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Employment Law Resources

 


Administrative Leave

     Administrative Leave: Memorandum for heads of Executive Departments and Agencies on Administrative Leave, by Katherine Archuleta, Director, U.S. Office of Personnel Management (May 29, 2015).

Arbitration

     Arbitration: "Discipline and Discharge of Public-Sector Employees: An Empirical Study of Arbitration Awards," by Laura J. Cooper, ABA Journal of Labor & Employment Law, Vol. 27, Number 2, pg 195 (Winter 2012).

     "Arbitration of employment claims - an overview," presented at the ABA annual meeting (Aug. 2002). [Ms-Word format]

     Arbitration Under an Expired Contract, by Jack Collins, 78 (4) The Police Chief (Apr. 2011).

Alternative Employment

     Alternative employment: Article, "Job Sharing: A Viable Option for Law Enforcement?" 78 (3) FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 14 (Mar. 2009).

Assessment centers

     Book: Assessment Center Handbook for Police and Fire Personnel (3rd edition), by Charles D. Hale, C.C. Thomas Publ., ISBN 13-9780398079482 (2010).

Aviation Security

     Antiterrorism -- Skymarshal Program: Dept. of Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General, "Evaluation of the Federal Air Marshal Service," August 2004, 56 pages, PDF format). The report chronicles how federal air marshals have slept on the job, tested positive for alcohol or drugs while on duty, lost their weapons and falsified information.

     Aviation security -- job effectiveness: "Efforts to Measure Effectiveness and Strengthen Security Programs," Government Accounting Office Testimony, Document GAO-040285T (Nov. 20, 2003). [PDF]

     Aviation security: "TSA Oversight of Checked Baggage," U.S. Government Accountability Office Report GAO-06-869.

Background Checks

     Background checks -- Merit Systems Protection Board report: "Reference Checking in Federal Hiring" (2005).

Bargaining

     Bargaining Agreements: Article: "One Bite of the Apple and One of the Orange: Interpreting Claims That Collective Bargaining Agreements Should Waive the Individual Employee's Statutory Rights," 19 (2) The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 185. [PDF]

     Collective Bargaining Rights: Information on the Number of Workers with and without Bargaining Rights, GAO-02-835, U.S. General Accounting Office (48 pp. Sept. 2002). [PDF]

     Online article: Collective bargaining, "Implementing Changes in Expired Contracts," by John M. Collins, General Counsel, MA Chiefs of Police Assn., Nov. 2002 Police Chief magazine.

     Appointments: For the first time, all five members (and the General Counsel) of the National Labor Relations Board have been appointed by President George W. Bush, including three Republican and two Democratic members.

     Book: Federal Job Dispute Procedures: An employee's guide to complaints, appeals, and grievances.

Body Armor

     Body Armor: Body Armor for Law Enforcement Officers, by Nathan James (Congressional Research Service, May 2014).

     Body Armor: "Body Armor Use, Care, and Performance in Real World Conditions: Findings from a National Survey," Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) (November 1, 2012).

       Body Armor: "Bulletproof Vest Partnership Initiative," BJA, Updated June 2011. This fact sheet describes the Bulletproof Vest Partnership (BVP) Program, a U.S. Department of Justice initiative designed to provide critical resources to state, local, and tribal jurisdictions for the sole purpose of purchasing bullet-resistant body armor for sworn law enforcement officers.

     Body armor: DoJ to provide $33.6 million to assist law enforcement in replacing Zylon ballistic vests.

Body Cameras

     Body Cameras: ACLU - Illinois: Suggested Guidelines on Use of Body Cameras by Police (Sep. 2014).

     Body Cameras: Are You Recording This?: Enforcement of Police Videotaping, by Martina Kitzmueller, 47 (1) Conn. L. Rev. 167-196 (Nov. 2014).

     Body Cameras: AELE has a new webpage on police body-cam information, which will be periodically updated.

     Body Cameras: "Police Body-Mounted Cameras: With Right Policies in Place, a Win For All," by Jay Stanley, ACLU Senior Policy Analyst (October 2013).

    Body-Worn Cameras: Special Report: Body-Worn Cameras, Police Magazine (Jul. 2015).

     Body-Worn Cameras: Guidance for the Use of Body-Worn Cameras by Canadian Law Enforcement Authorities, The Privacy Commissioner of Canada (Feb. 2015).

    Technology: Body-Worn Cameras for Criminal Justice: Market Survey, National Institute of Justice (Mar. 2014).

Budget Cutbacks

     Budget Cutbacks: "Policing and the Economic Downturn: Striving for Efficiency is the New Normal," Police Executive Research Foundation (PERF) (Feb. 2013).

Canadian Rights

     Canadian rights: Canadian Government document on same-sex marriage rights. (2003)

Collective bargaining

     Collective Bargaining: "The Legislative Upheaval in Public-Sector Labor Law: A Search for Common Elements," by Martin H. Malin, ABA Journal of Labor & Employment Law, Vol. 27, Number 2, pg 149 (Winter 2012).

     Collective Bargaining: "The Constitutional Dimension of Unilateral Change in Public-Sector Collective Bargaining," by Stephen F. Befort, ABA Journal of Labor & Employment Law, Vol. 27, Number 2, pg 179 (Winter 2012).

     Collective Bargaining Agreements: Summary of the first ever collective bargaining agreement between the American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE) and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), covering 45,000 TSA officers (Aug. 2, 2012).

     Federal Collective Bargaining Legislation for State and Municipal Public Safety Personnel, 78 The Police Chief 12-13 (Jan. 2011). Legislative oversight:

     Federal Collective Bargaining Legislation for State and Municipal Public Safety Personnel, IACP presentation (Oct. 2010).

Community Relations

     Community Relations: Resource Guide for Enhancing Community Relationships and Protecting Privacy and Constitutional Rights, Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, (NC J248508 November 2014).

Compensation

     Compensation: Federal Employees Compensation Act: Benefits for Retirement-Age Beneficiaries, Government Accountability Office, Report 12-309R (Feb. 2012).

     Compensation - Report: Designing an Effective Pay-for-Performance Compensation System, Merit Systems Protection Board (2006).

     Uniformed federal workers: Office of Personnel Management issues intended regulations to increase the rate paid to nonmilitary federal employees that are required to wear a uniform, from $400 to $500. Allowances and Differentials, 71 (126) Fed. Reg. 37507, FR Doc. 06-5890, 5 CFR Part 591, RIN 3206-AL07.

Computer use policies:

     E government report: State E-Government Strategies: Identifying Best Practices and Applications, Congressional Research Service Report RL34104 (2007).

     Instant and text messaging report by the National Assn. of State Chief Information Officers, "The Privacy Implications of Instant and Text Messaging Technologies in State Government." The document contains links to IM policies of eight states. [PDF]

     IT security: To minimize Internet spam, phishing and spyware, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has issued a draft of Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information Systems.

Corrections Employment

     Article: Reasons for Choosing a Correction Officer Career, 7 (1) Psychological Services (APA) 34-43 (Feb. 2010).

Corruption

     Corruption: The Center for Public Integrity has created a website entitled "Grading the Nation: How accountable is your state?" with statistics, integrity ratings, and other information concerning various forms of corruption, state by state.

Credit Card Abuse

     Credit card abuse: GAO Report - "Steps Taken to Improve DoD Program Management, [and] Address Misuse." In 120 transactions, involving $3,062,000 in allegedly unauthorized charges, no one was fired or suspended, and only three persons were verbally reprimanded. [PDF]

     Credit card controls: "Improving the Management of Government Charge Card Programs," Appendix B of OMB Circular A-123. [PDF]

Crime Scene Investigation

     Electronic Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for First Responders, Second Edition

Criminal Conduct

     Criminal Liability: Federal indictment of two retired NYPD detectives on charges that they worked as Mafia hitmen while they were still officers. [PDF]

     Indictment: U.S. v. James J. Smith (C.D. Cal. 2003), charging an ex FBI agent with passing classified information to a Chinese intelligence agent. [PDF]

     Investigations - Report: "Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal Investigations: A Brief Legal Analysis," Congressional Research Service, Doc. #RL33321 (2006)

Criminal Investigation

      Criminal Investigation: Criminal Investigative Analysis: Practitioner Perspectives (Part One of Four), by J. Amber Scherer and John P. Jarvis, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (June 2014).

      Criminal Investigation: Criminal Investigative Analysis: Skills, Expertise, and Training (Part Two of Four), J. Amber Scherer and John P. Jarvis, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (July 2014).

     Criminal Investigation: Criminal Investigative Analysis: Measuring Success (Part Three of Four), by J. Amber Scherer and John P. Jarvis, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (August 2014).

     Criminal Investigation: Criminal Investigative Analysis: Applications for the Courts (Part Four of Four), J. Amber Scherer and John P. Jarvis, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (September 2014).

Defamation

     Former employee litigation: Article, Workplace Defamation Suits on the Rise, National Law Journal (4-13-2009).

Disabilities

     Article: Physical Injuries, Pain, and Psychological Trauma: Pathways to Disability, 3 (3) Psychological Injury and Law (Springer) 241-253, DOI: 10.1007/s12207-010-9086-8.

     Disabilities - article: A Disability by Any Other Name is Still a Disability: Log Cabin, the Disability Spectrum, and the ADA(AA),” 4 Seventh Cir. Rev. 253 (2009).

     Disabilities - article: Providing Police Services to the Deaf,” 76 (8) Police Chief (IACP) July 2009.

     Disabilities - article: ADA and the Hiring Process,” 76 (9) Police Chief (IACP) Sep. 2009.

     Disabilities - article: "Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act: The Potential for Police Liability," 73 (9) The Police Chief (Sep. 2006).

     Disability Discrimination: Toward an "Unqualified" Otherwise Qualified Standard: Job Prerequisites and Reasonable Accommodation Under the Americans with Disabilities Act, by John E. Rumel, 18 Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal No. 1 (2014). Abstract.

     Disability Discrimination: "Americans with Disabilities Amendments Act of 2008," by Lisa A. Baker, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (August 2011).

     Disabilities discrimination -- a new guide: "Q&A about the Association Provision of the ADA."

     Disability Discrimination: "Resolving ADA Complaints Through Mediation: An Overview," U.S. Department of Justice (2013), and "The ADA Mediation Program: Questions and Answers," U.S. Department of Justice (2013).

     Disabilities discrimination: Revised Final Title II Rule, A Compilation of Regulatory Provisions and Guidance -- Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government Services.

     Disability Law: Ten Employment Myths: DoJ has a seventeen-minute video that responds to concerns expressed by employers.

     Disability law - article: "How Courts, Employers, and the ADA Disable Persons with Bipolar Disorder," Ramona Paetzold, 9 (2) Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal (2005).

     Equal Employment Opportunity Commission seven volume set of Technical Assistance Manuals on a searchable CD-ROM ($135).

     "How far is too far? Employee misconduct and the Americans with Disabilities Act," presented at the ABA annual meeting (Aug. 2002). [Ms-Word format]

     Statistics: Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2012 - Statistical Tables, by Erika Harrell. Bureau of Justice Statistics (February 25, 2014) NCJ 244525.

Disaster relief

     Disaster relief: Guide to Nongovernmental Organizations for the Military: A primer for the military about private, voluntary, and nongovernmental organizations operating in humanitarian emergencies globally.

Discovery

     Discovery: Article, "Discovery Process and Personnel File Information," Nov. 2003, FBI Law Enf. Bulletin, p. 25. [PDF]

Disciplinary searches

     Report: Public Employees' Right to Privacy in Their Electronic Communications: City of Ontario v. Quon in the Supreme Court, Congressional Research Service, R41344 (July, 2010).

Disciplinary Systems

     Conduct Unbecoming: Conduct Unbecoming: Lessons from the Military, by John M. (Jack) Collins, Police Chief Magazine (Jan. 2016)  

     Conflicts - City Attorneys: "The role of a municipal attorney in employee discipline hearings," by Paul N. Keller, 40 (1) ISBA Local Government Law (July 2003). [Online and print format]

     Discipline: "An Employee Disciplinary System That Makes Sense," The Police Chief, Sept. 2003, pp. 22-28; www.theiacp.org/

     Discipline: "Police Personalities: Understanding and Managing the Problem Officer" by Laurence Miller, Ph.D., The Police Chief (May 2003), www.theiacp.org/ [Print format]

     Early Warning Systems: Responding to the Problem Police Officer, 8 pp., National Institute of Justice (2001). [PDF]

     Inspector General's Review of Allegations of a Double Standard of Discipline at the FBI, Nov. 2002. [PDF]

Domestic Violence

     Domestic assault among police: Report: A survey of 123 internal affairs policies (12 pp.) Institute for Law Enforcement Administration, Plano, TX.

     Domestic Violence: It's a Human Right: Using International Human Rights Principles to Assist Employees Experiencing Domestic Violence, by Stephen E. Arnott & Margaret C. Hobday, 18 Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal No. 1 (2014). Abstract.

Dress Codes & Appearance

    Appearance regulations - article: Regulating Matters of Appearance, 76 (2) FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 25 (Feb. 2007).

     Dress codes - Article: Spit and Polish: A Critique of Military Off-Duty Personal Appearance Standards, 184 Military Law Review - Summer 2005

Drugs

     Addiction and rehabilitation: Health & Human Services National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery informational website.

     Anabolic Steroid Use and Abuse by Police Officers: Policy & Prevention, by Commander Kim R. Humphrey, July 2008 Police Chief.

     Drug Abuse: Leading At-Risk Employees: Law Enforcement and the Addiction Crisis, by Michael VanMeter, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (January 2016).

     Drug-free workplace website: U.S. Dept. of Labor offers resources to help employers establish drug-free workplace programs and other initiatives.

     Drug testing - "Krieg v. Seybold: The Seventh Circuit Adopts a Bright Line in Favor of Random Drug Testing," 3 Seventh Cir. Rev. 367 (2007).

    Drug use: Position paper, Drug Decriminalization in Portugal: Lessons for Creating Fair and Successful Drug Policies, CATO Institute (2009).

     Firearms: "Open letter to all federal firearms licensees," U.S. Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (Sept. 21, 2011). Takes the position that persons making medical use of marijuana are not legally able to possess or use firearms or ammunition.

     Medical Marijuana: Disciplining Police Officers Re: Medical Marijuana, by Jack Collins, presentation at the IACP Legal Officers Section Annual Conference, Orlando, Florida (Oct. 25-28, 2014).

     Privacy - HHS Guidance: "The confidentiality of alcohol and drug abuse patient records regulation and the HIPAA Privacy Rule: Implications for alcohol and substance abuse programs."

Educational requirements:

     Article: The Minnesota Police Education Requirement, by S. Hilal & T. Erickson, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Jun. 2010).

     Education: Perspective. Advanced Degrees for Law Enforcement Personnel:: The Ideal Time to Enter a Higher Education Program, by Nick Francis, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (August 2015).

     Education: Educating Police Executives in a New Community Problem-Solving Era, by Michael J. Jenkins and John DeCarlo, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (May 2014).

     Higher Education: "Higher Education and Local Law Enforcement," By Susan Hilal, Ph.D., and James Densley, Ph.D. , FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, May 2013.

EEOC

     Discrimination: The EEOC has launched a new FAQ website for federal employees who pursue pro se discrimination complaints.

     EEO settlements: EEOC Litigation Settlements monthly reports.

     EEO statistics: EEOC Litigation Statistics, FY 1992 through 2002.

     Employment Discrimination. FY 2009 - 2011 EEOC Charge Receipts by State (includes U.S. Territories) and Basis. An online searchable tool that can be used to see what types of employment discrimination claims (and how many) are being filed in each state and territory.

     Proposal: Plan of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission for improving access to services for persons with limited English proficiency.

     Race Discrimination: EEOC updates its Compliance Manual section addressing "Race and Color Discrimination." EEOC Manual §15 (2006).

Electronic Weapons

     Electronic Weapons: Article, "The respiratory, metabolic, and neuroendocrine effects of a new generation electronic control device [TASER X3]," by Donald Dawes, et al., 207 (1) Forensic Science International 55-60 (Apr. 2011). Abstract.

Emergency Office Relocation

     Emergency office relocation: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management has adopted a rule on Evacuation Payments (including teleworking from an alternative worksite during an emergency situation such as a pandemic health crisis). Absence and Leave, 71 (157) Federal Register 47693, 5 CFR Part 630 [Aug. 17, 2006].

Employee Benefits & Pay

     Divorce and Your Federal Benefits, published by the Federal Employees News Digest (2001) ISBN: 0-910582-56-4. Explains the "unique federal administrative and regulatory requirements affecting federal workers' -- and their spouses' -- rights to pensions and other benefits when a marriage ends."

     Book: 2003 Federal Employees Almanac. Pay, benefits, leaves, retirement, legal rulings, employment policies and procedures, etc.

     Educational incentives - Article: "Tuition assistance programs appear to allow firms to hire better quality, more educated, more productive, employees," Natl. Bur. of Economic Research Digest (Feb. 2003).

     Federal agency job satisfaction: How federal workers rate their employing agencies.

     Federal pay scales -- law enforcement: Comparing the Pay of Federal and Nonfederal Law Enforcement Officers, Congressional Budget Office report (2005).

     Federal retirement: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management has initiated an electronic retirement process. Employees will be able to apply under a system known as RetireEZ that was designed to quickly and accurately calculate their retirement benefits.

     FLSA comp time: Plaintiff's Complaint and class action notification in a suit by officers against the NYPD. [PDF]

     Overtime: Article, "The Fair Labor Standards Act and Police Compensation," 73 (6) FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 1, June, 2004. [PDF]

   Overtime claim website: New York City police officers have sued the City alleging a violation of the FLSA. The lawsuit contends that officers were not properly compensated for overtime hours worked, and that in many cases, the compensatory time off practices of the City violate federal law.

     Overtime: The Dept. of Labor's new rules on overtime are explained at a new "FairPay" website.

     Overtime: Website on the new overtime rule: http://www.dol.gov/elaws/overtime.htm More information about the regulations is at http://www.dol.gov/fairpay

     Overtime - First Responders: Dept. of Labor Fact Sheet #17J: First Responders and the Part 541 Exemptions Under the FLSA.

     Pay banding: The Dept. of Homeland Security likely to remove more transferred federal employees from the GS pay schedules into a pay banding system that groups several grades; it gives managers more wage flexibility and allows for non guaranteed enhanced earning opportunities. Issues of Merit (Feb. 2003), Office of Policy and Evaluation, U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board.

     Per diem reimbursements: The GSA no longer publishes the list in the Federal Register. All rates are available at http://www.gsa.gov/perdiem

     Personnel Pay: Management of Integrated Military Human Capital Program Needs, Additional Improvements, Report No. GAO-05-189. [PDF]

     Retirement benefits: State Police Retirement Plans 2004 is a comprehensive comparison of state police officers retirement plans -- including age and service retirements, vesting, post-retirement COLAs, contribution rates, salary definitions, actuarial assumptions and funding. Published by Workplace Economics, Inc.

     Uniformed federal workers: Office of Personnel Management issues intended regulations to increase the rate paid to nonmilitary federal employees that are required to wear a uniform, from $400 to $500. Allowances and Differentials, 71 (126) Fed. Reg. 37507, FR Doc. 06-5890, 5 CFR Part 591, RIN 3206-AL07.

     Website - FLSA/overtime claims: A U.S. Dept. of Labor chart compares the current requirements for exemption as an executive, administrative, professional, computer or outside sales employee with the new proposed regulations.

Employee Conduct Regulations

    Appearance regulations - article: Regulating Matters of Appearance, 76 (2) FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 25 (Feb. 2007).

     Employee conduct regulations: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management has issued a plain language rewrite of OPM regulations regarding the standards that govern employee responsibilities and conduct. Employee responsibilities and conduct, 71 (155) Federal Register 46073, 5 CFR Part 735 [Aug. 11, 2006].

Employee Monitoring:

     Electronic monitoring report by the National Workrights Institute, "Privacy Under Siege: Electronic Monitoring in the Workplace." [PDF]

     Global positioning satellite monitoring report by the National Workrights Institute, "On Your Tracks: GPS Tracking in the Workplace." [PDF]

Employee Wellness Programs

     Employee Wellness Programs: "The Employee Wellness Plan," by Mark E. McDonough, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, p. 1 (December 2011).

Employment Law

     Discrimination - Report: Bias in the Workplace: Consistent Evidence of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination, UCLA School of Law (2007).

     Discrimination complaint filings: The EEOC reports that in FY 2003, people filed 28,526 charges of race discrimination, 19,124 charges of age discrimination and 2,532 charges of religious discrimination. The religious complaints including the wearing of religious apparel, scheduling to observe Sabbaths or religious holidays, and other claims. EEOC Charge Statistics FY 1992-2003.

     Discrimination - guidance: "Questions and answers about employer responsibilities concerning the employment of Muslims, Arabs, South Asians, and Sikhs," U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (2005).

     Discrimination and retaliation: Office of Personnel Management issues final regulations to carry out the notification and training requirements of the Notification and Federal Employees Antidiscrimination and Retaliation (No FEAR) Act of 2002. 71 (139) Fed. Reg. 41095-99.

     Discrimination reports - FBI: Statistical data on equal employment complaints filed against the FBI in the last five years.

     EEO settlements: EEOC Litigation Settlements monthly reports.

     Employee Screening: EEOC “Enforcement Guidance on the Consideration of Arrest and Conviction Records in Employment Decisions.”

     Employment Contracts: Employment Contracts & Separate Agreements for Chiefs, by John Collins, visual presentation at the IACP Legal Officers' Section, Chicago, Illinois (October, 2015).

     Employment Discrimination: Advancing Diversity in Law Enforcement, U.S. Department of Justice, EEOC, (October 2016).

     Employment Discrimination: Conference, Conciliation, and Persuasion: The Seventh Circuit's Groundbreaking Approach to Analyzing the EEOC's Pre-Suit Obligations, by Lisa M. DeLeon, 9 Seventh Circuit Rev. 370 (2014).

     Employment Discrimination. FY 2009 - 2011 EEOC Charge Receipts by State (includes U.S. Territories) and Basis. An online searchable tool that can be used to see what types of employment discrimination claims (and how many) are being filed in each state and territory.

     Employment Law: Employment Law Update, by Jody M. Litchford, presentation at the IACP Legal Officers' Section, Chicago, Illinois (October, 2015).

     Employment law: Print format article, "Recent Developments in Employer-Employee Relations," 38 (2) Tort Trial & Insur. Prac. Law Journal (ABA) 309-334 (Winter 2003); www.abanet.org

     Employment law: Print format article, "Demotion and discharge of municipal employees in Utah," by Ellen Kitzmiller, 16 Utah Bar J. 20 (April, 2003). www.utahbar.org

     Federal retirement: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management has initiated an electronic retirement process. Employees will be able to apply under a system known as RetireEZ that was designed to quickly and accurately calculate their retirement benefits.

     Job Classifications: Revised OPM Classification Standard for firefighters [GS-0081]. [PDF]

     Personnel Practices: GAO report on the process used to hire entry-level and lateral transfer DoJ attorneys. No. GAO-04-665R, "Information on Selected Personnel Practices at the Justice Dept." [PDF]

     Pregnancy: Pregnancy Discrimination Act, by Lisa Baker, Mar. 2008 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

     Promotions: Article, "An Exploratory Study of Two Decades of Promotional Testing in a Metropolitan Police Department," by Bruce W. Topp, Journal of Police & Criminal Psychology (Nov. 2010).

English Only Rules

     OSHA Memorandum requires employers to instruct workers in workplace safety “using both a language and vocabulary” that employees can understand; if an employee does not speak or comprehend English, “instruction must be provided in a language the employee can understand.”

Ethics

     Article: Maintaining Ethical Behavior, 79 (8) FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 10 (Aug. 2010).

       Ethics: Developing Ethical Law Enforcement Leaders: A Plan of Action, by Jay Fortenbery, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (May 2014).

     Ethics: "Focus on Ethics: The Power of Police Civility," by Andrew Borrello, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (August 2012).

     Ethics: Book, Ethical Standards in the Public Sector, 2nd Edit. (2009). ISBN: 1-60442-062-6. Written for lawyers in public service or who represent public entities. Table of Contents. Order info.

     Massachusetts State Ethics Commission publications, educational materials and opinions.

     U.S. Office of Government Ethics: publications, advisory opinions, and training.

Excited Delirium

     Excited Delirium: Excited Delirium and the Dual Response: Preventing In-Custody Deaths, by Brian Roach, Kelsey Echols, and Aaron Burnett, .FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Jul. 2014).

Expenditure Waste

     Expenditure waste -- TSA awards program: Dept. of Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General, "Assessment of Expenditures Related to the First Annual Transportation Security Administration Awards Program and Executive Performance Awards." [PDF]

Extremism

     Extremism: A New Approach to Countering Violent Extremism: Sharing Expertise and Empowering Local Communities, by the executive staff of the FBI’s National Security Branch, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Oct. 2014).

Family Leave

     Article: Family and Medical Leave Act Amendments, by Richard G. Schott, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Jun. 2010).

     Family and Medical Leave Act: The New Age of Dept. of Labor FMLA Audits, by Jenna Bedsole, visual presentation at the IACP Legal Officers' Section, Chicago, Illinois (October, 2015).

    Family leave: DOL Wage and Hour Division guidance on the availability of FMLA leave where an employee or family member is ill with pandemic flu.

     Family and Medical Leave: Proposed amendments to FMLA regulations, 77 No. 31 Federal Registry 8960 (February 15 2012).

Fatigue

     Fatigue: "Vigilance Fatigue in Policing," by Meredith Krause, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (December 2012).

Federal Civil Service

     Federal civil service: Sept. 2006 issue of the Merit Systems Protection Board newsletter.

     Federal employment: OPM's "Report to Congress - Recruitment, Relocation, and Retention Incentives."

     Federal retirement: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management has initiated an electronic retirement process. Employees will be able to apply under a system known as RetireEZ that was designed to quickly and accurately calculate their retirement benefits.

     Pay & allotments - federal: Pay Under the General Schedule and Recruitment, Relocation, and Retention Incentives, 76 (5) Federal Register 1096 (Jan. 7, 2011).

     Sick leave (federal): OPM Proposal, 5 CFR Part 630, 74 (176) Fed. Reg. 46934 (Sep. 14, 2009).

Federal Holidays

     Federal Holidays: List (through 2010).

Federal Terminology

     Dictionary of federal terminology: On Their Own Terms: A Lexicon with an Emphasis on Information-Related Terms Produced by the U.S. Federal Government, by Susan Maret, Ph.D., Nov. 2005:

Female Employees

     Female Officers: “The Feminine Arm of the Law: Police Wives, Policewomen, and Gender Politics in the Chicago Police Department, 1950 – 1984," by Megan Adams Labor (2013) 10(2): 77-103. Abstract. Full Text for purchase.

     Women in the Federal Government: Ambitions and Achievements, Merit Systems Protection Board (May 24, 2011).

Firearms

     Assaults on Officers: Understanding Firearms Assaults against Law Enforcement Officers in the United States, by Joseph B. Kuhns, Diana Dolliver, Emily Bent, and Edward R. Maguire, COPS (March 14, 2016).

     Firearms Related: New Technology Benefits Law Enforcement by Tracking Sidearm Use, by Danielle Pompa, Stephen S. Owen, and Tod W. Burke, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (June 2016).

     Firearms: "Open letter to all federal firearms licensees," U.S. Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (Sept. 21, 2011). Takes the position that persons making medical use of marijuana are not legally able to possess or use firearms or ammunition.

Firefighters

     FEMA report: U.S. Firefighter Fatalities in 2004.

     Firefighter safety: OSHA publication: Fire Service Features of Buildings and Fire Protection Systems

     Firefighter safety: NIOSH draft document #141: Preventing Deaths and Injuries of Fire Fighters When Fighting Fires in Unoccupied Structures, 73 (246) Fed. Reg. 78365 (12/22/2008).

     Firefighter Staffing: "Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program," by Lennard G. Kruger (Congressional Research Service, April 20, 2011).      

     Occupational Disease - Article: Carcinogenicity of Shift-work, Painting and Fire-fighting, IARC Monograph, 98 (12) The Lancet Oncology 1065-66 Dec. 2007).

Fitness

     Article: The international firefighters' union (IAFF) and fire chiefs' assn. (IAFC) have agreed to create a "Fire Service Peer Fitness Trainer Certification," to implement a wellness/fitness initiative.

     Fitness: Staff Fitness Centers, Federal Bureau of Prisons Program Statement 3792.08 (March 27, 2015).

     Fitness testing: The Case for Job-Specific Fitness Testing, New Jersey Police Chief Magazine (June 2011).

Free Speech

     First Amendment: Employee First Amendment – A Case Study, by Karen Kruger, visual presentation at the IACP Legal Officers' Section, Chicago, Illinois (October, 2015).

     First Amendment: "The Chill of a Wintry Light: Borough of Duryea v. Guarnieri and the Right to Petition in Public Employment," by William A. Herbert, 43 University of Toledo Law Review No. 2 (Spring 2012).

     Free Speech: Public Employee Speech, Categorical Balancing and Section 1983: A Critique of Garcetti v. Ceballos, 42 Univ. of Richmond Law Rev. 561 (2008).

     Free Speech: Speech and the Public Employee, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Aug. 2008.

Freedom of Information

     Freedom of Information Act: Summary of Annual FOIA Reports for FY 2002.

     FOIA report: "Freedom of Information Act Amendments: 109th Congress," Congressional Research Service #RL32780, Library of Congress (2006).

     FOIA: The House Government Reform Committee has updated its "Citizen's Guide on Using the Freedom of Information Act and the Privacy Act of 1974 to Request Government Records."

     Secrecy: President Bush reaffirmed Executive Order 13292 and on Dec. 31, 2006, with certain limitations, "all classified records that (1) are more than 25 years old and (2) have been determined to have permanent historical" value under Title 44, U.S. Code, "shall be automatically declassified whether or not the records have been reviewed."

Funding & Grants

     Grants: DoJ Inspector General's reports on various city and county COPS grants and deficiencies found during financial audits.

Garrity Warnings

     Garrity Warnings: "Garrity Warnings - To Give or Not to Give, That is the Question," in the Dec. 2012 issue of Police Chief. The article was written by Eric Daigle, a member of the AELE Board of Directors and a speaker at two AELE seminars.

Government Organization

     Government organization:Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives: A Brief Overview, Congressional Research Service (2008).

Government Secrecy

     Government Secrecy: Government Transparency and Secrecy: An Examination of Its Meaning and Use in the Executive Branch, Congressional Research Service, Nov. 8, 2012.

Health Insurance

     Health insurance: Article, Health-Status Insurance – How Markets Can Provide Health Security, CATO Policy Analysis No. 633 (2009).

HIPAA

     HIPAA privacy rule: HHS National Standards to Protect the Privacy of Personal Health Information.

     "HIPAA administrative simplification: How the privacy rule affects municipal ambulance service providers," 35 (2) The Urban Law Qtrly. (ABA) 317-351; Order information.

     Privacy - HHS Guidance: "The confidentiality of alcohol and drug abuse patient records regulation and the HIPAA Privacy Rule: Implications for alcohol and substance abuse programs."

    Revised FAQ HIPAA webpage.

Hiring

     Hiring: The Right Person for the Job: Police Chiefs Discuss the Most Important Commodity in Law Enforcement, by Susan Hilal and James Densley, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (October 2015).

Homosexual and Transexual Employees

     Canadian rights: Canadian Government document on same-sex marriage rights. (2003)

     Discrimination - Report: Bias in the Workplace: Consistent Evidence of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination, UCLA School of Law (2007).

     Domestic Partner Rights: Article, "The Impact of Same-Sex Marriage on the Workplace," Nixon Peabody newsletter. [PDF]

     Gay Rights: State laws & legislation website.

     Homosexual job rights: The Gay Rights Workplace Revolution, 30 (3) Human Rights (ABA) 14 (2003). [Online and print format]

     Same-sex marriages: The U.S. Dept. of Labor has issued guidance to employee benefit plans on the definition of "spouse" and "marriage" under ERISA and the Supreme Court's decision in United States v. Windsor. DOL Technical Release No. 2013-04.

     Same Sex Marriages: Informational website of Freedom to Marry, a project of the Astraea Foundation, an organization of activists and lawyers that promote homosexual marriage rights.

     Transgender Employees: "Lost in Transition: The Challenges of Remedying Transgender Employment Discrimination Under Title VII," by Jason Lee, Harvard Journal of Law and Gender, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2012.

     Transsexuals - legal rights: "The expanding rights of transsexuals in the workplace," 21 (2) The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 121-139.

Honesty and Integrity

     Massachusetts State Ethics Commission publications, educational materials and opinions.

     U.S. Office of Government Ethics: publications, advisory opinions, and training.

    "The development, marketing and use of integrity tests in the American workplace," by William Harris, University of Iowa (1997).

     "The Lie Behind the Lie Detector," By George W. Maschke and Gino J. Scalabrini, 2nd edit., 176 Pages, 739kb PDF format. Published by AntiPolygraph.org

     Neurolinguistic evaluations: Recognizing indications of deception or truthfulness during an employee interview.

     "The Polygraph and Lie Detection (2002)," by the National Academies Press. ISBN 0-309-08605-1 (2002)

     Principles for Promoting Police Integrity, 45 pp., National Institute of Justice (2001).

     Guidance: New Jersey Attorney General issues Guidelines on applications for a waiver of forfeiture of a public office after a criminal conviction. [PDF]

     Online summary: "The e-clearance initiative." Explains the new three-part system of processing federal employment background investigations and security clearances.

Hostage Situations

     Hostage Negotiation: “Crisis” or “Hostage” Negotiation? The Distinction Between Two Important Terms, By Jeff Thompson, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2014).

Human Resources / Personnel Management

     Community Relations: Resource Guide for Enhancing Community Relationships and Protecting Privacy and Constitutional Rights, Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, (NC J248508 November 2014).

     "Internal Affairs Management Software," by Tim Dees, May 2003 Law and Order Magazine, pp. 88-94; online article.

     Stylebook of gender identity and related terminology. [PDF format]

     Dictionary of Occupational Titles, compiled from Bureau of the Census and Labor Dept. sources.

     Management Resources: Performance Management Strategies for Effective Leadership: An Accountability Process, by Gary Ellis and Anthony H. Normore, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (February 2015).

     Morale: "Perspective: Evaluating the Paramilitary Structure and Morale," by David Cruickshank, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Oct.-Nov. 2013).

     Online report: Recommendations for Change: Making the Public Service Work. U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board, Office of Policy and Evaluation (37 pp. Sept. 2002). Includes a recommendation to abolish the "Rule of Three" for promotions.

     Personnel manuals: Law review article, "Contracts of convenience -- Preventing employers from unilaterally modifying promises made in employee handbooks," by Brian Kohn, Yeshiva Univ. (Jan. 2003), 24 Cardozo L. Rev. 799 (16,265 words, 263 endnotes). [PDF]

     Pre-employment Screening: "Pre-employment Psychological Evaluations," Sept. 2003 Law and Order Magazine, pp. 85-87; online in the articles archive section at www.lawandordermag.com/

Human Trafficking

     Human Trafficking: Human Trafficking Task Force Strategy e-Guide: Strengthening Collaborative Responses (NCJ 248467), Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office for Victims of Crime (October 2014).

Immigration law

     Authority of state and local police to enforce federal immigration law, Congressional Research Service, #R41423 (Sep. 2010).

Internal Affairs

     Book: Warning the Witness: A Guide to Internal Investigations and the Attorney-Client Privilege, by Collins & Seide, ABA Book Pub., ISBN: 978-1-60442-916-9 (May 2010).

     Domestic assault among police: Report: A survey of 123 internal affairs policies (12 pp.) Institute for Law Enforcement Administration, Plano, TX.

     "Internal Affairs Management Software," by Tim Dees, May 2003 Law and Order Magazine, pp. 88-94; online article.

Interrogation

     Interrogation: Reading People: Behavioral Anomalies and Investigative Interviewing, By David Matsumoto, Lisa G. Skinner,, and Hyisung C. Hwang, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2014).

     Interrogation: "Criminal Interrogations of Police Officers After Use-of-Force Incidents," by Jeffrey J. Noble, J.D., and Geoffrey P. Alpert, Ph.D., FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (September 2013).

Internet:

     Book: Find Info Like a Pro, Vol. 1: Mining the Internet’s Publicly Available Resources for Investigative Research, Levitt & Rosch, ABA Book Pub., ISBN: 978-1-60442-890-2 (Mar. 2010).

     Computer Security: Growing Risk of Data Sabotage: Protecting Law Enforcement Agencies, by Michael Gregg, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (July 2016).

     Internet security: Report, A practical guide to protecting your identity and security online and when using mobile phones, Access Global Movement for Digital Freedom (2011).

     Social Networking in Law Enforcement

Investigative Reports

     Investigative Reports: "Special Reports. A Review of ATF's Operation Fast and Furious and Related Matters," Inspector General, U.S. Department of Justice (Sept. 19, 2012).

     Investigative Reports: "Investigations Press Releases. Court Security Contractor to Pay $1.8 Million to Resolve Allegations That Guards Did Not Undergo Authorized Firearm Qualification Testing," Inspector General, U.S. Department of Justice (Sept. 27, 2012).

Job Satisfaction

     Police job satisfaction: articles published by Sage Publications.

     Job satisfaction: According to a 2005 survey, 71% of all federal employees are satisfied with their jobs. Justice Dept. workers recorded a 73% satisfaction; Homeland Security rated the lowest, with a 58% job satisfaction rating.

Justice Department Documents

     Justice Department Documents: "U.S. Justice Department Settles Allegations of Employment Discrimination in Promotion of Police Sergeants in New Jersey," press release (Aug. 1, 2011).  

Labor-Management Relations

DoJ COPS labor-management publications:

Law Enforcement Cooperation

     Law Enforcement Cooperation: Creating the Preferred Future Today for Law Enforcement Cooperation Tomorrow: A Case Study, by Mike Masterson, Ernst Weyand, and Douglas Hart, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (April 2015).

Legal Summaries

     Recent Labor and Employment Decisions of Note, IACP presentation (Oct. 2010).

Legislative oversight

     Legislative oversight: Congressional Oversight Manual, prepared by the Congressional Research Service, #RL30240 (2011).

Light Duty

     Exploring Administrators’ Perceptions of Light-Duty Assignment, 14 (2) Police Quarterly (Sage) 124-141 (Jun. 2010). Abstract

Media Relations

     Media Relations: Focus on Media Relations: A Recipe for Success with News Outlets, by Christina Cotterman, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (September 2015).

Medical Information

    Bloodborne Pathogens: OSHA has published a bulletin reiterating the agency's policy on disposal of contaminated needles and blood tube holders following blood-drawing procedures.

     Contagious Diseases: CDC’s Interim Guidance on infection control measures for 2009 H1N1 influenza (Swine or Mexican Flu) in healthcare settings, including protection of healthcare personnel.

     Contagious Diseases - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Intelligence Community Assessment requested by the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

     Firefighter cardiac deaths -- Report: Three-quarters of firefighters who died of heart attacks -- the top cause of on-duty deaths -- went to work with known or detectable heart conditions, according to a ten-year study by the National Fire Protection Association.

     Health: Article, "Individual Differences in Utilizing Control to Cope With Job Demands: Effects on Susceptibility to Infectious Disease," 86 (2) Journal of Applied Psychology (APA) 265-278.

     Information: OSHA guidance on SARS-related employer responsibilities and information for workers -- with links to CDC sites.

     Occupational Disease - Article: Carcinogenicity of Shift-work, Painting and Fire-fighting, IARC Monograph, 98 (12) The Lancet Oncology 1065-66 Dec. 2007).

     Occupational health - bicycle duty: Male bicycle patrol officers who were studied experienced groin numbness due to prolonged pressure on the perineum. The data, cited by NIOSH in a special report, suggests that prolonged bicycle riding may have negative effects on nocturnal erectile function and a need for innovative bicycle saddle designs. "Nocturnal Penile Tumescence and Rigidity Testing in Bicycling Patrol Officers," by Schrader, Breitenstein, Clark, Lowe, and Turner, 23 Journal of Andrology 927-934.

     Online guide - American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine publishes the first edition of Guidance for the Medical Evaluation of Law Enforcement Officers (2010).

     OSHA: Advice to outdoor workers on heatstroke. [Online]

     Pandemic influenza 2009:

     1. OPM Guidance for federal agencies, including teleworking, leave, sending staff home, worksite evacuations, etc.

     2. DoJ/BJA online booklet: Communication and Public Health Emergencies: A Guide for Law Enforcement

     Pandemic influenza: Law Enforcement Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist, HHS Centers for Disease Contro

     Police mortality rates - report: Iowa law enforcement officers mortality rate study findings (2005).


     Sleep Deprivation: "Sleep Disorders, Health, and Safety in Police Officers," by Shantha M. W. Rajaratnam, Laura K. Barger, Steven W. Lockley, Steven A. Shea, Wei Wang, Christopher P. Landrigan, Conor S. O’Brien, Salim Qadri, Jason P. Sullivan, Brian E. Cade, Lawrence J. Epstein, David P. White, and Charles A. Czeisler, for the Harvard Work Hours, Health and Safety Group, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 2011; 306(23):2567-2578. The article indicates that as many as 40% of all police officers suffer from sleep disorders. Subscription or one-time access fee required. Abstract.

     Smallpox: Online article, "Smallpox Vacillation," explains the vaccination process and hazards for first responders. Fire Chief magazine (Jun, 2003).

     Vaccinations: Vaccine Policy Issues, a report by the Congressional Research Service.

Mental Illness

     Mental Health: The Importance of Mental Health Training in Law Enforcement, by Nicholas Wilcox, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (July 2015).

     Mental Illness: Encountering Mentally Ill People and Potential Liability under the ADA, by Michael J. Oh, Police Chief (Jul. 2014).

     Mental illness: Report: Improving Police Response to Persons With Mental Illness, IACP/BJA (June 2010).

     Mental Illness/Workplace Safety: Law Review, "Employees with Mental and Emotional Problems -- Workplace Security and Implications of State Discrimination Laws, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Rehabilitation Act, Workers' Compensation, and Related Issues," by Janet E. Goldberg, Stetson Law Review (Fall 1994) 24 Stetson L. Rev. 201 (21,010 words, 240 notes).

Military Leave

     Military Leave: A Non-Technical Resource Guide to the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act. [PDF]

     U.S. Office of Personnel Management sites:
     (1) Military Leave Fact Sheet (Nov. 2001)
     (2) Frequently Asked Questions on Military Leave (Oct. 2001)

     U.S. Dept. of Labor, Veterans Employment and Training Service has a website explaining the 1994 Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act.

    Military Law: Military Sexual Assault: Chronology of Activity in Congress and Related Resources.

     Military retirement -- Report: Major Legislative Issues, identified by the Congressional Research Service. [PDF]

Military Personnel

     Book: [Federal] "Civil Service Handbook for Ex-Military Personnel," published by Federal Employees News Digest, $12.95, www.FederalDaily.com/B062.html

     Online Report: General Accounting Office Report to the Congress on the fraud and abuse of military travel cards. [PDF]

     Military benefits – tuition programs: Defense Department publishes its policy for transferring educational benefits to the spouses and children of service members under the "Post 9/11 GI Bill," effective Aug. 1, 2009. DoD Memorandum 09-003.

     Military retirement -- Report: Major Legislative Issues, identified by the Congressional Research Service. [PDF]

     Military service - educational benefits: Changes to the G.I. Bill

     Military veterans (publication): Employing Returning Combat Veterans as Law Enforcement Officers, a BJA funded IACP document, Sep. 2009.

     Personnel Pay: Management of Integrated Military Human Capital Program Needs, Additional Improvements, Report No. GAO-05-189. [PDF]

     Policing occupied territories: Private Security Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Legal Issues. Congressional Research Service (Dec. 22, 2009).

     Taxation: IRS website has links to publications and forms with tax information for armed services members.

Military Service

      Article: The Returning Military Veteran: Is Your Organization Ready? 79 (8) FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 1 (Aug. 2010).

     Guide: Combat Veterans: A Transition Guide for Veterans Beginning or Continuing Careers in Law Enforcement

     Guide: Law Enforcement Leader's Guide on Combat Veterans

     Military Families: The American Bar Association (ABA) has announced a new website to help military families, including information about the Servicemembers' Civil Relief Act. As part of its military family support services, the ABA has created the ABA Home Front, to provide legal resources for military families.

National Security

     Article: Debt and Home Foreclosures: Their Effect on National Security Clearances.

     National Security Issues: DoD Evaluation of Over-Classification of National Security Information (Redacted), Inspector General Department of Defense (Sept. 30, 2013).

     National security: Revised Policies and Procedures Governing Invocation of the State Secrets Privilege, A. G. Memo. Dated 9/23/2009.

Occupational Disease

     Occupational Disease - Article: Carcinogenicity of Shift-work, Painting and Fire-fighting, IARC Monograph, 98 (12) The Lancet Oncology 1065-66 Dec. 2007).

Officer Safety

     Assaults on Officers: Understanding Firearms Assaults against Law Enforcement Officers in the United States, by Joseph B. Kuhns, Diana Dolliver, Emily Bent, and Edward R. Maguire, COPS (March 14, 2016).

     Officer Safety: Officer Survival Spotlight: Accidental Deaths Among Law Enforcement Officers, by Philip D. Wright, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (June 2014).

     Officer Safety: Improving Officer Safety and Citizen Support: Solving the Puzzle, by Mike Masterson, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (May 2014).

     Officer Safety: The IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center has published "Officer Safety and Risk Management: Avoiding and Mitigating Officer Deaths, Assaults, and Injuries." The publication can be ordered in print or in electronic form.

     Police Injuries: Pattern of law-enforcement related injuries in the United States, by DC Chang, M Williams, NF Sangji. LD Britt, and SO Rogers Jr., J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016 Feb. 16 (abstract).

OSHA

     Airborne infections: OSHA issues "Guidance for Protecting Employees Against Avian Flu"

     Bloodborne Pathogens: OSHA has published a bulletin reiterating the agency's policy on disposal of contaminated needles and blood tube holders following blood-drawing procedures.

     English Only Rules: OSHA Memorandum requires employers to instruct workers in workplace safety “using both a language and vocabulary” that employees can understand; if an employee does not speak or comprehend English, “instruction must be provided in a language the employee can understand.”

     Incident Command website: OSHA-provided online training software.

     Occupational Disease - Article: Carcinogenicity of Shift-work, Painting and Fire-fighting, IARC Monograph, 98 (12) The Lancet Oncology 1065-66 Dec. 2007).

     Occupational health & safety - report: Centers for Disease Control, "Health Hazard Evaluation of Police Officers and Firefighters After Hurricane Katrina--New Orleans," 55 (16) M&MWR (CDC) 456-458.

     Occupational safety: OSHA Guidance on Preparing Workplaces for an Influenza Pandemic.

     Occupational Safety: OSHA's 32-page Guidelines for Employers to Reduce Motor Vehicle Crashes offers information to help employers design an effective driver safety program.

     Occupational Safety & Disease: Transportation Security Administration injury rate found unacceptably high. Injury and illness data, by federal agency, is at http://www.osha.gov/dep/fap/index.html

     OSHA: Advice to outdoor workers on heatstroke. [Online]

     OSHA: Workplace Safety Fire and Explosion Planning Matrix.

     Repetitive motion injuries - Article: The Safety Guys: Office Ergonomics 101, Part 1 and Part 2, Forensic Magazine (2007).

     Safety Equipment: OSHA clarifies employer responsibilities to provide respirators or other protective equipment and relevant training. Employer Duty to Provide Personal Protective Equipment and Train Each Employee, Docket No. OSHA-2008-0031, 73 Federal Register 75568-589 (Dec. 12, 2008).

     Toxicology: OSHA website now provides chemical exposure health data.

Outsourcing

     Outsourcing: Privatization and the Federal Government: An Introduction, Congressional Research Service #RL33777 (Dec. 28, 2006).

Overtime

     Fair Labor Standards Act: FLSA: Delimiting the Exemptions for Executive, Administrative, Professional Employees, proposed rule and request for comments, Wage and Houe Division, U.S. Department of Labor (July 6, 2015).

     FLSA: "'Donning and Doffing' Police Uniforms and Protective Gear Under the Fair Labor Standards Act," by Richard G. Schott, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (June 2011).

     Overtime: New Fair Law Standards Act rule concerning overtime, 29 CFR Part 541, effective Dec. 1, 2016.

     Overtime: Overtime Final Rule and State and Local Governments, U.S. Department of Labor (2016).

     Overtime:  "Guidance on Applying FLSA Overtime Provisions to Law Enforcement Employees Receiving Administratively Uncontrollable Overtime Pay," U.S. Office of Personnel Management.

     Overtime: Article, "The Fair Labor Standards Act and Police Compensation," 73 (6) FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 1, June, 2004. [PDF]

   Overtime claim website: New York City police officers have sued the City alleging a violation of the FLSA. The lawsuit contends that officers were not properly compensated for overtime hours worked, and that in many cases, the compensatory time off practices of the City violate federal law.

     Overtime: The Dept. of Labor's new rules on overtime are explained at a new "FairPay" website.

     Overtime: Website on the new overtime rule: http://www.dol.gov/elaws/overtime.htm More information about the regulations is at http://www.dol.gov/fairpay

     Overtime - First Responders: Dept. of Labor Fact Sheet #17J: First Responders and the Part 541 Exemptions Under the FLSA.

Pay and Allotments

     Pay & allotments - federal: Pay Under the General Schedule and Recruitment, Relocation, and Retention Incentives, 76 (5) Federal Register 1096 (Jan. 7, 2011).

Pensions & Retirement

     Federal retirement: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management has initiated an electronic retirement process. Employees will be able to apply under a system known as RetireEZ that was designed to quickly and accurately calculate their retirement benefits.

     Public Pensions: "Statutes as Contracts? The 'California Rule' and Its Impact on Public Pension Reform," by Amy B. Monahan, 97 Iowa Law Review 1029 (2012).

     Retirement benefits: State Police Retirement Plans 2004 is a comprehensive comparison of state police officers retirement plans -- including age and service retirements, vesting, post-retirement COLAs, contribution rates, salary definitions, actuarial assumptions and funding. Published by Workplace Economics, Inc.

     Retirement plans: IRS Publication 553: a summary of legislative changes in 2002 affecting deferred compensation plans of state and local governments. [Online and print format]

Performance Measurement

     Performance measurement: Developing a Police Performance Measurement System, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Sep. 2008.

Personnel Management:

     Law Enforcement Management: The Responsibilities of Command: Doing the Right Thing for the Right Reasons, by Cynthia L. Lewis, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (April 2016).

     OPM issues Memo for heads of executive departments and agencies pertaining to the effective use of recruitment, relocation, and retention incentives.

     Performance Evaluations: "Leadership Spotlight. Build Bridges, Not Dams: Performance Evaluations," by J.E. Granderson, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Oct.-Nov. 2013).

Physical Fitness

   Officer Health: Building Community Trust Requires Supporting Healthy Officers, by John Marx, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (October 2016).

    Physical fitness programs: Article: Fit for duty? The need for physical fitness programs for law enforcement officers, by Adrienne Quigley, 75 (6) The Police Chief (June 2008).

Police Licensing

     Police Licensing:
Police Licensing and Revocation, by Thomas Jurkanin, Ph.D. Police Chief Magazine (Feb. 2014).

Police Management and Oversight

    Law Enforcement Chaplains:   Law Enforcement Chaplains: Defining Their Roles, by Richard Braswell, Bryan Steinkopf and Angela Beamer, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (November 2016).

     Law Enforcement Leadership: Human Factors in Law Enforcement Leadership, by Darius H. Bone, Anthony H. Normore, and Mitch Javidi, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (December 2015).

     Management Resources: Improving Motivation and Productivity of Police Officers, by Jay Fortenbery, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (August 2015).

     Police Chaplains: Police Chaplains: An Integral Part of Law Enforcement, by Jack L. Rinchich, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (December 2015).

     Police Management: Teams: A Pathway to Organizational Success, by Dan Bradley and James A. Jancewicz, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (December 2016).

    Police Management: Single Point of Failure: One Person Can Ruin the Team, by Joshua Judah, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (November 2016).

    Police Management: Commander’s Intent: A Framework for Success, by W. Michael Phibbs, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (October 2016).

     Police Management: "The Police Chief as Coach: Analogies between Sports and Effective Police Leadership," By Thomas J. Jurkanin, PhD, Police Chief Magazine (November 2012).

     Police Management: "Revolutionizing Policing Through Servant-Leadership and Quality Management," by Bill Gardner and John Reece, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (June 2012).

     Police oversight - presentation: Does Oversight Reduce Policing? Evidence from the Cincinnati Police Dept. After the April 2001 Riot, by Lan Shi, Dept. of Economics, Univ. of Washington, 2006 Annual Meeting of the American Economic Assn.

   Policing: Law Enforcement Organizations: Possibilities and Challenges for the Future, by Jay Fortenbery, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (February 2016).

     Smaller Police Agencies: The April 2013 issue of Police Chief magazine contains five articles about improving the performance of smaller agencies.

     Websites: Smaller Law Enforcement Agency Program website (IACP).

Police reform:

     Booklet: Making Police Reforms Endure, DoJ/COPS (May 2010). “Presents a framework that other police departments can use and test in their efforts to institutionalize police reforms.”

     Presidential Task Force Reports: Interim Report of the President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing (March 1, 2015).

Police Volunteer Programs

     Police Volunteer Programs: "Model Policy on Volunteers." This model policy on volunteers was developed by the National Law Enforcement Policy Center in partnership with the Volunteers in Police Service Program.

     Police Volunteer Programs: "Volunteers in Police Service Program Add Value While Budgets Decrease." Volunteers in Police Service Program (December 2011).

Policy and Procedure Manuals

     "Writing Policy and Procedure Manuals in a Small Campus Police Environment," by Robert A. Johnson, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
(February 2011).
  

Polygraphs

     Polygraphs: The Concealed Information Test: An Alternative to the Traditional Polygraph, by Blake McConnell and Timothy J. Weber, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (August, 2014).   

Pregnancy

     Pregnancy: Pregnancy Discrimination Act, by Lisa Baker, Mar. 2008 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

     Pregnancy Discrimination: EEOC's New Pregnant Worker Guidelines: What Employers Need to Know, by Daniel Taylor, Fibdlaw, July 6, 2014.

     Pregnancy Discrimination: EEOC Guidelines on Pregnant Employees (2014).

President’s Office of Legal Counsel

      Budget request and job description. During the G. W. Bush administration, the OLC issued controversial opinions pertaining to interrogation of detainees and warrantless surveillance. As a result of President Obama’s Executive Order of Jan. 22, 2009 (to close the Guantanamo Bay Detention Camp), implementation of the EO "will raise numerous legal issues, thereby placing OLC at the center of some of the most fundamental policy shifts of the new Administration."

Prison Industries

     Report: Congressional Research Service: Federal Prison Industries (updated 2007).

Prison & Jail Employees

     Prison & Jail Employees: "Federal Bureau of Prisons: Enhanced Screening of BOP Correctional Officer Candidates Could Reduce Likelihood of Misconduct, Evaluation and Inspections," Report I-2011-002, U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of the Inspector General (September 2011). The report indicates that arrests of federal prison guards increased by almost 90% in the past ten years, and states that this may be because of poor hiring practices during a period which saw a 25 percent increase in prison growth. The number of misconduct investigations doubled, and over half of the alleged offenses were committed during an officer's first two years on the job. Recommendations include better background screening of applicants and improvements in the assessment of new employees.

     Prison & Jail Employees: "Leadership Development for Jail Administration" BJA, the Center for Innovative Public Policies, the American Jail Association, and the Correctional Management Institute of Texas, (June 2011) With funding from BJA, the Center for Innovative Public Policies, the American Jail Association, and the Correctional Management Institute of Texas, Sam Houston State University developed several tools to enable jails to successfully develop and implement their own leadership development and succession planning initiatives.

Privacy

     Article: "E-mail, fingerprints and personnel files: Recurring and emerging discovery issues in employment litigation," 38 (1) Tort Trial & Insur. Prac. Law Journal 69-101 (Fall 2002), Amer. Bar Assn., www.abanet.org/tips.

     Canada: Privacy website - Canadian privacy legislation, news, and other resources.

     HIPAA privacy rule: HHS National Standards to Protect the Privacy of Personal Health Information.

     "HIPAA administrative simplification: How the privacy rule affects municipal ambulance service providers," 35 (2) The Urban Law Qtrly. (ABA) 317-351; Order information.

     "Information Management: Selected [Federal] Agencies' Handling of Personal Information," GAO Report GAO-02-1058 (Sept. 2002) [PDF] and "Employee Privacy: Computer-Use Monitoring Practices and Policies of Selected Companies," Report GAO-02-717 (Sept. 2002). [PDF]

     Privacy Act Notices: The General Services Administration has published an amended system of records notice for the Government-wide system of travel records to enhance the government's electronic capability. [PDF]

     Privacy: "Electronic Privacy and Employee Speech," by Pauline T. Kim, Chicago-Kent Law Review (Forthcoming 2012).

     Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping

     Privacy: Federal Spending on Surveillance webpage.

     Privacy guidance: OMB Guidance for Implementing the Privacy Provisions of the E-Government Act of 2002.

     Privacy - HHS Guidance: "The confidentiality of alcohol and drug abuse patient records regulation and the HIPAA Privacy Rule: Implications for alcohol and substance abuse programs."

    Revised FAQ HIPAA webpage.

     Workplace searches: When Does an Employer's Search of Employee Work Areas Violate Privacy Rights? Police Chief, Aug. 2008

Promotions

     Justice Department Documents: "U.S. Justice Department Settles Allegations of Employment Discrimination in Promotion of Police Sergeants in New Jersey," press release (Aug. 1, 2011).  

     Promotions: Article, "An Exploratory Study of Two Decades of Promotional Testing in a Metropolitan Police Department," by Bruce W. Topp, Journal of Police & Criminal Psychology (Nov. 2010).

Psychological screening, psychological counseling, and polygraph:

     Deception techniques: Polygraph and Credibility Assessment Program, DoD Directive 5210.48 (2007, replacing 1984 version).

     Measuring the Mind: A Comparison of Personality Testing to Polygraph Testing in the Hiring Process, by Jennifer Nevins, 109 Penn St. L. Rev. 857, Penn State Law Review (2005).

     National security - polygraph: U.S. Dept. of Energy publishes a final rule to establish new counterintelligence evaluation regulations to minimize the potential for disclosure of classified information, data, and materials, effective Oct. 30, 2006. 71 (189) Federal Register 57386-57397 (9/29/2006).

     Psychological counseling - article: "Acute Psychological Intervention for Law Enforcement Personnel Following Trauma Exposure: What Is Current Best Practice?" by Mark Creamer, PhD, Director, Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health, University of Melbourne, 6 (3) Law Enforcement Executive Forum 135.

     Psychological counseling - article: "Emergency Responder Exhaustion Syndrome (ERES): A Perspective on Stress, Coping, and Treatment in the Emergency Responder Milieu," by Fay, Kamena, Benner, Buscho and Nagle, 6 (3) Law Enforcement Executive Forum 159.

     Psychological screening - police applicants - Article: "Police Officer Selection: History and Forensic Implications" and "The M-PULSE Methodology and Inventory," 6 (2) Law Enforcement Executive Forum 27, 32 (Feb. 2006).

Psychology:

     Article: Good Decisions: Tips and Strategies for Avoiding Psychological Traps, by Brian Fitch, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Jun. 2010).

     Book: Personality Assessment In Police Psychology: A 21st Century Perspective, ISBN 978-0-39807-915-4, Charles C Thomas (Jun. 2010).

Public Records

     Public record archives: The National Archives and Records Administration has revised its regulations to provide for the appropriate management and disposition of short-term temporary e-mail (no more than 180 days). 71 Fed. Reg. 8806 (2/21/06; eff. 3/23/26).

Racial Profiling

      Racial Profiling: U.S. Department of Justice, Guidance for Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Regarding the Use of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, National Origin, Religion, Sexual Orientation, or Gender Identity (December 2014).

Recruiting

     Recruiting: Article, "Getting Up to Speed: Embracing Internet Technology to Recruit," MSPB Issues of Merit (Apr. 2009).

Reductions in force:

     Article: Downsizing and Organizational Change Survivors and Victims: Mental Health Issues, 7 (1) Int. J. of Applied Mgmt. & Tech. 91.

Religious Organizations & Discrimination

     Justice Department releases a ten-year report detailing RLUIPA enforcement.

     Religious discrimination: "An Employer's Guide to Religious Accommodation," written by the Sikh American Legal Defense and Education Fund. [PDF]

     Religious organizations: The President has issued an Executive Order to create "Centers for Faith-Based and Community Initiatives" within designated executive branch agencies, to reduce obstacles to the participation of faith-based organizations that provide social and community services.

Retaliation:

     Report: Prohibited Personnel Practices - A Study Retrospective, U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (Jun. 2010).

     Retaliatory Personnel Actions: Enforcement Guidance on Retaliation and Related Issues, EEOC (August 29, 2016).

Secrecy

     Secrecy: President Bush reaffirmed Executive Order 13292 and on Dec. 31, 2006, with certain limitations, "all classified records that (1) are more than 25 years old and (2) have been determined to have permanent historical" value under Title 44, U.S. Code, "shall be automatically declassified whether or not the records have been reviewed."

     Secrecy and confidentiality: List of Controlled Unclassified Information (sensitive, and not publicly disclosed).

     Secrecy and confidentiality: National Security Agency Guide, “Redacting with Confidence: How to Safely Publish Sanitized Reports Converted From Word to PDF.”

      Secrecy and confidentiality: Reducing Government Secrecy: Finding What Works, by Steven Aftergood, 27 Yale Law & Policy Rev. 399-416 (2009).

Security Clearances

    Security Clearance:  Security Clearance Process: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions, Congressional Research Service, #R43216 (Sep. 9, 2013).

     Security clearances: The Defense Dept. has issued an interim final rule establishing new adjudicative guidelines for determining eligibility for government security clearances. Dept. of Defense Personnel Security Program Regulation, 71 (168) Federal Register 51474, 32 CFR Part 154 [Aug. 30, 2006].

Sex Discrimination

     Earnings disparities: Article, Biological Gender Differences, Absenteeism and the Earnings Gap, Andrea Ichino & Enrico Moretti, 1 (1) Applied Economics (AEA) 183-218 (Jan. 2009); Natl. Bur. of Economic Research Working Paper 12369 (2008).

     Pregnancy: Pregnancy Discrimination Act, by Lisa Baker, Mar. 2008 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

     Sex discrimination: "The Seventh Circuit's Erosion of the Equal Pay Act," Jessica L. Lindsted, 1 Seventh Cir. Rev. 129 (2996).

Sexual Harassment

      Sexual Harassment: The Handling of Sexual Harassment and Misconduct Allegations by the Department's Law Enforcement Components, Evaluation and Inspections Report #15-04, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General (March 26, 2015).

     Sexual Harassment: The Handling of Sexual Harassment and Misconduct Allegations by the Department's Law Enforcement Components, Evaluation and Inspections Report 15-04, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General (March 26, 2015).

     Sexual Harassment: Supervisors, Sex, and the Seventh Circuit: No Should Always Mean No,” 4 Seventh Cir. Rev. 291 (2009).

Sexual Misconduct

       Prison Rape and Sexual Abuse: Anti-Fraternization Policies and their Utility in Preventing Staff Sexual Abuse in Custody, by Brenda V. Smith and Melissa C. Loomis, Project on Addressing Prison Rape, American University, Washington College of Law (May 1, 2013).

     Sexual Misconduct: Addressing Sexual Offenses and Misconduct by Law Enforcement: Executive Guide, International Association of Chiefs of Police (June 2011).

Shift Length

     Shift Length: "The Impact of Shift Length in Policing on Performance, Health, Quality of Life, Sleep, Fatigue, and Extra-Duty Employment," A Final Report Submitted to the: National Institute of Justice by Karen L. Amendola, Ph.D., David Weisburd, Ph.D., Edwin E. Hamilton, M.A., Greg Jones, M.A., Meghan Slipka, M.A. with Anneke Heitmann, Ph.D., Jon Shane, Ph.D., Christopher Ortiz, Ph.D., Eliab Tarkghen, B.S. (January, 2012).

Sick Leave

     Sick leave (federal): OPM Proposal, 5 CFR Part 630, 74 (176) Fed. Reg. 46934 (Sep. 14, 2009).

Sleep Deprivation

     Sleep Cycles: The Centers for Disease Control has reported that during 2007–2010, 60.4% of U.S. adults aged =20 years slept 7–9 hours at night, 37.3% slept 6 hours or less, and 2.3% slept 10 hours or more. Non-Hispanic black adults were less likely to report sleeping 7–9 hours and more likely to report sleeping 6 hours or less than non-Hispanic white and Hispanic adults. View report, 62 (36) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 755 (9/13/2013).

     Sleep Deprivation: "Sleep Disorders, Health, and Safety in Police Officers," by Shantha M. W. Rajaratnam, Laura K. Barger, Steven W. Lockley, Steven A. Shea, Wei Wang, Christopher P. Landrigan, Conor S. O’Brien, Salim Qadri, Jason P. Sullivan, Brian E. Cade, Lawrence J. Epstein, David P. White, and Charles A. Czeisler, for the Harvard Work Hours, Health and Safety Group, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 2011; 306(23):2567-2578. The article indicates that as many as 40% of all police officers suffer from sleep disorders. Subscription or one-time access fee required. Abstract.

Social Media

     Social Media: Social Media: Legal Challenges and Pitfalls for Law Enforcement Agencies, by Michael T. Pettry, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (December 2014).

     Social Media: "COPS Report: Social Media and Tactical Considerations For Law Enforcement," Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) (May 2013).

     Social Media: "Interactive Social Media: The Value for Law Enforcement," by Timothy J. Henton, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (September 2013).

     Social Media: "Social Media: Establishing Criteria for Law Enforcement Use," by Robert D. Stuart, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Feb. 2013).

   Social Media: On May 2, 2012, Maryland became the first state in the country to enact a law Labor and Employment Ch. 234, Sections 3-712 (Annotated Code of Maryland) prohibiting employers from requiring either job applicants or current employees to reveal their login user names and passwords for social media accounts such as Facebook or Twitter. While signed by the governor, it will not take effect until Oct. 1, 2012.

Staffing

     Staffing: "Austin Police Department. Patrol Utilization Study. Final Report," Police Executive Research Forum (July 2012).

Statistical Information

     Book: 2003 Federal Employees Almanac. Pay, benefits, leaves, retirement, legal rulings, employment policies and procedures, etc.

     Bureau of Justice Statistics data: Race and sex of personnel in agencies with 100+ police officers, including expenditures and pay, operations, equipment, computers and information systems, policies and programs, and community policing. NCJ 171861.

     Discrimination complaint filings: The EEOC reports that in FY 2003, people filed 28,526 charges of race discrimination, 19,124 charges of age discrimination and 2,532 charges of religious discrimination. The religious complaints including the wearing of religious apparel, scheduling to observe Sabbaths or religious holidays, and other claims. EEOC Charge Statistics FY 1992-2003.

     EEO statistics: EEOC Litigation Statistics, FY 1992 through 2002.

     GAO Reports: FBI Continues to Make Progress in Its Efforts to Transform and Address Priorities.
     Federal Law Enforcement: Information on Use of Investigation and Arrest Statistics.

     News item: The U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board reports that 68% of all surveyed federal agencies fail to e-mail their current employees about job vacancies, and only 44% post job announcements on their agency websites. (10/21/02). "Agencies Fail to Use Obvious Recruitment Tools," MSPB Issues of Merit (Sep. 2002) p.3. [PDF]

     Officer Productivity: Improving Motivation and Productivity of Police Officers, by Jay Fortenbery, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (August 2015).

     Police mortality rates - report: Iowa law enforcement officers mortality rate study findings (2005).

     Report: The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. has reported that state and local government wage contracts for 2002 provided an average increase of 3.8 percent, compared with 4.1 percent in 2001. Ref: 41 (1994) G.E.R.R. (BNA) 100.

     Report: The Equal Employment Opportunity Cmsn. has issued the 2001 statistics for "Occupational Employment in Private Industry by Race/Ethnic Group/Sex, and by Industry."

     Statistics: State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2013, by Brian A. Reaves, Bureau of Justice Statistics (July 21, 2016 NCJ 249784).

     Statistics: Sheriffs' Office Personnel, 1993–2013, by Andrea M. Burch, Bureau of Justice Statistics (June 16, 2016 NCJ 249757).

     Statistics: National Sources of Law Enforcement Employment Data, by Duren Banks, Joshua Hendrix, Matthew Hickman, Tracey Kyckelhahn, Bureau of Justice Statistics (April 26, 2016 NCJ 249681).

     Statistics: Local Police Departments, 2013: Equipment and Technology, by Brian A. Reaves, Bureau of Justice Statistics (July 7, 2015 NCJ 248767).

     Statistics: Local Police Departments, 2013: Personnel, Policies, and Practices, by Brian A. Reaves, Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 14, 2015 NCJ 248677.

     Statistics: Justice Expenditure and Employment Extracts, 2012 - Preliminary, by Tracey Kyckelhahn, Bureau of Justice Statistics (February 26, 2015 NCJ 248628).

     Statistics: Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2012 - Statistical Tables, by Erika Harrell. Bureau of Justice Statistics (February 25, 2014) NCJ 244525.

     Statistics: "Justice Expenditures and Employment, 1982-2007 - Statistical Tables," by Tracey Kyckelhahn, Ph.D. (December 16, 2011 NCJ 236218).

     Pay levels and job retention: "Federal Uniformed Police: Selected Data on Pay, Recruitment, and Retention at 13 Police Forces in the Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Area," Report No. GAO-03-658 (2003). [PDF]

     Federal personnel: U.S. Office of Personnel Management's 2002 Performance and Accountability Report [PDF] and the Federal Civilian Workforce Statistics Fact Book

     Statistics: "Workplace Violence Against Government Employees, 1994-2011," by Erika Harrell, Ph.D., April 11, 2013 NCJ 241349.

     Statistics: "Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 - Statistical Tables," by Brian A. Reaves, Ph.D. (October 29, 2012 NCJ 238251).

     Statistics: "Sheriffs' Offices, 2007 - Statistical Tables," by Andrea M. Burch (December 6, 2012 NCJ 238558).

     Uniform Crime Reports: Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2004.

Stress and Suicide

     Final report of the DoD task force on the prevention of suicide by members of the Armed Services (Aug. 2010).

     National P.O.L.I.C.E. Suicide Foundation, Inc. provides training programs and support services on suicide awareness and prevention.

     New book: Traumatic Stress in Police Officers: A Career-Length Assessment, ISBN 978-0-398-07894-2 (CC Thomas, 2009).

    New book: Processing Under Pressure: Stress, Memory and Decision-Making in Law Enforcement, ISBN 978-1-932777-89-5 (Looseleaf Law Pub., 2009).

     Officer Suicide: Addressing Officer Crisis and Suicide: Improving Officer Wellness, by Brian R. Nanavaty, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (September 2015).

     Police suicides: "Police Suicide: Can it be prevented?" by John M. Violanti, Ph.D.

     Post-Traumatic Stress: Guide: Combat Deployment and the Returning Police Officer, Institute for Law and Justice, Alexandria, VA.

     Psychic trauma: Book, "Psychological Injuries at Trial," A.B.A. Tort Trial and Insurance Practice Section

     A Prospective Study of Trait Anger and PTSD Symptoms in Police, by Meffert et al., 21 (4) Journal of Traumatic Stress 410-416 (Aug. 2008). DOI: 10.1002/jts.20350.

     Stress: "Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Mental Health Problems in the Military: Oversight Issues for Congress," Congressional Research Service (Aug. 2013).

     Stress: "Changing Police Subculture," by Mark Malmin, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (April 2012).

     Sress: Addressing Correctional Officer Stress: Programs and Strategies, National Institute of Justice, NCJ-183474 (2000).

     Stress: "Vicarious Traumatization and Spirituality in Law Enforcement," by Lynn A. Tovar, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (July 2011).

     Stress: Revised book, Cop Shock, Surviving Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, by Allen Kates, ISBN-13: 9780966850123 (2nd edit. 2008).

     Stress: "Dealing with Employee Stress: How Managers Can Help -- or Hinder -- Their Personnel," 75 (7) FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (July, 2006).

     Stress: "Identifying law enforcement stress reactions early," FBI Law. Enf. Bulletin, Sep. 2003, p. 12. [PDF]

     Stress related article: Trauma Resilience Training for Police: Psychophysiological and Performance Effects, Bengt B. Arnetz et al., 24 Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology (Springer) 1-9 (2009). Abstract.

     Stress-related: Article: "Mental Health Status of World Trade Center Rescue and Recovery Workers and Volunteers: N.Y. City, Jul. 2002-Aug. 2004," 53 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC) #45 (9-10-2004). [PDF]

     Stress-related - book: Traumatic Stress in Police Officers: A Career-length Assessment from Recruitment to Retirement, By D. Paton, J. Violanti, K. Burke & A. Gehrke, Charles C Thomas Pub., ISBN-13: 9780398078935 (Oct. 2009).

     "Suicide and Law Enforcement," (2002) by the Behavioral Science Unit, FBI Academy in Quantico, VA. The 61 article book examines suicide and its impact on law enforcement. A CD version will be available in the near future. It can be purchased from the Government Printing Office.

     Stress claims: Online article, "Workplace Stress Claims Resulting from September 11th" by Frances Codd Slusarz, 18 (2) The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 137 (Fall 2002). [PDF and print format]

     Stress and work addiction: "Police Work Addiction: A Cautionary Tale" by Gerard J. Solan, M.A., and Jean M. Casey, Ph.D., FBI Law Enf. Bulletin, June 2003. www.fbi.gov/ [Online and print format]

     Stress-Related: Article, "Handling the Stress of the Electronic World," by James D. Sewell, Ph.D., FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Aug. 2003. [PDF]

     Stress Related: Article, "Issues in Small Town Policing: Understanding Stress," 73 (7) FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 24, July, 2004. [PDF]

     Suicide: Police Suicide: Are You at Risk? Orlando Ramos, Ph.D., FBI Law Enf. Bulletin (May 2010).

     Suicide: Article, "By Their Own Hand: Suicide Among Law Enforcement Personnel," 2 (4) Community Policing Dispatch (Apr. 2009).

Suicide

     Officer Suicide: Addressing Officer Crisis and Suicide: Improving Officer Wellness, by Brian R. Nanavaty, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (September 2015).

     On the Edge: Recent Perspectives on Police Suicide, by John Violanti, et al., ISBN 13-9780398086329, C. C. Thomas (2011).

Sunshine Act

     Transparency - Book: The American Bar Assn. has updated its 1978 book, "An Interpretive Guide to the [Federal] Government in the Sunshine Act."

Supervision

     "The Two Roles of Supervision in Performance Counseling," by Brian Fitch, Ph.D., FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2011).

Taxation

     Tax Publication: IRS No. 3920, Tax Relief for Victims of Terrorist Attacks. [PDF]

     Taxation: The Internal Revenue Service has updated its Federal-State Reference Guide that provides information on social security, Medicare and tax withholding for state and local governments and their employees. Publication 963 (2005).

     Taxation: IRS website has links to publications and forms with tax information for armed services members.

     Taxation -- mileage rate allowance: Because of rising gas prices, the IRS has increased the standard mileage rates for the final four months of 2005 from 40.5 to 48.5 cents per mile for all deductible miles driven; IR-2005-99 (9/9/05). The GSA has matched that rate for federal workers using personal vehicles for government business.

     Website: Military income tax preparation guide.

     Website: Updated federal per diem rates for lodging, meals and incidentals are on a web site at www.gsa.gov/. Click on "Travel on Government Business," and "Per Diem Rates."

Technology

     Technology: The Considerations and Risks of Personal Communication Devices, by Leslie Stevens, Police Chief (May 2015).

    Technology: Body-Worn Cameras for Criminal Justice: Market Survey, National Institute of Justice (Mar. 2014).

     Technology: "How Are Innovations in Technology Transforming Policing?," Police Executive Research Forum (January 2012)

     Training: "High-Technology Environment Training (HiTET): Embracing Modern Challenges," by Shawn Matthews, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (June 2013).

Teleworking

     Book: Handbook for Managing Teleworkers: A Five-Step Management Process, by Philpott & Gurvis, Government Training Inc., ISBN: 978-0-9844038-2-0, 212 pp. (May 2010).

     Telework - report: "Agency Telework Methodologies: Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, (etc.)," GAO-05-1055R (2005).

     Teleworking: "Telework: Weighing the Information, Determining an Appropriate Approach," The Office of Policy and Evaluation of the Merit System Protection Board (October 2011).

     Teleworking: The OPM reported that a total of 752,337 federal employees were declared eligible to telework by their agencies last year, and 140,694 employees actually teleworked in 2004. The Status of Telework in the Federal Government 2005.

     Teleworking report: "Making Telework a Federal Priority: Security is Not the Issue" [PDF]

     Telework: A Management Priority - A Guide for Managers, Supervisors, and Telework Coordinators

     U.S. Office of Personnel Management Links to Telework/Telecommuting sites

Terrorism, Homeland Security, National Security Issues

     Antiterrorism -- Skymarshal Program: Dept. of Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General, "Evaluation of the Federal Air Marshal Service," August 2004, 56 pages, PDF format). The report chronicles how federal air marshals have slept on the job, tested positive for alcohol or drugs while on duty, lost their weapons and falsified information.

     Antiterrorism reports: GAO Online, Building Security: Security Responsibilities for Federally Owned and Leased Facilities and Using Biometrics for Border Security. [PDF]

     Article: The U.S. Patriot Act of 2001: Changes to electronic surveillance laws.

     Bioterrorism: Army Regulation 380-86, Chemical Warfare, Chemical and Biological Defense, and Nuclear, Biological, Chemical Contamination Survivability Information, declassified Feb. 1, 2005. [PDF]

     Biological threats: Article: "Responding to Detection of Aerosolized Bacillus Anthracis by Autonomous Detection Systems in the Workplace," 53 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC) #07 (6-4-2004).

     Bioterrorism: "Armed Services Smallpox Vaccination: Medical Research and Military Necessity," 30 (2) Human Rights (ABA) 6 (2003). [Online and print format]

    Bioterrorism: Public Health Response to Anthrax Incidents of 2001, U.S. General Accounting Office (Oct. 2003). [PDF]

     Book: The U.S. Intelligence Community Law Sourcebook: A Compendium of National Security Related Laws and Policy Documents, by Andrew M. Borene, ABA Book Pub., ISBN: 978-1-60442-979-4 (Jun. 2010).

     Counterinsurgency, intelligence and surveillance manual: U.S. Army Field Manual 3-24 on Counterinsurgency (202 pp., Dec. 2006)

     Emergency Communications: Statement released by the National Cmsn. on Terrorist Attacks in the U.S. regarding communication difficulties among NYC police, fire and other emergency rescue personnel on Sep. 11, 2001 at the WTC. [PDF]

     Fiscal: Dept. of Homeland Security FY 2006 Budget and Dept. of Justice FY 2006 Budget request press release.

     Homeland Security Personnel Reports: Human Resources Management System Review Committee reports.

     Homeland security website: The Justice Dept. has created a National Security Resources website for the criminal justice community, at: www.nationalsecurityresources.gov/

     Intelligence: Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction, Executive Order 13328 (Feb. 6, 2004).

     Intelligence - Fact Sheet on the new Dept. of Justice National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan.

    Intelligence officer's liability: The CIA announced that it will now pay the full cost of legal liability insurance for qualified employees. Private carriers cover legal expenses and damages arising out of a CIA officer's official duties. It is meant to cover potential litigation expenses, including damages.

     The Office of Counterintelligence, U.S. Dept. of Energy proposes to reduce substantially the number of polygraph exams administered, 70 (5) Federal Register 1383-1396 (Jan. 7, 2005).

     National Security Contingency Plans of the U.S. Government.

     National security:

  1. President Obama announced a new approach to classification of government documents, in light of his pledge to increase transparency. President’s remarks at the National Archives (2009).
  2. Report, The State Secrets Privilege and Other Limits on Litigation Involving Classified Information, Congressional Research Service #R40603 (2009).
  3. Report, Dept. of Homeland Security Intelligence Enterprise: Operational Overview and Oversight Challenges for Congress, Congressional Research Service #R40602 (2009).

    National security classified information: The President's amendments to the Executive Order on Classified National Security Information. Executive Order 13292 (2003).

     National security -- interrogations: The American Psychological Association's governing body has endorsed a Task Force Report on Psychological Ethics and National Security that establishes strict ethical guidelines for psychologists who participate in national security-related investigations and interrogations.

     National security -- interrogations: The American Psychological Association has reaffirmed its policy against the use of torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment. Psychologists have an ethical obligation to report abusive behaviors to the authorities.

     National security - polygraph: U.S. Dept. of Energy publishes a final rule to establish new counterintelligence evaluation regulations to minimize the potential for disclosure of classified information, data, and materials, effective Oct. 30, 2006. 71 (189) Federal Register 57386-57397 (9/29/2006).

     Online Report: Inspector General's Review of the FBI's Counterterrorism Program. OIG Report #02-38, Sep. 2002.

     Personnel identification: The U.S. Office of Management and Budget has issued guidance to federal agencies advising them how to comply with a Homeland Security Dept. directive creating a universal personal identification verification system for federal employees and contractors. [PDF]

     Policing occupied territories: Private Security Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Legal Issues. Congressional Research Service (Dec. 22, 2009).

     Secrecy: Online interview, "Government Secrecy in the Age of Information," Biodefense Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 1, published online by the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, Summer 2003. [PDF]

     Surveillance: The multi-agency Inspector Generals’ Unclassified Report on the President’s Surveillance Program.

     Tax Publication: IRS No. 3920, Tax Relief for Victims of Terrorist Attacks. [PDF]

     Terrorism: Increasing Terrorism Preparedness of Law Enforcement Agencies, by Jeremy W. Francis, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (December 2014).

     Terrorism: Increasing Terrorism Preparedness of Law Enforcement Agencies, by Jeremy W. Francis, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (December 2014).

     Terrorism:  Federal Efforts to Address the Threat of Bioterrorism: Selected Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service (March 2010).

     Terrorism: A DoJ Report to the Congress describes the use of new powers authorized under the USA PATRIOT Act (May 13, 2003). [PDF]

     Terrorism - DoJ-IG report: A Review of the FBI's Handling of Intelligence Information Prior to the September 11 Attacks. (2005).

     Terrorism: Final Report on 9/11 Commission Recommendations, Dec. 5, 2005.

     Terrorism-report: GAO study confirms that private insurance carriers have concluded that terrorist attacks involving nuclear, biological, chemical, and radiological weapons are not an insurable risk. GAO-06-1081 (Sep.2006).

     Weapons of mass destruction: White House Memo to agency chiefs: "Action to safeguard information regarding weapons of mass destruction and other sensitive documents related to homeland security."

     Website: Dept. of Homeland Security employees' information page. (click on employees)

Training

     Safety Equipment: OSHA clarifies employer responsibilities to provide respirators or other protective equipment and relevant training. Employer Duty to Provide Personal Protective Equipment and Train Each Employee, Docket No. OSHA-2008-0031, 73 Federal Register 75568-589 (Dec. 12, 2008).

     Statistics: State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2013, by Brian A. Reaves, Bureau of Justice Statistics (July 21, 2016 NCJ 249784).

     Training: Mental Preparedness Training, by Judith P. Andersen, Konstantinos Papazoglou, Harri Gustafsberg, Peter Collins, and Bengt Arnetz, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2016).

     Training: Emergency Medical Response in Active-Threat Situations: Training Standards for Law Enforcement, by John M. Landry, Sara J. Aberle, Andrew J. Dennis, and Matthew D. Sztajnkrycer, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2015).

     Training: Educating Police Executives in a New Community Problem-Solving Era, by Michael J. Jenkins and John DeCarlo, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (May 2014).

      Training: Officer Survival Spotlight. By the Numbers: Turning LEOKA Data into Training Opportunities, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (April 2014).

     Training: "High-Technology Environment Training (HiTET): Embracing Modern Challenges," by Shawn Matthews, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (June 2013).

     Training:  "Terror Liaison Officer Training," by J.T. McBride, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Feb. 2013).

     Training: "Focus on Training: Interpersonal Skills Training in Police Academy Curriculum," by Peter J. McDermott and Diana Hulse, Ed.D., FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (February 2012).

     Training: "The Importance of Privacy, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties Protections in American Law Enforcement and Public Safety" is a training video that was developed by the U.S. Department of Justice's Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative's Criminal Intelligence Coordinating Council to assist local, state, and tribal law enforcement line officers in understanding their role in the protection of privacy, civil rights, and civil liberties as they perform their everyday duties.

     Training: Free speech - IACP Training Key #612, Freedom of Speech and the Patrol Officer

     Training: "Lessons Learned from an Analysis of Correctional Officer Training in the United States," by Emran Khan, 6 (5) Law Enforcement Executive Forum 131-159 (Sep. 2006).

     Training: "Law Enforcement Professionalism: Training is the Key," by Anthony J. Pinizzotto, Shannon Bohrer, and Edward F. Davis, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (April 2011). "A significant factor in the history of law enforcement professionalism is training."

Vaccinations

     Vaccine Policy Issues, a report by the Congressional Research Service.

Vehicle Safety

     Vehicle Safety: "Emergency Vehicle Safety," by Thomas J. Connelly, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (February 2012).

Veterans

     Veterans: New book info, Civil Service Handbook for Ex-Military Personnel, by Federal Employees News Digest, ISBN: 0-910582-67-X.

      Veteran's Rights: MSPB's Office of Policy and Evaluation has released a new report, "Veteran Hiring in the Civil Service: Practices and Perceptions".

Video Recording

     Video Recording: "The Right to Speak with Another's Voice—Why the Seventh Circuit Should Characterize the Right to Record as the Limited Right to Gather Information Under the First Amendment," by Prava Palacharla, 8 Seventh Circuit Rev. 416 (2013).

Websites

     Addiction and rehabilitation: Health & Human Services National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery informational website.

     Cruise ships: Crime victim's assistance website.

     Female applicant assistance: Scottsdale, AZ Police Women and Policing website, with advice to female applicants and fitness protocols (including detailed instructions and photos demonstrating the requirements).

     Identification "smart" cards: Personal Identity Verification of federal employees and contractors website.

     Websites: Smaller Law Enforcement Agency Program website (IACP).

     Website: copsandhookers.com -- "A night club owner's site devoted to exposing organized crime under the guise of law enforcement."

     Website: Dept. of Homeland Security employees' information page. (click on employees)

     Website: New federal website, for individuals to find and comment on proposed rules being considered by federal agencies: http://www.regulations.gov/

     Website - FLSA/overtime claims: A U.S. Dept. of Labor chart compares the current requirements for exemption as an executive, administrative, professional, computer or outside sales employee with the new proposed regulations.

     Website:"Support Teresa Chambers" (the outspoken U.S. Park Police chief).

     Website: "Statement of the National Park Service concerning ... Park Police Chief Teresa Chambers [being] placed on administrative leave."

Whistleblowing

     Book: "The Art of Anonymous Activism: Serving the Public While Surviving Public Service," a how-to whistleblower guide for public employees, by the Project On Government Oversight. ($10)

     The (Federal) Whistleblower Protection Act: An Overview, Congressional Research Service Doc. RL33918 (Mar. 2007).

     Online whistleblower documents: A financial and a security memo on stolen, lost and missing property at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. [PDF]

     Regulations: OSHA issues interim final rules on various whistleblower procedures.

     Report: U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board, Whistleblower Protections for Federal Employees (2010).

     Report: Prohibited Personnel Practices, Merit Systems Protection Board (June 2010).

     Whistleblowers: Report on Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2009, Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, Report No. 111-101, Dec. 3, 2009.

     Whistleblowers -- Report: "Homeland and National Security Whistleblower Protections: The Unfinished Agenda."

     Whistleblower Manual: Revised OSHA directive # DIS 0-0.9. [PDF]

     Whistleblower Procedures: Dept. of Labor, "Handling of discrimination complaints under sec. 806 of the Corporate and Criminal Fraud Accountability Act of 2002," Final Rule 69:52103-52117

     Whistleblower Protection: Online book, "Whistleblowing: When It Works--And Why."

     Whistleblowing: "Blowing the Whistle: Barriers to Federal Employees Making Disclosures," Office of Policy and Evaluation of the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) (November 2011).

Women and Policing

     Female applicant assistance: Scottsdale, AZ Police Women and Policing website, with advice to female applicants and fitness protocols (including detailed instructions and photos demonstrating the requirements).

     Female Employees: Women in the Federal Government: Ambitions and Achievements, Merit Systems Protection Board (May 24, 2011).

     Female Officers: “The Feminine Arm of the Law: Police Wives, Policewomen, and Gender Politics in the Chicago Police Department, 1950 – 1984," by Megan Adams Labor (2013) 10(2): 77-103. Abstract. Full Text for purchase.

     Pregnancy: Pregnancy Discrimination Act, by Lisa Baker, Mar. 2008 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin

Workers' Compensation

     Statistics: "Justice Expenditure and Employment Extracts, 2010 - Preliminary," by Tracey Kyckelhahn and Tara Martin (July 1, 2013 NCJ 242544).

     Workers' Compensation: Worker`s Compensation Program, Federal Bureau of Prisons Program Statement 1601.04 CN-1 (March 30, 2015).

Workplace Diversity

     Workplace Diversity: Diversity in the Workplace, by Anni Lori Foster, Police Chief (June. 2015).

Workplace Safety

     Body armor: DoJ to provide $33.6 million to assist law enforcement in replacing Zylon ballistic vests.

     Firefighter safety: OSHA publication: Fire Service Features of Buildings and Fire Protection Systems

     Firefighter safety: NIOSH draft document #141: Preventing Deaths and Injuries of Fire Fighters When Fighting Fires in Unoccupied Structures, 73 (246) Fed. Reg. 78365 (12/22/2008).

     Revised Rules: OSHA has revised its rules on "Exit Routes, Emergency Action Plans, and Fire Prevention Plans." 67 Fed. Reg. 67950 (11/7/2002).

     Injuries to employees: Following the death of a firefighter, the Centers for Disease Control issues a NIOSH advisory warning against using humans in a burning structure posing as "victims" during fire training sessions.

     Military Families: The American Bar Association (ABA) has announced a new website to help military families, including information about the Servicemembers' Civil Relief Act. As part of its military family support services, the ABA has created the ABA Home Front, to provide legal resources for military families.

     Officer safety: London Police test a precise locating system that uses automated radio technology.

     Officer safety article: New Federal Rule Seeks to Improve Officer Visibility at Roadside, IACP Police Chief magazine (July 2007).

     OSHA: Advice to outdoor workers on heatstroke. [Online]

     Safety Equipment: OSHA clarifies employer responsibilities to provide respirators or other protective equipment and relevant training. Employer Duty to Provide Personal Protective Equipment and Train Each Employee, Docket No. OSHA-2008-0031, 73 Federal Register 75568-589 (Dec. 12, 2008).

     Workplace injuries and illnesses: "Workers' Compensation: Rx for Policy Reform," National Center for Policy Analysis, Policy Report No. 287, Sep. 2006.

     Worker safety - Report: Preventing Fire Fighter Fatalities Due to Heart Attacks and Other Sudden Cardiovascular Events, NIOSH Publication No. 2007-133 (2007).

     Worker Visibility: New federal regulation provides that all workers within the right-of-way of a Federal-aid highway who are exposed to traffic “shall wear high-visibility safety apparel.” Firefighters or other emergency responders “may wear retro reflective turn-out gear.” 23 C.F.R. §634.3, Federal Highway Admin. Docket FHWA-2008-0157, FR Doc. E8-27671, RIN 2125-AF28, 73 (226) Federal Register 70593 (11/21/2008)

     Worksite Safety: "Principal Emergency Response and Preparedness Requirements and Guidance," OSHA document 3122-06R (2004). [PDF]

     Workplace safety website: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

Workplace Searches & Security

     Article: "E-mail, fingerprints and personnel files: Recurring and emerging discovery issues in employment litigation," 38 (1) Tort Trial & Insur. Prac. Law Journal 69-101 (Fall 2002), Amer. Bar Assn., www.abanet.org/tips.

     "Computer and Internet surveillance in the workplace," by Andrew Schulman, Fellow, Privacy Foundation.

     "Employer's rights and responsibilities following OSHA inspections," 40 pp. (Revised 2002). [PDF]

     Occupational safety: OSHA Guidance on Preparing Workplaces for an Influenza Pandemic.

     "Warrantless workplace searches of government employees," by Bryan R. Lemons, Branch Chief for the Legal Division at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Glynco, GA. The Quarterly Review, Vol. 3, Ed. 3, April 2002.

     Workplace security: DHS has created downloadable posters to provide guidance on physical and cyber security and how to report suspicious behavior, activity, and cyber incidents.

     Workplace searches: When Does an Employer's Search of Employee Work Areas Violate Privacy Rights? Police Chief, Aug. 2008

Workplace Violence

     "Combating Workplace Violence," IACP Private Sector Liaison Committee.

     Published article: "Violence at work," by Jason R. Sakis and Daniel B. Kennedy, 38 (12) Trial (ATLA) 32 (Dec. 2002). Info. at www.atla.org

    Workplace Violence: "The Phenomena of Workplace Violence," by George Cartwright, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (August 2013).

     Workplace violence: NIOSH has produced a training video on worksite violence: Publication No. 2004-100d.

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