, compiled and regularly updated by TASER International.

2)     Taser safety issues - Wikipedia

3)     European Working Group, Annual Symposia on Non-Lethal Weapons.  

4)     Physiological Attributes of Arrest-Related Sudden Deaths Proximate to the Application of Taser Electronic Control Devices: An Evidence Based Study of the Theory of High-Risk Groups, Doctoral Dissertation by Howard E. Williams (2013). [305 pages, PDF]

5)     The health effects of conducted energy weapons, Canadian Academy of Health Sciences (2013).

6)     Safety and Injury Profile of Conducted Electrical Weapons Used by Law Enforcement Officers Against Criminal Suspects, 53 (4) Annals of Emergency Medicine 480-489 (Apr. 2009).

7)     Report of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Science and Public Health on Use of Tasers by Law Enforcement Agencies. (Jun. 2009).

8)     Compliance Report. Wisconsin’s Electronic Control Device training compared with USDOJ recommendations made to Orange County, Florida, Wisconsin Dept. of Justice Training and Standards Bureau. (May, 2009).

9)     Physiological Effects of a Conducted Electrical Weapon on Human Subjects, 53 (5) Annals of Emergency Medicine 569-575 (Nov. 2007).

10) Position Paper on Taser, Illinois Police Training Institute (2004).

11) ACLU letter relating to safety and use of Taser in Denver (2004).

12) United Kingdom Home Office report on Taser effectiveness (2001); UK Evaluations of Taser Devices (medical evidence and other source material) (2006).

13) Use of Tasers by Law Enforcement Agencies: Guidelines and Recommendations. Stanford Univ. Criminal Justice Center (2006).  Appendix.

14) The M26 Taser: Seattle Police Report (May 2002).

15) Use of Tasers by Selected Law Enforcement Agencies, U.S. Government Accountability Office, GAO Report 05-464 (2005).

16) Non-Lethal Weapons (a compilation of sources), Air University Library (2008).

17) Non-Lethal Weapons: Setting Our Phasers on Stun? Potential Strategic Blessings and Curses of Non-Lethal Weapons on the Battlefield by Erik L. Nutley, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF August 2003 Occasional Paper No. 34 Center for Strategy and Technology Air War College.

18) Non-Lethal Weapons Technologies, Legalities, and Potential Policies, Joseph W. Cook, et al., 5 USAFA J. Leg. Stud. 23 (1994-95).

 

9. Websites

1)      Electronic Control Devices – Legal Resources: http://www.ecdlaw.info/

2)      European Symposium on Non-Lethal Weapons

3)       NIJ Research on Electro-Muscular Disruption Technology.

4)       TASER International product and information site, http://www.taser.com/

5)       Institute for Prevention of In-Custody Deaths website (in particular, the articles page).

 

• TASER® is a registered trademark of TASER International, Inc.  NASDAQ: TASR

• PowerPoint® is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corp.


128 documents. Last updated 2-23-2016

 

 

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