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Jail & Prisoner Law Resources



Access to Courts/Legal Info

     Access to Courts/Legal Info:'Power of the Pen': Jailhouse Lawyers, Literacy, and Civic Engagement," by Jessica Feierman, 41 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review No. 2, pg. 369 (Summer 2006).

     Book: Protecting Your Health and Safety: A Litigation Guide for Inmates, by Robert E. Toone. The complete text of this book is available on-line. The book is designed for inmates who are not represented by an attorney. Bound copies of the 328-page book are available for $10 from the Southern Poverty Law Center, P.O. Box 548 Montgomery, Alabama 36101-0548. Their website states that "upon request, prison law libraries will be sent a copy at no cost."

     Publication: "Jails and The Constitution: An Overview, Second Edition," by William C. Collins, (104 pgs., The National Institute of Corrections, September 2007). The sections included in this document are: Introduction, History of Court Involvement, Corrections & the Constitution in the New Century, The Constitution and the Physical Plant, Understanding Section 1983 Lawsuits, How the Courts Evaluate Claims: The Balancing Test, The First Amendment, The Fourth Amendment, The Eighth Amendment: Overview, The Eighth Amendment: Use of Force, The Eighth Amendment: Medical Care, The Eighth Amendment: Conditions of Confinement, The Fourteenth Amendment, Consent Decrees, Some Final Thoughts, Glossary, and Some Final Cases.

     Publications: Legal Resource Guide to the Federal Bureau of Prisons, updated January 2008

     Publications: Library Services for Incarcerated Spanish Speakers. Source(s) WebJunction (Dublin, OH) OCLC Online Computer Library Center (Dublin, OH) Published 2007. 101 pages. Materials from a presentation about providing better library service to Spanish speakers are supplied. Items comprising this collection are: copies of overheads; resource packet containing learning objectives, action plan guide, Four Dimensions of Diversity chart, guide for conducting community leader interviews, resources for working with Spanish speakers, and Serving Latino Communities checklist; and suggested outreach activities for correctional libraries. Accession Number: 022851

     Publication: The Jailhouse Lawyer's Handbook: How to Bring a Federal Lawsuit to Challenge Violations of Your Rights in Prison. (4th Edition, revised 2003). 113 page handbook providing instructions and legal discussion for prisoners interested in suing correctional institutions and officials, available for free download at the link given. Published by the Center for Constitutional Rights and the National Lawyers Guild. [PDF]

Administrative Segregation

     Administrative Segregation: "Is 'Adaptation' the Right Question? Addressing the Larger Context of Administrative Segregation.,"  by Lorna A. Rhodes and David Lovell. (NIC June 21, 2011).

AIDS & HIV

     AIDS: "Sex, Drugs, Prisons, and HIV," by Susan Okie, M.D., 356 New England Journal of Medicine Number 2 (Jan. 11, 2007) pgs. 105-108

      AIDS/HIV: "Routine HIV Screening During Intake Medical Evaluation at a County Jail — Fulton County, GA, 2011–2012," 62 (24) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 495-497.

     AIDS & HIV: HIV in Prisons, 2005. Provides the number of HIV-infection and confirmed AIDS cases among State and Federal prisoners at yearend 2005. This annual bulletin reports the number of AIDS-related deaths in prisons, a profile of those inmates who died, the number of female and male prisoners who were HIV-infected or had confirmed AIDS, and a comparison of confirmed AIDS rates for the general and prisoner populations. This report also examines trends in HIV infection, confirmed AIDS, and AIDS-related deaths. Data are from the National Prisoner Statistics and the Deaths in Custody series. Highlights include the following: * At yearend 2005, an estimated 18,953 males and 1,935 females in State prisons were HIV-infected or had confirmed AIDS. * During 2005 an estimated 176 State inmates died from AIDS-related causes, down from 185 in 2004. * Among Federal inmates, 27 died from AIDS-related causes in 2005, up from 18 in 2004. 09/07 NCJ 218915 Press release | Acrobat file (152K) | ASCII file (28K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 22K).

     AIDS and HIV Related: "Dilemmas in the Care of the HIV-Infected Incarcerated Individual," by David Alain Wohl, MD* Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina, Co-Director of HIV Services for the North Carolina Department of Corrections, Infectious Diseases in Corrections Report (formerly HEPP Report), sponsored by the Brown Medical School, Rhode Island, Office of Continuing Medical Education. (November/December 2005).

     AIDS and HIV: "HIV in Prisons, 2001." Bureau of Justice Statistics. Provides the number of HIV-positive and active AIDS cases among prisoners held in each State and the Federal prison system at yearend 2001. The annual report includes data on the number of AIDS-related deaths, a breakdown for women and men with AIDS, and comparisons to AIDS rates in the general population. Historical data on AIDS cases are presented from 1995 and on AIDS deaths from 1991. Highlights include the following: Between 2000 and 2001 the number of HIV-positive prisoners decreased about 5%, while the overall prison population grew 1.1% over the same period. At yearend 2001, 3.2% of all female State prison inmates were HIV positive, compared to 2.0% of males. The number of AIDS-related deaths in State prisons decreased 75% from 1995 to 2001. (January 2004). NCJ 202293 Acrobat file [PDF] (534K) | ASCII file (17K) Spreadsheets (zip format 27K)

    AIDS Related: National Survey of Infectious Diseases in Correctional Facilities: HIV and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, NIJ-Sponsored, 2007, NCJ 217736. (34 pages).

     AIDS Related: HIV in Prisons, 2004. Reports the number of female and male prisoners who were HIV positive or AIDS active, the number of AIDS-related deaths in State and Federal prisons, a profile of those inmates who died, and a comparison of AIDS rates for the general and prisoner populations. This annual bulletin uses yearend 2004 data from the National Prisoner Statistics and the Deaths in Custody series. Supplemental information from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities is provided in this report, including estimates of HIV infection among prison inmates by age, gender, race, Hispanic origin, education, marital status, current offense, and selected risk factors such as prior drug use. Highlights include the following: * Between 2003 and 2004 the number of HIV-positive prisoners decreased 2.6%. * During 2004, 20 States reported a decrease in the number of HIV-positive prisoners, and 24 States and the Federal system reported an increase. * Rate of AIDS-related deaths in State prisons decreased in 2004. 11/06 NCJ 213897 Press release | Acrobat file (244K) | ASCII file (21K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 17K)

     Article: Macher A, Kibble D, Wheeler D. HIV transmission in correctional facility. Emerg Infect Dis April 2006. "Acute retroviral syndrome developed in an inmate in a detention center after he had intercourse with 2 HIV-infected inmates. Correctional facilities house a disproportionate number of HIV-infected persons, and most do not provide inmates with condoms. Correctional healthcare providers should be familiar with primary HIV infection and acute retroviral syndrome."

     Medical Care: Medical Management of Exposures: HIV, HBV, HCV, Human Bites and Sexual Assaults. Federal Bureau of Prisons Clinical Practice Guideline. May 2007.

     Report: "HIV Transmission Among Male Inmates in a State Prison System --- Georgia, 1992--2005" Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report April 21, 2006. This study, which documented the cases of 88 men who became HIV positive while incarcerated in Georgia state prisons, resulted in a recommendation that states investigate the possibility of distributing condoms in prisons. As a result, the California state legislature, in August of 2006, passed a bill, AB 1677, which would allow public health agencies to distribute condoms or dental dams to inmates who request them. California Governor Schwarzenegger has not yet announced whether he will sign it.

     Report: HIV in Prisons, 2000, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (10/02) NCJ 196023. This report provides the number of HIV-positive and active AIDS cases among prisoners held in each State and the Federal prison system at year-end 2000. The report provides prison data on the number of AIDS-related deaths, HIV-testing policies, a breakdown for women and men with AIDS, and comparisons to AIDS rates in the general populations. Based on the 2000 Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities, the report also provides data on the number of HIV-positive prison inmates at midyear 2000. Also presented are the 25 facilities holding the largest number of HIV-positive inmates. Highlights include the following: Between 1995 and 2000 the number of HIV-positive prisoners grew at a slower rate (3%) than the overall prison population (16%). The overall rate of confirmed AIDS among the Nation's prison population (0.52%) was about 4 times the rate in U.S. general population (0.13%). During 2000, 18 States reported a decrease in the number of HIV-positive prisoners and 29 States reported an increase.

     Statistics: "HIV in Prisons, 2001-2010," Bureau of Justice Statistics (NCJ 238877 September 13, 2012). Press Release PDF (1.14) ASCII file (27K) Comma-delimited format (CSV) (Spreadsheet 36K).

     Statistics: HIV in Prisons, 2007-08. Presents year end 2007 and 2008 data from the National Prisoner Statistics and the Deaths in Custody series. The report provides data on the number of female and male prisoners who were infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or had confirmed AIDS. Findings include the number of AIDS-related deaths in state and federal prisons, a profile of those inmates who died in state prison, and a comparison of AIDS rates between prison inmates and the general population. The report also covers the circumstances under which inmates were tested for HIV. Highlights include the following: At year end 2008, 1.5% (20,231) of male inmates and 1.9% (1,913) of female inmates held in state or federal prisons were HIV positive or had confirmed AIDS. Between 2007 and 2008, California (up 246), Missouri (up 169), and Florida (up 166) reported the largest increases in the number of prisoners who were HIV positive or had confirmed AIDS. During 2007, 130 state and federal prisoners died from AIDS-related causes. 12/09 NCJ 228307

     Statistics: HIV in Prisons, 2006. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (April 2008). A web page with information on the number of state and federal inmates who were infected with HIV or had confirmed AIDS at yearend 2006. Topics covered include HIV infection by region and state, infection by gender, confirmed AIDS cases, AIDS related death, HIV testing in prisons, statistical tables, and a list of related publications. (April 2008).

     Statistics: HIV in Prisons, 2003. Provides the number of HIV-positive and active AIDS cases among State and Federal prisoners at yearend 2003. This annual bulletin reports the number of AIDS-related deaths in prisons, a profile of those inmates who died, the number of female and male prisoners who were HIV-positive, and a comparison of AIDS rates for the general and prisoner populations. Historical data on AIDS cases are presented from 1998 and on AIDS deaths from 1995. Highlights include the following: Between 2002 and 2003 the number of HIV-positive prisoners decreased less than 1%, while the overall prison population grew 1.6% during the same period. At yearend 2003, 2.8% of all female State prison inmates were HIV positive, compared to 1.9% of males. In 2003, 282 prisoners died from AIDS-related causes -- 268 State inmates and 14 Federal inmates. 09/05 NCJ 210344 Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Website: HIV & Hepatitis Education Prison Project Publishes a ten times a year report on prison HIV, Hepatitis and other related health issues, available at the website in PDF format. Brown Medical School Office of Continuing Medical Education, Brown University, Providence, RI.

Alcohol & Drugs

     Behavioral Health Problems: "Adults with Behavioral Health Needs under Correctional Supervision: A Shared Framework for Reducing Recidivism and Promoting Recovery," Justice Center, The Council of State Governments (September 27, 2012).

     Drug Abuse and Treatment: "Behind Bars II: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population," by the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (2010). This report states that 65% of all inmates meet the medical criteria for substance abuse addiction, but only 11% of them receive treatment for such addiction.

     Drug Abuse and Treatment: Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners (RSAT) Program (NCJ 206269), Bureau of Justice Assistance, April 2005. PDF Presents the Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners (RSAT) Program, which helps states and local governments develop, implement, and improve RSAT programs in state and local correctional and detention facilities. This Program Update describes RSAT and its funding history, program components, national- and state-level RSAT evaluations, and state-by-state activities. It also covers changes made to the program.

     Drugs and Drug Abuse: "Community Re-Entry After Prison Drug Treatment. Learning from Sheridan Therapeutic Community Program participants," Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (January 2012).

     Drugs and Drug Treatment Program: Outcome Evaluation of the New Mexico Corrections Department Genesis Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Program for State Prisoners, Final Summary Report. 12/2003, NCJ 203277. [PDF]

     Drug Use: Oregon Department of Corrections: Inmate Drug Usage in the Institutions During January 2004. 2 pgs. [PDF] Presents information about recent results of three different types of drug testing of inmates in Oregon correctional facility--random drug testing, suspicion based drug testing, and testing of inmates involved in the Alcohol and Drug treatment programs who are tested for drug use every month.

     Publication: Screening and Assessing Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Among Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Resource Guide for Practitioners (NCJ 204956) December 2004 Report, 88 pages Grisso, T., Underwood, L. A. Presents information on instruments that can be used to screen and assess youth for mental health- and substance use-related disorders at various stages of the juvenile justice process. The Guide includes profiles of more than 50 instruments, guidelines for selecting instruments, and best practice recommendations for diverse settings and situations. It is intended as a basic tool for juvenile justice professionals working toward the goal of early, accurate identification of youth with mental disorders. Once identified, these youth can receive the services required to improve their lives, reduce recidivism, and promote community safety. Available online only. [PDF] (1.85 MB).

     Publication: Reducing Drug Use in Prisons: Pennsylvania's Approach, by Thomas E. Feucht and Andrew Keyser. Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. 6 pgs. [PDF]

     Publication: Drug Detection in Prison Mailrooms. National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, November 2004. Corrections officials need an effective and efficient method to detect the presence of drugs in the thousands of letters and packages that are processed daily in prison mailrooms. Recent tests of detection systems available in the commercial market identified ion mobility spectrometry as a technology with the potential to improve the mail screening operations in correctional facilities. [PDF]

     Report: Pelissier, B. M. (2002). Comparison of Background Characteristics and Behaviors of African American, Hispanic, and White Substance Abusers Treated in Federal Prison. Federal Bureau of Prisons.(.pdf format).

     Report: Pelissier, B, Camp, S. D., Gaes, G. G., Rhodes, W., and Saylor, W. (in press). Federal Prison Residential Drug Treatment: A Comparison of Three-Year Outcomes For Men and Women.

     Report: The DASIS Report: Drug and Alcohol Treatment in Juvenile Correctional Facilities, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, May 2002. [PDF format] This report examines substance abuse treatment in juvenile correctional facilities. See also, The DASIS Report: Substance Abuse Services and Staffing in Adult Correctional Facilities, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, October 2002. [PDF format] This report examines treatment services and staffing in adult correctional facilities.

     Report: I–ADAM in Eight Countries: Approaches and Challenges by Bruce Taylor. Published: May 2002. This publication is primarily a progress report on the implementation of the International Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (I-ADAM) program in eight countries and on the challenges they faced. Although some research findings are presented, the principal purpose of this report is to describe the experiences of the countries as they engaged in the process of launching I-ADAM, which is an outgrowth and extension of the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program, developed and operated by the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice. ADAM tracks trends in the prevalence and types of hardcore drug use--such as cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine--among booked arrestees. (pdf format).

     Report: "Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners: Implementation Lessons Learned." This National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Special Report summarizes the results of a National Evaluation of Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) and process evaluations of 12 local sites across the country. (NCJ 195738) (April 2003). PDF File and ASCII Text File.

     Report: "Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for State Prisoners: Breaking the Drug-Crime Cycle Among Parole Violators." This Research for Practice examines the Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) program at the South Idaho Correctional Institution. The program targets parole-violating inmates with substance abuse problems in an effort to reduce recidivism. (NCJ 199948) (May 2003)  PDF File and ASCII Text File.

     Statistics: 2008 Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program (ADAM II), Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), (May 2009). The federal report, which surveys drug use among booked male arrestees in 10 major metropolitan areas across the country, shows the majority of arrestees in each city test positive for illicit drug use, with as many as 87 percent of arrestees testing positive for an illegal drug. According to the ADAM II report, drug use among the arrestee population is much higher than in the general U.S. population. The percentage of booked arrestees testing positive for at least one illicit drug ranged from 49 percent in Washington, D.C. to 87 percent in Chicago. The most common substances present during tests, in descending order, are marijuana, cocaine, opiates, and methamphetamine. Additionally, many arrestees tested positive for more than one illegal drug at the time of arrest; from 15 percent in Atlanta to 40 percent in Chicago. Data on drug use, drug markets, treatment utilization, and criminal offenses were collected among booked arrestees in jails within 48 hours of their booking and in the following counties and cities: Fulton County and City of Atlanta; Mecklenburg County (Charlotte, NC); Cook County (Chicago, IL); Denver County (Denver, CO); Marion County (Indianapolis, IN); Hennepin County (Minneapolis, MN); Manhattan (New York, NY), Multnomah County (Portland, OR); Sacramento County (Sacramento, CA) and Washington, D.C. (District of Columbia).

     Statistics: Substance Dependence, Abuse, and Treatment of Jail Inmates, 2002. Presents data from the 2002 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails on inmates’ prior use, dependence, and abuse of alcohol and illegal drugs. The report also provides data on types of substance abuse treatment or other programs reported by jail inmates. It presents measures of dependence and abuse by gender, race, Hispanic origin, age, and most serious offense. The report compares the levels of prior substance use, dependence, abuse, and treatment by selected characteristics, such as family background, criminal record, type of substance, and offense. Tables include trends in the levels of substance use and treatment reported by jail inmates since the last national survey was conducted in 1996. Highlights include the following: In 2002 -- 68% of jail inmates reported symptoms in the year before their admission to jail that met substance dependence or abuse criteria. 16% of convicted jail inmates said that they committed their offense to get money for drugs. 63% of inmates who met substance dependence or abuse criteria had participated in substance treatment or other programs. 7/05 NCJ 209588 Acrobat file (211K) | ASCII file (35K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 19K)

"Boot Camp" Programs

     Publication: Quehanna Motivational Boot Camp: Performance Analysis and Evaluation, by Kristofer Bret Bucklen, Research and Evaluation Analyst. A report evaluating the performance of the Quehanna Boot Camp for the period 1993 through 2002. Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. 12 pgs. (January 2003). [PDF]

     Publications: DOCS/TODAY (Autumn 2004). [PDF] Publication of the New York Department of Correctional Services. This issue features a story on the Department's highly-rated Shock Incarceration program for certain first-time, nonviolent offenders. Inmates completing the grueling six-month program return to prison at rates significantly lower than comparable non-participants, who spend an average of at least a year longer in prison, according to the article. The program has now saved taxpayers a whopping $1 billion, by reducing terms of incarceration and the need to build new prison beds, the Department states.

Census Enumeration of Prisoners

     Census Enumeration of Prisoners: Why the Census Bureau can and must start collecting the home addresses of incarcerated people Submitted by Peter Wagner, Eric Lotke and Andrew Beveridge to the U.S. Census Bureau on February 10, 2006 in advance of the Bureau's report to the Appropriations Committee on using prisoners' homes of record in the Census. Subsequent report by national panel of experts recommended that in 2010 the Census Bureau study whether prison inmates should be counted as residents of the urban neighborhoods where they last lived rather than as residents of the rural districts where they are incarcerated.

Chemical Weapons

     Report: "The Effectiveness and Safety of Pepper Spray" (April 2003). National Institute of Justice (NIJ). "Though generally assumed to be safe and effective, the consequences of the use of pepper spray, as with any use of force, can never be predicted with certainty. To expand the scope of knowledge on such a complex subject, this Research for Practice examines two unpublished NIJ-funded studies on the use of pepper spray in real-life arrests and compares them with previous studies. While the research does not and cannot prove that pepper spray will never be a contributing factor in the death of a subject resisting arrest, it seems to confirm that pepper spray is a reasonably safe and effective tool for law enforcement officers to use when confronting uncooperative or combative subjects." Full text of the Report: ASCII Text File Adobe Acrobat File.

Community Corrections

     Community Corrections: "Responding to Elder Abuse: What Community Corrections Should Know" (NCJ 223414) is part of a DVD series that provides community corrections professionals with basic information about what considerations to take into account when placing offenders in residential situations.

     Community Corrections: Article: "Community Corrections and Community Policing," by David Leitenberger, Pete Semenyna, and Jeffrey B. Spelman, 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 11, pgs. 20-23. [PDF] "A partnership between corrections and police officers can greatly enhance community supervision efforts."

Consequences of Incarceration

     Consequences of Incarceration: "Collateral Costs: Incarceration's Effect on Economic Mobility, by the Economic Mobility Project and the Public Safety Performance Project of The Pew Charitable Trusts (2010). Serving time reduces hourly wages for men by about 11 percent, annual employment by 9 weeks, and annual earnings by 40 percent, according to this report.

Correctional Funding

     Correctional Funding: "The National Summit on Justice Reinvestment and Public Safety: Addressing Recidivism, Crime, and Corrections Spending," (Jan. 2011.pdf). The Council of State Governments Justice Center report documenting strategies to reduce repeat criminality and cut the $50 billion being spent by states each year on corrections in a time of government budget crunches. The report on a "summit" last year offers ways to avoid "haphazard policy decisions that negatively affect public safety." The study includes ways to focus resources on those most likely to offend, base programs on research, use effective community supervision policies, and use "place-based strategies." The effort includes the "justice reinvestment" concept of cutting prison spending and reinvesting savings in other crime-fighting programs.

     Correctional Resources: "Realigning Justice Resources: A Review of Population and Spending Shifts in Prison and Community Corrections," Vera Institute of Justice (Sept. 2012).

Correctional Statistics, Publications, & Reports

     Address lists: List of all federal prison facilities.

     Address lists: State prisons and other correctional facilities, arranged by state.

     Address lists: County sheriff's departments and jails.

     AIDS & HIV: HIV in Prisons, 2005. Provides the number of HIV-infection and confirmed AIDS cases among State and Federal prisoners at yearend 2005. This annual bulletin reports the number of AIDS-related deaths in prisons, a profile of those inmates who died, the number of female and male prisoners who were HIV-infected or had confirmed AIDS, and a comparison of confirmed AIDS rates for the general and prisoner populations. This report also examines trends in HIV infection, confirmed AIDS, and AIDS-related deaths. Data are from the National Prisoner Statistics and the Deaths in Custody series. Highlights include the following: * At yearend 2005, an estimated 18,953 males and 1,935 females in State prisons were HIV-infected or had confirmed AIDS. * During 2005 an estimated 176 State inmates died from AIDS-related causes, down from 185 in 2004. * Among Federal inmates, 27 died from AIDS-related causes in 2005, up from 18 in 2004. 09/07 NCJ 218915 Press release | Acrobat file (152K) | ASCII file (28K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 22K).

     AIDS Related: HIV in Prisons, 2004. Reports the number of female and male prisoners who were HIV positive or AIDS active, the number of AIDS-related deaths in State and Federal prisons, a profile of those inmates who died, and a comparison of AIDS rates for the general and prisoner populations. This annual bulletin uses yearend 2004 data from the National Prisoner Statistics and the Deaths in Custody series. Supplemental information from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities is provided in this report, including estimates of HIV infection among prison inmates by age, gender, race, Hispanic origin, education, marital status, current offense, and selected risk factors such as prior drug use. Highlights include the following: * Between 2003 and 2004 the number of HIV-positive prisoners decreased 2.6%. * During 2004, 20 States reported a decrease in the number of HIV-positive prisoners, and 24 States and the Federal system reported an increase. * Rate of AIDS-related deaths in State prisons decreased in 2004. 11/06 NCJ 213897 Press release | Acrobat file (244K) | ASCII file (21K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 17K)

    Annual Reports: State of the Bureau 2007. Bureau of Prisons Staff: Everyday Heroes. Federal Bureau of Prisons (2008).

     Annual Report: Federal Prison Industries, Inc. Annual Financial Statement, Fiscal Year 2007, Audit Report 08-10, March 2008 (Commentary and Summary Only). Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Justice.

     Annual Report: Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statement, Fiscal Year 2007, Audit Report 08-09, March 2008 (Commentary and Summary Only). Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Justice.

     Annual Report: State of the Bureau 2004. Annual report on the Federal Bureau of Prisons. [PDF]

     Annual Report: State of the Bureau (2005). Bureau of Prisons (BOP). Reports on the federal prison system, including information about facilities and statistics.

     Annual Reports: State of the Bureau 2006. The annual report of the U.S. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Prisons.

     Annual Report: Florida Department of Corrections 2001-2002 Annual Report (December 2002). Also available: other statistics and publications, including past year annual reports.

     Annual Report: 2003 Corrections Briefing Report, Kansas Department of Corrections (January 2003) 153 pgs. [PDF].

     Annual Reports: 2005 Corrections Briefing Report. Kansas Department of Corrections (January 2005, 166 pgs). [PDF].

     Annual Reports: Michigan Youth Correctional Facility 2005 Annual Report. [PDF]

     Annual Report: "Rising to the Challenge: A Safer Texas Prison System" Annual Review 2002 (pdf - 1247 KB) Texas Department of Criminal Justice (March 2003).

     Annual Report: Texas Department of Criminal Justice Annual Review 2003. [PDF]

     Annual Report: Kentucky Department of Corrections, Division of Corrections Training (DCT) 2005 Annual Report. (35 pgs.).

     Annual Report: Oklahoma Department of Corrections, 2005 Annual Report. (32 pgs.).

     Annual Report: Rhode Island Department of Corrections, Annual Report 2005. (30 pgs.).

     Budget Information: Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statement, Fiscal Year 2004, Audit Report No. 05-11, March 2005 (Commentary and Summary Only)

     Correctional Resources: "Realigning Justice Resources: A Review of Population and Spending Shifts in Prison and Community Corrections," Vera Institute of Justice (Sept. 2012).

     Correctional Statistics and Reports: Prisoners in 2005. Reports the number of persons in State and Federal prisons at yearend, compares the increase in the prison population during 2005 with the previous year, and presents prison growth rates since 1995. The report also provides the number of male and female prisoners on December 31, 2005, and the rates of incarceration by jurisdiction. It includes the number of prisoners held at yearend in the U.S. Territories and Commonwealths, in military facilities, and in facilities operated by or for the Bureau of Immigration and Custom Enforcement. Data are presented on prison capacities and the use of local jails and privately operated prisons. Estimates are provided on the number of sentenced prisoners by age, gender, race, and Hispanic origin, and type of offense. Highlights include the following: * Fourteen States had prison population increases of at least 5%, led by South Dakota (up 11.9%), Montana (up 10.9%), and Kentucky (up 10.4%). * Eleven States experienced prison population decreases, led by Georgia (down 4.6%), Maryland (down 2.4%), Louisiana (down 2.3%), and Mississippi (down 2.2%). * State prisons were operating between 1% below and 14% above capacity; Federal prisons were operating at 34% above capacity. 11/06 NCJ 215092 Press release | Acrobat file (229K) | ASCII file (32K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 23K)

     Correctional Statistics and Reports: New York Department of Correctional Services, Annotated Listing, Research Studies And Legislative Reports (Year 2006). Areas covered include Shock Incarceration Program Research, Earned Eligibility Program Research, Merit Time, Research on Comprehensive Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment (CASAT), Research on Psychological Screening Program for Correction Officer Candidates, Recidivism Research, Statistical Reports on Inmate Population, Criminal Justice Statistics, Research on Extent of Substance Abuse in Inmate Population, Research on the Foreign-Born Inmate Population, Female Inmates, Special Program Reports, and Legislative Reports on Temporary Release Program, and Inmate Grievance Programs. Copies of individual reports may be obtained, as long as supplies last, by filling in a Research Studies Request Form, and mailing it to: Research Studies And Legislative Reports Requests Program Planning, Research & Evaluation New York State Department of Correctional Services Building #2 1220 Washington Avenue Albany, NY 12226-2050.

     Guide to Bureau of Justice Statistics Website: Guide to the BJS Website: Third Edition (December 2002). Reports on the latest updates and additions to materials on the U.S. Department of Justice BJS website. In addition to paper documents, BJS electronically publishes a variety of materials, including statistical graphics and spreadsheets on its website. This report, the third in a series, outlines all of the material available on the website, some not otherwise published. NCJ 187735. Available in PDF format or plain text ASCII format.

     Incarceration Rates: Book: The Growth of Incarceration in the United States. Exploring Causes and Consequences, Committee on Causes and Consequences of High Rates of Incarceration; Committee on Law and Justice (CLAJ); Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (DBASSE); National Research Council (The National Academies Press 2014). Description.

     Mass Incarceration: The American Prospect magazine (Jan.-Feb. 2011) has published a special section on "Mass Incarceration in America." Funded by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the report includes articles on such subjects as community policing, juvenile courts, and "bipartisan justice."

     National Institute of Corrections: "National Institute of Corrections: Serving Jails for More Than 30 Years." Discusses the history of the National Institute of Corrections’ Jails Division (since its creation in 1976). Topics covered include: jail administration—training program and networks, documents and DVDs, and technical assistance; inmate behavior management—training, documents and DVDs, and technical assistance; new jail planning—technical assistance, training, documents and DVDs; and jail standards and inspections. (May 7, 2010).

     Prison Growth: "Economic Impacts of Prison Growth," Congressional Research Service (April 13, 2010).

     Prison Rape and Sexual Misconduct: Sexual Victimization in Local Jails Reported by Inmates, 2007. Presents data from the 2007 National Inmate Survey (NIS), conducted in 282 local jails between April and December, with a sample of 40,419 inmates. The report and appendix tables provide a listing of results for sampled local jails, as required under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-79). Facilities are listed alphabetically by state with estimated prevalence rates of sexual victimization as reported by inmates during a personal interview and based on activity in the 6 months prior to the interview or since admission to the facility, if shorter. The report includes national-level and facility-level estimates of nonconsensual sexual acts, abusive sexual contacts, inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate victimization, and level of coercion. It also includes estimates of the standard error for selected measures of sexual victimization and summary characteristics of victims and incidents. Data collected from prison inmates in the National Inmate Survey were reported in Sexual Victimization in State and Federal Prisons Reported by Inmates, 2007, released in December 2007. Highlights include the following: About 1.6% of inmates (12,100, nationwide) reported an incident involving another inmate, and 2.0% (15,200) reported an incident involving staff. Inmate-on-inmate victimization occurred most often in the victim’s cell (56%); staff-on-inmate victimization occurred in a closet, office, or other locked room (47%). An estimated 5.1% of female inmates, compared to 2.9% of male inmates, said they had experienced one or more incidents of sexual victimization. 06/08 NCJ 221946 Press release | Acrobat file (265K) | ASCII file (37K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 47K)

     Prison Recycling: "A Review of Federal Prison Industries’ Electronic-Waste Recycling Program," U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General (October 2010).

     Prisoners: Through Their Eyes: How Prisoners Make Sense of Their Incarceration, by Nadine Frederique and Lori Sexton, NIJ Journal 273 (2014): 60-65. NCJ 244149.

     Prisoner Deaths: Mortality in Local Jails, 2000-2007, by Margaret Noonan, July 7, 2010 NCJ 222988. Describes the specific medical conditions causing deaths in jails nationwide during an eight-year period. For the leading medical causes of mortality, comparative estimates and mortality rates are presented by gender, age, race and Hispanic origin, and the length of time served in jail. The report includes detailed statistics on causes of death as well as more acute events such as suicides, homicides and accidents. Mortality as related to the size of the jail will also be discussed. Jail inmate death rates are compared with rates in the general U.S. resident population using a direct standardization. Estimates and mortality rates for the top 50 jail jurisdictions in the United States are also presented. Highlights include the following: From 2000 through 2007, local jail administrators reported 8,110 inmate deaths in custody. Deaths in jails increased each year, from 905 in 2000 to 1,103 in 2007. The mortality rate per 100,000 local jail inmates declined from 152 deaths per 100,000 inmates to 141 per 100,000 between 2000 and 2007, while the jail inmate population increased 31% from 597,226 to 782,592. Between 2000 and 2007, the suicide rates were higher in small jails than large jails. In jails holding 50 or fewer inmates, the suicide rate was 169 per 100,000; in the largest jails, the suicide rate was 27 per 100,000 inmates. Press Release PDF (353K) ASCII file (34K) Spreadsheets (Zip format 43K)

     Prisoner Suicide: Juvenile Suicide in Confinement, a National Survey, U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (Feb. 2009).

     Publications: Corrections News Online (January 2006). Employee newsletter of the Oregon Department of Corrections. Past monthly issues from 2002 through the present are also available on link by clicking here.

     Publication: Profile of Nonviolent Offenders Exiting State Prisons Bureau of Justice Statistics. Provides a description of the general characteristics of prison populations serving time for nonviolent crimes as they exit State prisons. Nonviolent crimes are defined as property, drug, and public order offenses that do not involve a threat of harm or an actual attack upon a victim. To conduct this analysis, BJS used data collected under two statistical programs, the National Recidivism Reporting Program that last collected data on those discharged from prisons in 15 States in 1994 and the Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities last conducted in 1997. This report examines the responses of inmates who indicated to interviewers that they expected to be released within 6 months. (October 2004). NCJ 207081. Acrobat file (528K) | ASCII file (5K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 8K)

     Report:  One in 100: Behind Bars in America, 2008, by The Pew Center on the States, Pew Charitable Trusts. March 2008. A report which covers the growth of prison population and facilities in the U.S., the growth of prison costs, and the length of prison stays, and related issued.

     Report: Public Safety, Public Spending, a report released by the Public Safety Performance Project of The Pew Charitable Trusts, and written by the JFA Institute, a Washington-based, nonprofit research and consulting firm. Released on February 14, 2007, the report predicts that, by 2011: Without policy changes by the states, the nation’s incarceration rate will reach 562 per 100,000, or one of every 178 Americans. If you put them all together in one place, the incarcerated population in just five years will outnumber the residents of Atlanta, Baltimore and Denver combined. The new inmates will cost states an additional $15 billion for prison operations over the five-year period. Construction of new prison beds will cost as much as $12.5 billion. Unless Montana, Arizona, Alaska, Idaho and Vermont change their sentencing or release practices, they can expect to see their prison systems grow by one third or more. Similarly, barring reforms, Colorado, Washington, Wyoming, Nevada, Utah and South Dakota can expect their inmate populations to grow by about 25 percent. Connecticut, Delaware and New York are projected to see no change in their prison populations. Maryland will see a 1 percent increase in prison population. The number of women prisoners is projected to grow by 16 percent, while the male population will increase 12 percent.

     Reports: Confronting Confinement, report of the National Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons. (June 8, 2006). The report addresses dangerous conditions of confinement - violence, poor health care, and inappropriate segregation - that can also endanger corrections officers and the public; lack of political support for labor and management; weak oversight of correctional facilities; and serious flaws in the available data about violence and abuse. Among 30 practical reforms, the Commission recommends: A re-investment in programming for prisoners to prevent violence inside facilities and reduce recidivism after release. Changing federal law to extend Medicaid and Medicare reimbursement to correctional facilities and ending prisoner co-pays for medical care, reforms necessary to protect the public health. Reducing the use of high-security segregation, which can actually cause violence, and ending the release of prisoners directly from these units to the streets, which contributes to recidivism. Increased investment at state and local levels to recruit, train, and retain skilled, capable workers at all levels. Expanding the capacity of the National Institute of Corrections to work with states and localities to create a positive institutional culture in corrections facilities. Creating an independent agency in every state to oversee prisons and jails and changing federal law to narrow the scope of the Prison Litigation Reform Act. Developing standardized reporting nationwide on violence and abuse behind bars so that corrections officials, lawmakers, and the public can have reliable measures of violence and monitor efforts to make facilities safer.

     Reports: Treated Like Trash: Juvenile Detention in New Orleans Before, During, and After Hurricane Katrina, report of the Juvenile Justice Project of Louisiana. (May 2006). A report on conditions in New Orleans Louisiana juvenile detention facilities.

     Report: Education and Correctional Populations U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (January 2003). Compares educational attainment of State and Federal prison inmates, jail inmates, and probationers to that of the general population. Educational attainment is also examined for various demographic groups -- including gender, race/ethnicity, age, citizenship, and military service -- and for other social and economic factors. Reasons for dropping out of school are compared for jail inmates and the general population. The report describes the availability of educational programs to inmates in prison and jail and their participation in educational and vocational programs since admission. Findings are based on analyses of more than 10 different datasets from both BJS and the U.S. Department of Education. Highlights include the following: 68% of State prison inmates did not receive a high school diploma; About 26% of State prison inmates said they had completed the GED while serving time in a correctional facility. Although the percentage of State prison inmates who reported taking education courses while confined fell from 57% in 1991 to 52% in 1997, the number who participated in an educational program since admission increased from 402,500 inmates in 1991 to 550,000 in 1997. Report is NCJ 19570. Available in PDF format or in plain text ASCII. The tables from the report are also available in spreadsheet format.

     Reports: Florida Department of Corrections Long-Range Program Plan, FY 2005-06 through 2009-10 (August 2004) [Available in both .PDF and .Doc formats].

     Report: Probation and Parole in the United States, 2001 (BJS) (August 2002) The total Federal, State, and local adult correctional population -- incarcerated or in the community -- grew by 147,700 during 2001 to reach a new high of nearly 6.6 million.

     Report: Reentry Trends in the United States: Inmates returning to the community after serving time in prison. Bureau of Justice Statistics. [PDF]. This new section of BJS website summarizes the latest BJS data concerning inmates returning to the community after serving time in State or Federal prison. Based on information from 12 publications and 6 data collections, this section covers trends in both State and Federal release.

      Report:   Prisoners in 2001, Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 195189 (July 2002). This reports on the number of persons in state and federal prisons at year-end, compares the increase in the prison population during 2001 with that of the previous year, and gives the prison growth rates since 1995. It also provides the number of male and female prisoners on December 31, 2001, incarceration rates for the states, and the 10 highest and 10 lowest jurisdictions for selected characteristics, including growth rate, number of prisoners held, and incarceration rates. Tables present data on prison capacities and the use of local jails, privately operated prisons, Federal, and other State facilities to house inmates. Estimates are provided on the number of sentenced prisoners by offense, gender, race, and Hispanic origin. Highlights include the following: Between July 1, 2001, and December 31, 2001, the number of inmates under State jurisdiction declined by 3,705 inmates (down 0.3%), repeating the same pattern of decline first observed in the last 6 months of 2000. On December 31, 2001 State prisons were operating between 1% and 16% above capacity, while Federal prisons were operating at 31% above capacity. At year-end 2000, 49% of State prisoners were serving time for violent offenses, up from 46% in 1990.

     Report: "Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2002" (NCJ-198877), was written by Bureau of Justice Statistics statisticians Paige M. Harrison and Jennifer C. Karberg. Single copies may be obtained by calling the BJS Clearinghouse at 1-800-732-3277. In addition, this document can be accessed at: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/pjim02.htm   The report indicates that nation’s prisons and jails held more than 2 million inmates for the first time on June 30, 2002. The 50 states, the District of Columbia and the federal government held 1,355,748 prisoners (two-thirds of the total incarcerated population), and local municipal and county jails held 665,475 inmates. During the 12-month period ending last June 30, the local jail population increased by 34,235 inmates, the largest increase (5.4 percent) since 1997. State prisons added 12,440 inmates (a 1 percent increase) and the federal prison system grew by 8,042 (5.7 percent). At midyear 2002, the nation’s prisons and jails held 1 in every 142 U.S. residents. Males were incarcerated at the rate of 1,309 inmates per 100,000 U.S. men, while the female incarceration rate was 113 per 100,000 women residents.

     Report: Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2000: Selected Findings (National Report Series Bulletin). December 2002. 4pp. NCJ 196595. Free. Released: January 17, 2003. This Bulletin presents findings from the inaugural 2000 Juvenile Residential Facility Census (JRFC). It focuses on two issues of primary interest to the juvenile justice field: facility crowding and facility-related deaths. JRFC is designed to collect information on such facility characteristics as type, size, structure, security arrangements, and ownership. It also examines the adequacy of bedspace and a range of services provided youth in residential facilities. Sickmund, M. 2002 (December). U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

     Report: "Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2002". 4/2003, NCJ 198877. PDF File ASCII Text File HTML File Presents data on prison and jail inmates, collected from National Prisoner Statistics counts and the Annual Survey of Jails in 2002. This report provides for each State and the Federal system, the number of inmates and the overall incarceration rate per 100,000 residents. It offers trends since 1995 and percentage changes in prison populations since midyear and yearend 2001. The midyear report presents the number of prison inmates held in private facilities and the number of prisoners under 18 years of age held by State correctional authorities. It includes total numbers for prison and jail inmates by gender, race, and Hispanic origin as well as counts of jail inmates by juvenile status, conviction status, and confinement status. The report also provides findings on rated capacity of local jails, percent of capacity occupied, and capacity added. Highlights include the following:

     Report: "Reforming California's Youth and Adult Correctional System" a 350-page report by a 40-member Independent Review Panel headed by former California Gov. George Deukmejian (July 1, 2004). Contains 239 recommendations concerning the operations, policies, and procedures of youth and adult correctional systems in the state, including reorganizing the California Youth and Adult Correctional Agency and its component entities, and replacing it with a new Department of Correctional Services run by a ten-member Civilian Corrections Commission. The report also recommends more detailed screening before hiring of correctional officers, a code of conduct for officers to receive and sign, and increased discipline against correctional employees if they retaliate against whistleblowers. New emphasis is also placed on issues concerning prisoner rehabilitation and education. Major chapter headings in the report are: A Reorganization Plan for Corrections, Ethics and Culture, Employee Investigations and Discipline, Use of Force, Personnel and Training, Risk Management and Health Care, Inmate and Parolee Population Management, Ward and Parolee Population Management, Closures, Labor Contract, and Information Technology. Appendices to the report include discussions of implementation, legal issues, proposed statutory and constitutional changes, a bibliography, and a listing of over 400 persons interviewed or submitting suggestions for the report.

     Reports: Strategic Plan, State of California Youth and Adult Correctional Agency, 30 pgs. January 2005. [PDF]

    Reports: Lowering Prison Costs, Decreasing Some Recidivism Dec. 01, 2008. The Washington State Institute for Public Policy has released an interesting new report examining the impact of Washington State's 2003 law that increased earned release time for some offenders. Increasing Earned Release From Prison: Impacts of 2003 Law on Recidivism and Criminal Justice Costs finds "that the law has been effective: criminal recidivism has not increased and taxpayer costs are lower."

    Research: New York Corrections Research Studies And Legislative Reports.

    Statistics: Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2012 - Statistical Tables, by Scott Ginder and Margaret E. Noonan (October 9, 2014 NCJ 247448).

     Statistics: Prisoners in 2013, by E. Ann Carson (September 16, 2014 NCJ 247282).

    Statistics: Capital Punishment, 2012 - Statistical Tables, by Tracy L. Snell (May 15, 2014 NCJ 245789).

     Statistics: Jail Inmates at Midyear 2013 - Statistical Tables, by Daniela Golinelli, Ph.D., Todd D. Minton (May 8, 2014 NCJ 245350).

     Statistics:
Corrections Statistical Analysis Tool - Prisoners. Bureau of Justice Statistics.

     Statistics: "Prisoners in 2012: Trends in Admissions and Releases, 1991-2012," by E. Ann Carson, and Daniela Golinelli (December 19, 2013 NCJ 243920).

    Statistics: Corrections Statistics by State. National Institute of Corrections (NIC).

    Statistics: Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000-2011 - Statistical Tables.

     Statistics: "Jails in Indian Country, 2012," by Todd Minton (June 27, 2013 NCJ 242187).

     Statistics: "Pretrial Detention and Misconduct in Federal District Courts, 1995-2010," by Thomas H. Cohen, Ph.D. (February 21, 2013 NCJ 239673).

     Statistics: "Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000-2010 - Statistical Tables," by Margaret E. Noonan (December 13, 2012 NCJ 239911).

     Statistics: "Probation and Parole in the United States, 2011," by Laura M. Maruschak and Erika Parks (November 29, 2012 NCJ 239686).

     Statistics: "State Corrections Expenditures, FY 1982-2010," by Tracey Kyckelhahn (December 10, 2012 NCJ 239672).

     Statistics: "HIV in Prisons, 2001-2010," Bureau of Justice Statistics (NCJ 238877 September 13, 2012). Press Release PDF (1.14) ASCII file (27K) Comma-delimited format (CSV) (Spreadsheet 36K).

     Statistics: "Jail Populations Declining More Rapidly Than Prisons," an analysis of federally released correctional statistics by The Sentencing Project (April 2012).

     Statistics: "Jails in Indian Country, 2010," by Todd D. Minton (December 6, 2011 NCJ 236073). Presents findings from the 2010 Survey of Jails in Indian Country, an enumeration of all jails, confinement facilities, detention centers, and other correctional facilities operated by tribal authorities or the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) on June 30, 2010. The report includes data on the number of adults and juveniles held, type of offense, number of persons confined on the last weekday of each month, average daily population, peak population, and admissions in June 2010. It also provides detailed data on rated capacity, facility crowding, and jail staffing for each facility. Highlights include the following: At midyear 2010, a total of 2,119 inmates were confined in Indian country jails, a 2.6% decrease from the 2,176 inmates confined at midyear 2009. Nationwide, 78,900 American Indians and Alaska Natives were under correctional supervision in the United States. The number of inmates admitted into Indian country jails (12,545) during June 2010 was about 6 times the size of the average daily population (2,009). The expected average length of stay during June 2010 was the highest (12.5 days) in facilities rated to hold 50 or more inmates and the lowest (2.3 days) for jails rated to hold 10 to 24 inmates. Press Release PDF (756K) ASCII file (36K) Spreadsheets (Zip format 32K).

     Statistics: National Corrections Reporting Program, 2009 - Statistical Tables (update) by Thomas P. Bonczar (May 5, 2011). This update adds data for 2009 to the electronic series of selected tables on most serious offense, sentence length, and time served in state prison. The National Corrections Reporting Program collects demographic information, conviction offenses, sentence length, credited jail time, type of admission, type of release, and time served from individual prisoner records in participating jurisdictions.

     Statistics: "Jails in Indian Country, 2009" (Feb. 2011, NCJ 232223, 20 pp.) presents findings from the 2009 Survey of Jails in Indian Country. The report includes data on the number of adults and juveniles held, type of offense, number of persons confined on the last weekday of each month, average daily population, peak population, and admissions in June 2009.

     Statistics: "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2009" by Lauren Glaze, (December 21, 2010 NCJ 231681). Presents summary data on the number of adults under some form of correctional supervision in the United States at yearend 2009. Correctional supervision includes adults supervised in the community on probation or parole and those incarcerated in prison or local jails. The report provides a comparison between the change in the correctional population observed since 2000 and the changes observed during the 1980s and 1990s, which illustrates the slowing of growth in the population during each decade. It also includes the number of men and women under each correctional status and trend analysis of men and women under correctional supervision since 1990.

     Statistics: "Prisoners in 2009," by William J. Sabol, Ph.D., and Heather C. West, Ph.D., (December 21, 2010 NCJ 231675). This annual report presents data on prisoners under jurisdiction of federal or state correctional authorities on December 31, 2009, collected from the National Prisoner Statistics series. It compares changes in the prison population during 2009 to changes from yearend 2000 through yearend 2008, and explores factors leading to a decline in the state prison population. Findings cover data on decreasing growth in state and federal prisons through declining admissions, sentence lengths, and imprisonment rates for prisoners sentenced to more than 1 year by jurisdiction; the number of males and females in prison; age, race, and gender distributions; and custody incarceration rates. Highlights include the following: The U.S. prison population grew at its slowest rate (0.2%) since 2000, reaching 1,613,740 prisoners at yearend 2009. Prison admissions (down 2.5%) and prison releases (up 2.2%) converged from 2006 through 2009, slowing the growth of the nation's prison population. From 2000 to 2008, the state prison population increased by 159,200 prisoners, and violent offenders accounted for 60% of this increase. The number of drug offenders in state prisons declined by 12,400 over this period.

     Statistics: Prisoners at Yearend 2009 - Advance Counts, by Heather C. West, June 23, 2010 NCJ 230189. Presents data on prisoners under jurisdiction of federal or state correctional authorities on December 31, 2009, collected from the National Prisoner Statistics series. This report compares changes in the prison population during 2009 to changes from yearend 2000 through yearend 2008 and explores semi-annual growth trends in the prison population from yearend 2006 through yearend 2009. Highlights include the following: At yearend 2009, state and federal correctional authorities had jurisdiction over 1,613,656 prisoners, an increase of 0.2% (3,897 prisoners) from yearend 2008. The number of prisoners under state jurisdiction declined by 2,941 prisoners (0.2%), the only decrease in the state prison population between 2000 and 2009; the federal prison population increased by 6,838 prisoners (3.4%) and accounted for all of the increase in the U.S. prison population. Twenty-four states reported decreases in their prison population during 2009, with a combined total decrease of 15,223 state prisoners; a total increase of 12,282 prisoners was reported in the remaining 26 states. Press Release PDF (149K) ASCII file (12K) Spreadsheets (Zip format 5K)

     Statistics: Jail Inmates at Midyear 2009 - Statistical Tables by Todd D. Minton. June 3, 2010 NCJ 230122. Presents data on numbers of jails and jail inmates at midyear 2009 and analyzes patterns of growth from 2000 through 2009. These statistical tables include data on rated capacity of jails, percent of capacity occupied, and capacity added. They provide estimates of admissions to jails and detail the volume of movement among the jail population. This web document also includes total numbers for jail inmates by sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Standard errors for jail estimates are included.

     Statistics: Website with links to online facts and statistics about prisons and inmates.

    Statistics: The U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics has launched a new Web site. It can be found at http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov

    Statistics: "Jails in Indian Country, 2008." Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2009. Presents findings from the 2008 Survey of Jails in Indian Country, an enumeration of 82 jails, confinement facilities, detention centers, and other facilities operated by tribal authorities or the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The report includes data on the number of adults and juveniles held, type of offense, number of persons confined on the last weekday of each month, average daily population, peak population, and admissions in June 2008. It also summarizes rated capacity, facility crowding, and jail staffing. Highlights include the following: The number of inmates admitted into Indian country jails during June 2008 was about 6 times the size of the average daily population. The number of inmates confined in Indian country jails declined by 1.3% at midyear 2008, dropping to 2,135 inmates. Inmates held for aggravated and simple assault increased at midyear 2008; domestic violence declined.

     Statistics: HIV in Prisons, 2007-08. Presents year end 2007 and 2008 data from the National Prisoner Statistics and the Deaths in Custody series. The report provides data on the number of female and male prisoners who were infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or had confirmed AIDS. Findings include the number of AIDS-related deaths in state and federal prisons, a profile of those inmates who died in state prison, and a comparison of AIDS rates between prison inmates and the general population. The report also covers the circumstances under which inmates were tested for HIV. Highlights include the following: At year end 2008, 1.5% (20,231) of male inmates and 1.9% (1,913) of female inmates held in state or federal prisons were HIV positive or had confirmed AIDS. Between 2007 and 2008, California (up 246), Missouri (up 169), and Florida (up 166) reported the largest increases in the number of prisoners who were HIV positive or had confirmed AIDS. During 2007, 130 state and federal prisoners died from AIDS-related causes. 12/09 NCJ 228307

     Statistics: Prisoners in 2008. Presents data on prisoners under jurisdiction of federal or state correctional authorities on December 31, 2008, collected from the National Prisoner Statistics series. This annual report compares changes in the prison population during 2008 to changes from yearend 2000 through yearend 2007. These are the only comprehensive national-level data on prison admissions and releases. Findings cover data on decreasing growth in state and federal prisons through declining admissions and increasing releases; imprisonment rates for prisoners sentenced to more than 1 year by jurisdiction; the number of males and females in prison; age, race, and gender distributions; the number of inmates in custody in state and federal prison and local jails; and custody incarceration rates. The report also includes the count for inmates held within facilities operated by and for the military, U.S. territories, Indian country, Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and juvenile authorities. Highlights include the following: The U.S. prison population grew at the slowest rate (0.8%) since 2000, reaching 1,610,446 sentenced prisoners at year end 2008. Growth of the prison population since 2000 (1.8% per year on average) was less than a third of the average annual rate during the 1990s (6.5% per year on average). Between 2000 and 2008 the number of blacks in prison declined by 18,400, lowering the imprisonment rate to 3,161 men and 149 women per 100,000 persons in the U.S. resident black population. 12/09 NCJ 228417

     Statistics: 2008 Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program (ADAM II), Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), (May 2009). The federal report, which surveys drug use among booked male arrestees in 10 major metropolitan areas across the country, shows the majority of arrestees in each city test positive for illicit drug use, with as many as 87 percent of arrestees testing positive for an illegal drug. According to the ADAM II report, drug use among the arrestee population is much higher than in the general U.S. population. The percentage of booked arrestees testing positive for at least one illicit drug ranged from 49 percent in Washington, D.C. to 87 percent in Chicago. The most common substances present during tests, in descending order, are marijuana, cocaine, opiates, and methamphetamine. Additionally, many arrestees tested positive for more than one illegal drug at the time of arrest; from 15 percent in Atlanta to 40 percent in Chicago. Data on drug use, drug markets, treatment utilization, and criminal offenses were collected among booked arrestees in jails within 48 hours of their booking and in the following counties and cities: Fulton County and City of Atlanta; Mecklenburg County (Charlotte, NC); Cook County (Chicago, IL); Denver County (Denver, CO); Marion County (Indianapolis, IN); Hennepin County (Minneapolis, MN); Manhattan (New York, NY), Multnomah County (Portland, OR); Sacramento County (Sacramento, CA) and Washington, D.C. (District of Columbia).

     Statistics: A report from the Council of State Governments and Policy Research Associates indicates that 17% of new jail inmates have serious mental illnesses. The study of more than 20,000 new inmates found that the percentage of women with serious mental illnesses--31--is more than twice that of males, 14.5 percent. The organizations said their count was the most accurate on the subject in more than two decades. The findings, published in the journal Psychiatric Services, indicate that as many as 2 million bookings of people with serious mental illnesses may occur each year.

     Statistics: One in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections, a report by the Pew Center on the States (2009) indicates that the number of people on probation or parole tripled between 1982 and 2007 to over 5 million. Including jail and prison inmates, the total population of the U.S. corrections system now exceeds 7.3 million - one of every 31 adults. Key findings include: • One in 31 adults in America is in prison or jail, or on probation or parole. Twenty-five years ago, the rate was 1 in 77. • Overall, two-thirds of offenders are in the community, not behind bars. 1 in 45 adults is on probation or parole and 1 in 100 is in prison or jail. The proportion of offenders behind bars versus in the community has changed very little over the past 25 years, despite the addition of 1.1 million prison beds. • Correctional control rates are highly concentrated by race and geography: 1 in 11 black adults (9.2 percent) versus 1 in 27 Hispanic adults (3.7 percent) and 1 in 45 white adults (2.2 percent); 1 in 18 men (5.5 percent) versus 1 in 89 women (1.1 percent). The rates can be extremely high in certain neighborhoods. In one block-group of Detroit’s East Side, for example, 1 in 7 adult men (14.3 percent) is under correctional control. • Georgia, where 1 in 13 adults is behind bars or under community supervision, leads the top five states that also include Idaho, Texas, Massachusetts, Ohio and the District of Columbia. The report also analyzes the cost of current sentencing and corrections policies. The National Association of State Budget Officers estimates that states spent a record $51.7 billion on corrections in FY2008, or 1 in every 15 general fund dollars. Adding local, federal and other funding brings the national correctional spending total to $68 billion.

     Statistics: Prisoners in 2007. Presents data on prisoners under jurisdiction of federal or state correctional authorities on December 31, 2007, collected from the National Prisoner Statistics series. This annual report compares changes in the prison population during 2007 to changes from yearend 2000 through yearend 2006. It provides data on the imprisonment rates for prisoners sentenced to more than one year by jurisdiction; the number of males and females in prison; age, race, and gender distributions; admissions and releases; the number of inmates in custody in state and federal prisons and local jails; and custody incarceration rates. It also includes the count for inmates held within facilities operated by and for the military, U.S. territories, Indian country, Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and juvenile authorities. Highlights include the following: At yearend 2007, federal and state prisons and local jails held just under 2.3 million inmates (2,293,157). The number of inmates incarcerated in prison or jail increased by 1.5% during the year. About 1 in 198 U.S. residents was imprisoned with a sentence of more than 1 year in a federal or state prison. The federal prison population experienced the largest absolute increase of 6,572 prisoners, followed by Florida (up 5,250 prisoners), Kentucky (up 2,457 prisoners), and Arizona (up 1,945 prisoners). 12/08 NCJ 224280 Press release | Acrobat file (194K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 39K)

     Statistics: Probation and Parole in the United States, 2007 - Statistical Tables by Lauren E. Glaze and Thomas P. Bonczar. Presents the number of persons on probation and parole at yearend 2007, by state, with percent changes in each state during the year. The statistical tables provide state-level probation and parole supervision rates and entries and exits. National and state-level data on parole re-incarceration rates are presented. Tables provide the total community supervision population, which includes offenders on probation or parole, in the U.S. for yearend 2000 through 2007. Data are presented on offenders supervised in the community as a percentage of the total correctional population, which includes offenders in prison or jail or on probation or parole. The tables also describe the national-level composition of these populations by race, gender, and offense. 12/08 NCJ 224707  Press release | Acrobat file (354K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 14K)

    Statistics: Capital Punishment, 2007 - Statistical Tables. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Presents characteristics of persons under sentence of death on December 31, 2007, and persons executed in 2007. Tables present state-by-state information on the movement of prisoners into and out of death sentence status during 2007, status of capital statutes, and methods of execution. Numerical tables also summarize data on offenders characteristics such as gender, race, Hispanic origin, age at time of arrest for capital offense, legal status at time of capital offense, and time between imposition of death sentence and execution. Data are from the National Prisoner Statistics (NPS-8) series. 12/08 NCJ 224528

     Statistics: Jails in Indian Country, 2007. Presents findings from the 2007 Survey of Jails in Indian Country, an enumeration of 83 jails, confinement facilities, detention centers, and other facilities operated by tribal authorities or the Bureau of Indian Affairs. It includes data on the number of adults and juveniles held, type of offense, number of persons confined on the last weekday of each month, average daily population, peak population, and admissions in June 2007. The Bulletin summarizes rated capacity, facility crowding, and jail staffing. Based on an addendum to the 2007 survey, data are presented on inmate medical and mental health services, suicide prevention, substance dependency programs, domestic violence counseling, sex offender treatment, educational programs, and inmate work assignments. Highlights include the following: Eighty-three jails in Indian country held an estimated 2,163 inmates at midyear 2007, up from 1,745 inmates held in 68 facilities at midyear 2004. About 4 in 10 inmates were confined for a violent offense at midyear 2007. This included 20% for domestic violence, 13% for aggravated or simple assault, 2% for rape or sexual assault, and 6% for other violent offenses. In the month of June 2007, the 79 jails in Indian country that responded to the survey admitted 12,490 inmates. Combined, the 79 facilities had about 158 admissions per month on average. 11/08 NCJ 223760  Press release | Acrobat file (745K) | ASCII file (30K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 40K).

     Statistics: Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 2005. Presents selected findings from the Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 2005. The report includes data on characteristics of facilities by type, size, security level, rated and design capacities, court orders, and use of private contractors. It provides data on custody populations by type of facility, gender, and facility security level. The report includes data on facility staff by gender, occupational categories, and inmate-to-staff ratios by type of facility. Program data include work activities of inmates inside prison and on work release; educational training such as basic literacy and college courses; and counseling programs such as drug and alcohol dependency and employment interviewing skills. The report compares selected findings to the 2000 census. This is a web-only publication. Highlights include the following: * The number of prisoners held in custody in state and federal correctional facilities increased 10% from 1,305,253 in 2000 to 1,430,208 in 2005. * Between the 2000 and the 2005 censuses, the number of correctional employees rose 3%, resulting in a higher inmate-to-staff ratio in the latter year. * While the stock of minimum security facilities grew by 155 and maximum security facilities rose by 40 between 2000 and 2005, the number of medium security facilities declined by 42. 10/08 NCJ 222182 Acrobat file (302K) | ASCII file (32K) Spreadsheets (zip format 22K)

     Statistics: Federal Justice Statistics, 2005. Presents federal criminal case statistics on suspects and defendants processed in the federal criminal justice system. The report provides data on the number of persons arrested, investigated, convicted, and sentenced for a violation of federal law. It includes the number of offenders under federal correctional supervision at the pre-trial and post-conviction stages. It also describes case outcomes, including percent prosecuted, convicted, and sentenced by type of sanction. Data were collected from federal law enforcement, courts, and corrections agencies as a part of the Bureau of Justice Statistics Federal Justice Statistics Program. Additional data are available in the web component Federal Justice Statistics, 2005 - Statistical Tables. Highlights include the following: * Material witness, immigration, and weapons were the fastest growing arrest offenses during the period between 1995 and 2005. * In 2005, immigration (27%) was the most prevalent arrest offense followed by drug (24%) and supervision violations (17%). * Five federal judicial districts along the U.S.-Mexico border accounted for 40% of all suspects arrested and booked by the U.S. Marshals Service in 2005. 09/08 NCJ 220383 Press release | Acrobat file (116K) | ASCII file (23K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 12K)

     Statistics: Characteristics of State Parole Supervising Agencies, 2006. Presents information for 52 state parole supervising agencies at midyear 2006, including the California Youth Authority and the District of Columbia. This report describes, by state, where these agencies were located in each state's administrative structure, the number of adult parolees, and probationers, if any, under supervision, and the number of separate offices the parole agency operated. National estimates are presented for the number and type of staff employed by parole supervising agencies and of parole supervision caseloads. Use of drug abuse testing, various treatment programs, and the availability of housing and employment assistance programs are documented. Highlights include the following: * Five state agencies accounted for about half of the adults under parole supervision on June 30, 2006: Departments of Corrections in California (125,067 adults on parole); Texas (101,175); and Illinois (33,354); and two independent agencies, New York (53,215) and Pennsylvania (24,956, excluding adults supervised by county parole offices). * Half of parole supervising agencies had a role in releasing prisoners to parole, setting the conditions of supervision, or conducting revocation hearings. * Up to 16% of at-risk parolees in some agencies were re-incarcerated for a failed drug test. 08/08 NCJ 222180 Press release | Acrobat file (133K) | ASCII file (19K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 19K)

     Statistics: "Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007." Presents data on numbers of jails and jail inmates at midyear 2007 and analyzes patterns of growth from 2000 through 2007. This report includes data on rated capacity of jails, percent of capacity occupied, and capacity added. It provides estimates of admissions to jails and details the volume of movement among the jail population. This Bulletin includes total numbers for jail inmates by gender, race, and Hispanic origin as well as counts of jail inmates by conviction and confinement status. Standard errors for jail estimates are only provided in the appendix tables of the electronic version of this report. Highlights include the following: The total rated capacity of local jails at midyear 2007 reached 813,502 beds, up from an estimated 677,787 beds at midyear 2000. At midyear 2007, jail jurisdictions (173) with an average daily jail population of 1,000 or more inmates accounted for about 6% of all jail jurisdictions and about 52% of the jail inmate population. At midyear 2007, the 50 largest jail jurisdictions held about 29% (or 227,901 inmates) of the nation’s jail population. NCJ 221945 (June 2008). Press release | Acrobat file (121K) | ASCII file (17K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 19K)

     Statistics: Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children. Presents data from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities about inmates who were parents and their minor children. This report compares estimates of the number of incarcerated parents and their children under the age of 18, by gender, age, race, and Hispanic origin in state and federal prisons in 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, and 2007. It presents the total number of children who were minors at some time during their parent’s incarceration. The report describes selected background characteristics of parents in prisons, including marital status, citizenship, education, offense type, criminal history, employment, prior experiences of homelessness, drug and alcohol involvement, mental health, and physical and sexual abuse. It provides family background of inmate parents including household makeup, public assistance received by household, drug and alcohol use, and incarceration of family members. It includes information on the children’s daily care, financial support, current caregivers, and frequency and type of contact with incarcerated parents. Highlights include the following: * The nation’s prisons held approximately 744,200 fathers and 65,600 mothers at midyear 2007. * Parents held in the nation’s prisons—52% of state inmates and 63% of federal inmates—reported having an estimated 1,706,600 minor children, accounting for 2.3% of the U.S. resident population under age 18. * Growth in the number of parents held in state and federal prisons was outpaced by the growth in the nation’s prison population between 1991 and midyear 2007. 08/08 NCJ 222984 Press release | Acrobat file (175K) | ASCII file (38K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 22K)

     Statistics: "Prison Inmates at Midyear 2007." Presents data on prisoners under jurisdiction of federal or state correctional authorities on June 30, 2007, collected from the National Prisoner Statistics series. This annual report describes changes in the prison population during the first six months of 2007, compared to changes from yearend 2000 through yearend 2006. It details the incarceration rates for prisoners sentenced to more than 1 year by jurisdiction, the number of incarcerated males and females, and the number of prisoners admitted into and released from federal and state jurisdiction. The bulletin also presents data on the total number of inmates held in custody in prisons or jails on June 30, 2007. It provides estimates of the custody population by gender, race, and age. The custody incarceration rates for these groups are also included. Counts of the number of non-citizens and individuals under age 18 held in custody are included. See also Jail Inmates at Midyear 2007. Highlights include the following: Between January and June 2007, the prison population increased by 1.6% (or 24,919 prisoners), compared to a 2% increase during the first six months of 2006. The number of prisoners sentenced to more than 1 year increased 1.7% between December 31, 2006 and June 30, 2007, or at about the same rate as the total number of prisoners under jurisdiction. Between 2000 and 2007, the number of inmates in custody in prisons or jails increased by 367,200. Male inmates (315,100) accounted for 86% of the increase to the custody population. Female inmates (52,100) made up the remaining 14%. NCJ 221944 (June 2008). Press release | Acrobat file (456K) | ASCII file (31K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 37K)

     Statistics: HIV in Prisons, 2006. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (April 2008). A web page with information on the number of state and federal inmates who were infected with HIV or had confirmed AIDS at yearend 2006. Topics covered include HIV infection by region and state, infection by gender, confirmed AIDS cases, AIDS related death, HIV testing in prisons, statistical tables, and a list of related publications. (April 2008).

     Statistics: Medical Problems of Prisoners, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (April 2008). Findings on state and federal prisoners who reported a current medical problem, a physical or mental impairment, a dental problem, or an injury since admission based on data from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional facilities.

     Statistics: Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics webpage on Corrections Statistics includes statistics and publications about capital punishment, jails, prisons, probation and parole.

     Statistics: Pretrial Release of Felony Defendants in State Courts. Presents findings on the pretrial release phase of the criminal justice process using data collected from a representative sample of felony cases filed in the 75 largest U.S. counties in May during even-numbered years from 1990 to 2004. It includes trends on pretrial release rates and the types of release used. Pretrial release rates are compared by arrest offense, demographic characteristics, and criminal history. Characteristics of released and detained defendants are also presented. Rates of pretrial misconduct including failure to appear and rearrest are presented by type of release, demographic characteristics, and criminal history. Highlights include the following: About 3 in 5 felony defendants in the 75 largest counties were released prior to the disposition of their case. Surety bond surpassed release on recognizance in 1998 as the most common type of pretrial release. Defendants on financial release were more likely to make all scheduled court appearances. 11/07 NCJ 214994 Acrobat file (201K) | ASCII file (37K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 23K)

     Statistics: Prisoners in 2006. Reports the number of persons in State and Federal prisons at yearend, compares the increase in the prison population during 2006 with the previous year, and presents prison growth rates since 2000. The report also provides the number of male and female prisoners on December 31, 2006, and the rates of incarceration by jurisdiction. It includes the number of prisoners held at yearend in the U.S. Territories and Commonwealths, in military facilities, and in facilities operated by or for the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Data are presented on prison capacities and the use of local jails and privately operated prisons. Estimates are provided on the number of sentenced prisoners by age, gender, race, and Hispanic origin, and type of offense. Highlights include the following: During 2006 the number of women in prison increased by 4.5%, reaching 112,498 prisoners. About 96% of prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction (or 1,502,179 prisoners) were sentenced to more than 1 year in prison. A total of 113,791 State and Federal prisoners were held in privately operated facilities at yearend 2006. 12/07 NCJ 219416  Press release | Acrobat file (268K) | ASCII file (20K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 22K)

     Statistics: Probation and Parole in the United States, 2006. Presents the number of persons on probation and parole at yearend 2006, by State, and compares the national totals to counts for yearend 1995 and 2000 through 2005. The report provides State-level probation and parole supervision rates at yearend 2006 and the percentage change in each population during the year. It presents probation and parole entries and exits, by State, and it provides national and State-level data on parole revocations. The Bulletin also includes a national description of the race, gender, and offense composition of these populations. Highlights include the following: The number of adult men and women in the United States who were being supervised on probation or parole at the end of 2006 reached 5,035,225. In 2006 the combined probation and parole populations grew by 1.8% or 87,852 persons. More than 8 in 10 offenders under community supervision were on probation at yearend 2006. During 2006 the probation population grew by 1.7% which represented an increase of 70,266 probationers. At yearend 2006 a total of 798,202 adult men and women were on parole or mandatory conditional release following a prison term. The population grew by 17,586 parolees during the year or 2.3%. 12/07 NCJ 220218 Press release | Acrobat file (237K) | ASCII file (32K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 37K)

     Statistics: Sexual Violence Reported by Juvenile Correctional Authorities, 2005-06. Presents data from the 2005 and 2006 Survey on Sexual Violence, an administrative records collection of incidents required under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-79) of youth-on-youth and staff-on-youth sexual violence reported to juvenile correctional authorities. The report provides counts of sexual violence, by type, for juvenile correctional facilities. The report also provides an in-depth analysis of substantiated incidents, including where the incidents occur, time of day, number and characteristics of victims and perpetrators, nature of the injuries, impact on the victims and sanctions imposed on the perpetrators. The appendix tables include counts of sexual violence, by type, for all state systems, and all sampled locally or privately operated facilities. Highlights include the following: * Approximately 1 in 5 of reported allegations of juvenile sexual violence were substantiated. * Youth-on-youth incidents were more likely to occur in the victim’s room (37%) or in a common area (32%), compared to staff-on-youth incidents (7% and 13%, respectively). * Victims received physical injuries in 12% of substantiated incidents of youth-on-youth sexual violence; about half received some form of medical follow-up. 07/08 NCJ 215337 Press release | Acrobat file (221K) | ASCII file (31K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 45K)

     Statistics: Sexual Victimization in State and Federal Prisons Reported by Inmates, 2007. Presents data from the National Inmate Survey (NIS), 2007, conducted in 146 State and Federal prisons between April and August 2007, with a sample of 23,398 inmates. The report and appendix tables provide a listing of State and Federal prisons ranked according to the incidence of prison rape, as required under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-79). Facilities are listed by the prevalence and incidence of sexual victimization in each facility, as reported by inmates during a personal interview and based on activity since admission to the facility or in the 12 months prior to the interview. The report includes national-level and facility-level estimates of nonconsensual sexual acts, abusive sexual contacts, inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate victimization, and level of coercion. It also includes estimates of the standard error for selected measures of sexual victimization. Data from jail inmates collected in the National Inmate Survey will be completed in January 2008, with a report ranking facilities expected in April 2008. Highlights include the following: An estimated 60,500 inmates (or 4.5% of all State and Federal inmates) experienced one or more incidents of sexual victimization involving other inmates or staff. Nationwide, about 2.1% of inmates reported an incident involving another inmate and 2.9% reported an incident involving staff. Among the 146 prison facilities in the 2007 NIS, 6 had no reports of sexual victimization from the sampled inmates; 10 had an overall victimization rate of at least 9.3%. Among the 10 facilities with the highest overall prevalence rates, 3 had prevalence rates of staff sexual misconduct that exceeded 10%. 12/07 NCJ 219414 Press release | Acrobat file (419K) | ASCII file (42K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 39K)

     Statistics: Updated Deaths in Custody Statistical Tables. State Prison Deaths, 2001-2006. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

     Statistics: Deaths in Custody. Statistical tables concerning state prison deaths, 2001-2005, local jail deaths, 2000-2005, state juvenile correctional facility deaths, 2002-2005, and links to publications on medical causes of death in state prisons, 2001-2004, and suicide and homicide in state prisons and local jails. U.S. Department of Justice · Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics.

     Statistics: Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2006. Presents data from the Survey on Sexual Violence, 2006, an administrative records collection of incidents of inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate sexual violence reported to correctional authorities. The report provides counts of sexual violence, by type, for adult prisons, jails, and other adult correctional facilities. The report provides an in-depth analysis of substantiated incidents, including where the incidents occur, time of day, number and characteristics of victims and perpetrators, nature of the injuries, impact on the victims, and sanctions imposed on the perpetrators. The appendix tables include counts of sexual violence, by type, for all State systems, the Federal Bureau of Prisons, and sampled jail jurisdictions. The report also includes an update on BJS activities related to implementation of the data collections required under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-79). Highlights include the following: There were 2.91 allegations of sexual violence per 1,000 inmates held in prison, jail, and other adult correctional facilities in 2006, up from 2.46 per 1,000 inmates in 2004. More than one inmate was reported to have been victimized in 8% of the substantiated inmate-on-inmate incidents in 2006 and 4% of those in 2005. Most incidents of sexual violence among inmates involve force or threat of force and occur in the victim's cell, in the evening. 08/07 NCJ 218914 Press release | Acrobat file (357K) | ASCII file (33K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 22K)

     Statistics: Capital Punishment, 2005 Presents characteristics of persons under sentence of death on December 31, 2005 and of persons executed in 2005. Preliminary data on executions by States during 2006 are included. The report also summarizes the movement of prisoners into and out of death sentence status during 2005. It presents data on offenders' sex, race, Hispanic origin, education, marital status, age at time of arrest for the capital offense, legal status at time of the offense, methods of execution, trends, and time between imposition of death sentence and execution. Highlights include the following: At yearend 2005, 36 States and the Federal prison system held 3,254 prisoners under sentence of death, 66 fewer than at yearend 2004. This represents the fifth consecutive year that the population has decreased. Of those under sentence of death, 56% were white, 42% were black, and 2% were of other races. Fifty-two women were under sentence of death in 2005, up from 47 in 1995. 12/06 NCJ 215083  Press release | Acrobat file (389K) | ASCII file (32K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 23K)

     Statistics: Deaths in Custody Statistical Tables is a new section on the Bureau of Justice Statistics website that contains a series of data tables describing recent trends in mortality in State prison, local jails and State juvenile correctional facilities.

     Statistics: Drug Use and Dependence, State and Federal Prisoners, 2004. Presents data from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities on prisoners' prior use, dependence, and abuse of illegal drugs. Tables include trends in the levels of drug use, type of drugs used, and treatment reported by State and Federal prisoners since the last national survey was conducted in 1997. The report also presents measures of dependence and abuse by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age. It provides data on the levels of prior drug use (with an in-depth look at methamphetamine use), dependence, and abuse by selected characteristics, such as family background, criminal record, type of drug used, and offense. Highlights include the following: Among drug dependent or abusing prisoners, 40% of State and 49% of Federal inmates took part in drug abuse treatment or programs since admission to prison. Among both State and Federal prisoners, white inmates were at least 20 times more likely than black inmates to report recent methamphetamine use. Violent offenders in State prison (50%) were less likely than drug (72%) and property (64%) offenders to have used drugs in the month prior to their offense. 10/06 NCJ 213530  Press release | Acrobat file (147K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates Presents estimates of the prevalence of mental health problems among prison and jail inmates using self-reported data on recent history and symptoms of mental disorders. The report compares the characteristics of offenders with a mental health problem to those without, including current offense, criminal record, sentence length, time expected to be served, co-occurring substance dependence or abuse, family background, and facility conduct since current admission. It presents measures of mental health problems by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age. The report describes mental health problems and mental health treatment among inmates since admission to jail or prison. Findings are based on the Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 2004, and the Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, 2002. Highlights include the following: Nearly a quarter of both State prisoners and jail inmates who had a mental health problem, compared to a fifth of those without, had served 3 or more prior incarcerations. Female inmates had higher rates of mental health problems than male inmates (State prisons: 73% of females and 55% of males; Federal prisons: 61% of females and 44% of males; local jails: 75% of females and 63% of males). Over 1 in 3 State prisoners, 1 in 4 Federal prisoners, and 1 in 6 jail inmates who had a mental health problem had received treatment since admission. 9/06 NCJ 213600 Press release | Acrobat file (288K) | ASCII file (38K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 68K)

     Statistics: Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2005. Presents data from the Survey on Sexual Violence, 2005, an administrative records collection of incidents of inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate sexual violence reported to correctional authorities. The report provides counts of sexual violence, by type, for adult prisons, jails, and other adult correctional facilities. The report provides an in-depth analysis of substantiated incidents, including where the incidents occur, time of day, number and characteristics of victims and perpetrators, nature of the injuries, impact on the victims and sanctions imposed on the perpetrators. The appendix tables include counts of sexual violence, by type, for all State systems, the Federal Bureau of Prisons, and all sampled jail jurisdictions. The report also includes an update on BJS activities related to implementation of the data collections required under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-79). Highlights include the following: Correctional authorities substantiated 885 incidents of sexual violence in 2005, 15% of completed investigations. 38% of allegations involved staff sexual misconduct; 35% inmate-on-inmate nonconsensual sexual acts; 17%, staff sexual harassment; and 10% inmate-on-inmate abusive sexual contact. Half of inmate-on-inmate sexual violence involved physical force or threat of force. 7/06 NCJ 214646 Press release | Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Violent Felons in Large Urban Counties Presents data collected from a representative sample of felony cases that resulted in a felony conviction for a violent offense in 40 of the Nation's 75 largest counties. The study tracks cases for up to 1 year from the date of filing through final disposition. Defendants convicted of murder, rape, robbery, assault or other violent felonies are described in terms of demographic characteristics (gender, race, Hispanic origin, age), prior arrests and convictions, criminal justice status at time of arrest, type of pretrial release or detention, type of adjudication, and sentence received. Highlights include the following: Thirty-six percent of violent felons had an active criminal justice status at the time of their arrest. This included 18% on probation, 12% on release pending disposition of a prior case, and 75% of parole. A majority (56%) of violent felons had a prior conviction record. Thirty-eight percent had prior felony conviction and 15% had a previous conviction for a violent felony. Eighty-one percent of violent felons were sentenced to incarceration with 50% going to prison and 31% to jail. Nineteen percent received a probation term without incarceration. 8/06 NCJ 205289 Press release | Acrobat file (253K) | ASCII file (22K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 18K)

     Statistics: Medical Causes of Death in State Prisons, 2001-2004. Describes the specific medical conditions causing deaths in State prisons nationwide during a four-year period. For the leading medical causes of death, mortality rates are presented by gender, age, race and Hispanic origin, and the length of time served in prison. The report includes detailed statistics on cancer deaths. Mortality among older prisoners is examined in detail. Prisoner death rates are compared with rates in the general U.S. resident population. Data on medical treatments provided for these fatal illnesses are presented, along with findings on the presence of medical problems at time of admission to prison. State-by-state mortality rates are presented for the leading causes of illness deaths in appendix tables. Detailed data tables on topics covered in the report will be available on the BJS website. 1/07 NCJ 216340  Press release | Acrobat file (254K) | ASCII file (16K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 18K)

     Statistics: Prisoners in 2004. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Reports the number of persons in State and Federal prisons at yearend, compares the increase in the prison population during 2004 with that of the previous year, and gives the prison growth rates since 1995. The report also provides the number of male and female prisoners on December 31, 2004. It includes incarceration rates for the States and the 5 highest and 5 lowest jurisdictions for selected characteristics, such as the growth rate, number of prisoners held, and incarceration rates. Tables present data on prison capacities and the use of local jails and privately operated prisons. Estimates are provided on the number of sentenced prisoners by age, gender, race, and Hispanic origin. Highlights include the following: The Nation's prison population grew 1.9% in 2004, reaching 1.5 million inmates. Ten States had increases of at least 5%, led by Minnesota (up 11.4%), Idaho (up 11.1%), and Georgia (up 8.3%). Eleven States experienced prison population decreases, led by Alabama (down 7.3%), Rhode Island (down 2.8%), New York (down 2.2%), Local jails housed 74,378 State and Federal inmates (5.0% of all prisoners). 10/05 NCJ 210677 Press release | Acrobat file (193K) | ASCII file (43K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 23K)

     Statistics: Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, 2003 U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Presents national-level statistics describing characteristics of persons processed and the distribution of case processing outcomes at each major stage of the Federal criminal justice system. This annual report includes investigations by U.S. attorneys, prosecutions and declinations, pretrial release and detention, convictions and acquittals, sentencing, appeals, and correctional populations. New this year are statistics on fugitive investigations by the U.S. Marshals Service. This is an electronic only document. Highlights include the following: During 2003, 126,878 suspects were arrested by Federal law enforcement agencies for violations of Federal law. During 2003, U.S. Attorneys initiated criminal investigations involving 130,078 suspects, and they concluded their investigations of 128,518. During 1990 and 2003, the number of offenders on community supervision increased by 29%, from 84,801 during 1990 to 108,976 during 2003. 10/05 NCJ 210299 Full report: Acrobat file (2M) ASCII file (185K) | Spreadsheets (zip format) (119K)

     Statistics: Correctional Statistics...In Your State (2005) Access to statistics about corrections in the U.S., according to each state, can be found at this website. Statistics (per 100,000) for each state include: crime rates; corrections population; incarceration rate; community corrections--probationers and parolees; cost per inmate; and general information about the state's jails, prisons, and community corrections. Also provided are at-a-glance graphs that compare the state's ranking against other states and the U.S. total.

     Statistics: Current and past population statistics for Oregon inmates. Includes prison admissions by county, prison population trends, and inmate population profiles by sex, age, race, custody level, time to release, type of crime, etc.

     Statistics: HIV in Prisons, 2003. Provides the number of HIV-positive and active AIDS cases among State and Federal prisoners at yearend 2003. This annual bulletin reports the number of AIDS-related deaths in prisons, a profile of those inmates who died, the number of female and male prisoners who were HIV-positive, and a comparison of AIDS rates for the general and prisoner populations. Historical data on AIDS cases are presented from 1998 and on AIDS deaths from 1995. Highlights include the following: Between 2002 and 2003 the number of HIV-positive prisoners decreased less than 1%, while the overall prison population grew 1.6% during the same period. At yearend 2003, 2.8% of all female State prison inmates were HIV positive, compared to 1.9% of males. In 2003, 282 prisoners died from AIDS-related causes -- 268 State inmates and 14 Federal inmates. 09/05 NCJ 210344 Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2005 Presents data on prison and jail inmates, collected from National Prisoner Statistics counts and the Census of Jail Inmates 2005. This annual report provides the number of inmates and the overall incarceration rate per 100,000 residents for each State and the Federal system. It offers trends since 1995 and percentage changes in prison populations since midyear and yearend 2004. The midyear report presents the number of prison inmates held in private facilities and the number of prisoners under 18 years of age held by State correctional authorities. It includes total numbers for prison and jail inmates by gender, race, and Hispanic origin as well as counts of jail inmates by conviction status and confinement status. The report also provides findings on rated capacity of local jails, percent of capacity occupied, and capacity added. Highlights include the following: From midyear 2004 to midyear 2005, the number of inmates in custody in local jails rose by 33,539; in State prison by 15,858; and Federal prison by 6,584. On June 30, 2005, a total of 2,266 State prisoners were under age 18. Adult jails held a total of 6,759 persons under age 18. An estimated 12% of black males, 3.7% of Hispanic males, and 1.7% of white males in their late twenties were in prison or jail (05/06) NCJ 213133 Press release | Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Sheriffs' Offices, 2003. Presents data collected from a representative sample of sheriffs' offices nationwide on a variety of agency characteristics based on the 2003 Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) survey. National estimates for sheriffs' offices are provided for such issues as staff and financial resources, technologies and equipment in use, and agency policies and practices covering a wide array of law enforcement and administrative concerns. Highlights include the following: In 2003 starting salaries for entry-level deputies ranged from an average of about $23,300 in the smallest jurisdictions to about $38,800 in the largest. From 1990 to 2003 the percentage of sheriffs' offices using infield computers increased from 6% to 55%. Ten percent of sheriffs' offices, employing 31% of all officers, maintained or created a written community policing plan during the 12-moth period ending June 30, 2003. 04/06 NCJ 211361 Acrobat file (729K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Suicide and Homicide in State Prisons and Local Jails. Describes historical trends in State prison and local jail inmate mortality rates based on inmate death records submitted by local jails (for 2000-2002) and State prisons (for 2001-2002). The report also compares current prison and jail mortality rates by demographic characteristics, offense types, and facility size and jurisdiction and compares the general population mortality rates with mortality rates in correctional facilities. Comparisons are made to both the raw mortality rates for the general population and those standardized to match the demographic makeup of the inmate populations. This report presents the first findings from the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, which implements the Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-297). This new program involves the collection of individual records for every inmate death in the Nation’s local jails and State prisons. The program also includes the collection of death records from State juvenile correctional authorities (begun in 2002) and State and local law enforcement agencies (begun in 2003). For updated data, see Suicide and Homicide in Prisons and Jails in Key Facts at a Glance. Highlights include the following: * In 2002 the suicide rate in local jails (47 per 100,000 inmates) was over 3 times the rate in State prisons (14 per 100,000 inmates). * Homicide rates were similar in local jails (3 per 100,000) and State prisons (4 per 100,000). * Violent offenders in both local jails (92 per 100,000) and State prisons (19 per 100,000) had suicide rates over twice as high as those of nonviolent offenders (31 and 9 per 100,000 respectively). 08/05 NCJ 210036 Press release | Acrobat file (617K) | ASCII file (38K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2004. Presents data on prison and jail inmates, collected from National Prisoner Statistics counts and the Annual Survey of Jails in 2004. This annual report provides for each State and the Federal system, the number of inmates and the overall incarceration rate per 100,000 residents. It offers trends since 1995 and percentage changes in prison populations since midyear and yearend 2003. The midyear report presents the number of prison inmates held in private facilities and the number of prisoners under 18 years of age held by State correctional authorities. It includes total numbers for prison and jail inmates by gender, race, and Hispanic origin as well as counts of jail inmates by conviction status and confinement status. The report also provides findings on rated capacity of local jails, percent of capacity occupied, and capacity added. Standard errors for jail estimates are only provided in the appendix tables of the electronic version of this report. Highlights include the following: At midyear 2004-- The Nation's prisons and jails incarcerated over 2.1 million persons. In both jails and prisons, there were 123 female inmates per 100,000 women in the United States, compared to 1,348 male inmates per 100,000 men. A total of 2,477 State prisoners were under age 18. The number of inmates in custody in local jails rose by 22,689; in State prison by 15,375; and in Federal prison by 10,095. 04/05 NCJ 208801 Press release | Acrobat file (189K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Capital Punishment, 2003 Presents characteristics of persons under sentence of death on December 31, 2003, and of persons executed in 2003. Preliminary data on executions by States during 2004 are included, and the report summarizes the movement of prisoners into and out of death sentence status during 2003. Numerical tables present data on offenders' sex, race, Hispanic origin, education, marital status, age at time of arrest for capital offense, legal status at time of capital offense, methods of execution, trends, and time between imposition of death sentence and execution. Highlights include the following: At yearend 2003, 37 States and the Federal prison system held 3,374 prisoners under sentence of death, 188 fewer than at yearend 2002. Of those under sentence of death, 56% were white 42% were black, and 2% were of other races. Forty-seven women were under sentence of death in 2003, up from 38 in 1993. (November 2004). NCJ 206627. Press release | Acrobat file (539K) | ASCII file (26K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 39K)

     Statistics: Federal Detainees. Office of the Federal Detention Trustee: The total number of federal detainees increased by an average of 12% annually, from 25,675 at fiscal year-end 1994 to 63,711 at fiscal year-end 2002. The number of detainees under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Marshals Service increased from 18,231 to 43,118. The number under the jurisdiction of the Immigration and Naturalization Service increased from 7,444 to 20,653. Tables and figures at this link include information about Persons held in federal detention, by agency with jurisdiction, 1994-2002, Persons admitted to federal detention and incarceration and fiscal year-end population, 1994-2002, Detainees under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Marshals Service and the Immigration and Naturalization Service, by type of facility, fiscal years 1994-2002 and Number of federal detainees, by location of facility, 2002.

     Statistics: Monthly Statistical Reports: November 1999 - November 2003. A collection of the statistical reports prepared by the Alabama Department of Correction's Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Division. Detailed representations of department trends and activities such as inmate intakes and release, work release salaries, and personnel turnover. [PDF]

     Statistics: Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 2000 Provides information on facilities, inmates, programs, and staff of State and Federal correctional facilities throughout the Nation, and of private correctional facilities housing State or Federal inmates. Earlier censuses in this series were conducted in 1974, 1979, 1984, 1990, and 1995. Information was collected from prisons; prison boot camps; reception, diagnosis, and classification centers; prison forestry camps and farms; prison hospitals; youthful offender facilities (except in California); facilities for alcohol and drug treatment; work release and prerelease; and State-operated local detention facilities in Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode Island, and Vermont. State-level data are presented on facility, inmate, and staff characteristics, as well as facility programs. Comparisons are made, when possible, with findings from the previous census conducted in 1995. Highlights include the following: The number of adult correctional facilities increased 14%, from1,464 at midyear 1995, when the previous census was conducted, to 1,668 at midyear 2000. In 2000, 264 privately operated facilities were under contract with State or Federal authorities to house prisoners -- an increase of 140%. The number of inmates held in these facilities rose 459% (from 16,663 inmates in June 1995 to 93,077 in June 2000). A total of 430,033 correctional staff were employed in State and Federal prisons on June 30, 2000. Nearly two-thirds of these staff (270,317) were correctional officers, responsible for custody/security. (August 2003) NCJ 198272  Acrobat file (733K - PDF) | ASCII file (47K) Spreadsheets (zip format 168K)

     Statistics: "Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974-2001." Presents estimates of the number of living persons in the United States who have ever been to State or Federal prison. Such estimates include persons in prison and on parole, as well as those previously incarcerated but no longer under parole supervision. The report also provides updated estimates of the lifetime chances of going to prison using standard demographic life table techniques. Such techniques project the likelihood of incarceration for persons born in 2001, assuming current incarceration rates continue until their death. Bureau of Justice Statistics, 12 pages (2003). [PDF] [Text file] [.html file]

     Statistics: Prisoners in 2002. Reports the number of persons in State and Federal prisons at yearend, compares the increase in the prison population during 2002 with that of the previous year, and gives the prison growth rates since 1995. The report also provides the number of male and female prisoners on December 31, 2002. It includes incarceration rates for the States and the 5 highest and 5 lowest jurisdictions for selected characteristics, such as the growth rate, number of prisoners held, and incarceration rates. Tables present data on prison capacities and the use of local jails and privately operated prisons. Estimates are provided on the number of sentenced prisoners by offense, gender, race, and Hispanic origin. Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 200248 July 27, 2003. Press release | Acrobat file (335K) | ASCII file (40K) Spreadsheets (zip format 46K)

     Statistics: Quick Facts. Oregon Department of Corrections. (2 pages, June 2005). [PDF]

     Statistics:  "Jails in Indian Country, 2002." Bureau of Justice Statistics. Presents findings from the 2002 Survey of Jails in Indian Country, an enumeration of all 70 confinement facilities, detention centers, jails, and other facilities operated by tribal authorities or the Bureau of Indian Affairs. BJS conducted the survey on June 28, 2002, as part of the Annual Survey of Jails. The report presents data for each facility, including rated capacity, number of adults and juveniles held, number of persons under community supervision, number of persons confined on the last week day of each month since July 2001, average daily population during June, peak population during June, number of admissions in the last 30 days, inmate characteristics (such as conviction status, DWI/DUI offense, and seriousness of offense), number of inmate deaths, facility crowding, and jail staffing. Highlights include the following: At midyear 2002 jails in Indian country supervised 2,080 persons. Since 1998, the number of inmates in custody at midyear has increased by 26%, and rated capacity has increased 12%. Thirty-five percent of inmates were being held for a violent offense; 15% for domestic violence offense. 11/03 NCJ 198997 Acrobat file (278K) | ASCII file (21K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 63K)

     Statistics: "Capital Punishment 2002." Bureau of Justice Statistics. Presents characteristics of persons under sentence of death on December 31, 2002, and of persons executed in 2002. Preliminary data on executions by States during 2003 are included, and the report summarizes the movement of prisoners into and out of death sentence status during 2002. Numerical tables present data on offenders' sex, race, Hispanic origin, education, marital status, age at time of arrest for capital offense, legal status at time of capital offense, methods of execution, trends, and time between imposition of death sentence and execution. Historical tables present executions since 1930 and sentencing since 1973. Highlights include the following: Of the 6,912 people under sentence of death between 1977 and 2002, 12% were executed, 4% died by causes other than execution, and 33% received other dispositions. Fifty-one women were under sentence of death in 2002, up from 36 in 1992. After declining for two years, the number of executions increased to 71 during 2002. 11/03 NCJ 201848 Press release | Acrobat file (335K) | ASCII file (25K) Spreadsheets (zip format 39K)

     Statistics: Illinois Department of Corrections Year 2004 Statistical Data. [PDF]

     Statistics: "Statistical Abstract of the United States 2003 Edition," U.S. Census Bureau (1030 pgs. Feb. 12. 2004). [PDF] (2001 and 2002 Editions also available online at the same location). 1995-2000 Editions. To order a print copy of the 2003 edition, click here.

     Statistics: "Recidivism of Sex Offenders Released from Prison in 1994." Bureau of Justice Statistics. Presents, for the first time, data on the re-arrest, reconviction, and re-imprisonment of 9,691 male sex offenders, including 4,295 child molesters, who were tracked for 3 years after their release from prisons in 15 States in 1994. The 9,691 are two-thirds of all the male sex offenders released from prisons in the United States in 1994. The study represents the largest follow-up ever conducted of convicted sex offenders following discharge from prison and provides the most comprehensive assessment of their behavior after release. Highlights include the following: Within 3 years following their release, 5.3% of sex offenders (men who had committed rape or sexual assault) were re-arrested for another sex crime. On average the 9,691 sex offenders served 3 1/2 years of their 8-year sentence. Compared to non-sex offenders released from State prisons, released sex offenders were 4 times more likely to be re-arrested for a sex crime. The 9,691 released sex offenders included 4,295 men who were in prison for child molesting.11/03 NCJ 198281 Press release | Acrobat file (521K) | ASCII file (107K) Spreadsheets (zip format 76K)

     Statistics: Quick Fact Sheet on Oregon Corrections (January 2004). 2 pgs. [PDF] Summaries of quick facts and statistics regarding employees, inmates, departmental finances, community supervised offenders, inmate work, inmates in youth authority custody, and projections concerning prison population from today (12,852) to July 2013 (16,481). A list of Oregon correctional facilities, their superintendents, their addresses, and the amount of their annual budgets is also provided.

     Statistics: California Department of Corrections: Facts and Figures (2nd Quarter 2004). Facts about the budget, staff, and offenders in California's correctional facilities, as well as community corrections and parole.

     Statistics: Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2003. Presents data on prison and jail inmates, collected from National Prisoner Statistics counts and the Annual Survey of Jails in 2003. (May 27, 2004). Highlights include: Prison population increased by 40,983, the largest increase in 4 years; At midyear 2003, a total of 3,006 State prisoners were under age 18; Adult jails held a total of 6,869 persons under age 18; Local jails were operating 6% below their rated capacity. In contrast, at yearend 2002, State prisons were operating 1% and 17% above capacity, and Federal prisons were 33% above their rated capacity. In the year ending June 30, 2003, the smaller State prison systems had the greatest percentage increase: Vermont (up 12.2%), Minnesota (up 9.4%), and Maine (up 9.1%). NCJ 203947. Report is available in both .PDF and plain text versions, and spreadsheets of data are also downloadable at the link given.

     Statistics: State Prison Expenditures, 2001 Presents comparative data on the cost of operating the Nation's State prisons. The study is based on institutional corrections elements of the Fiscal 2001 Survey of Government Finances which State budget officers reported to the U.S. Census Bureau. (June 2004). State-level spending is presented on prison employee salaries and wages; employer contributions to employee benefits; supplies, contractual services, and other operating costs; and capital expenditures, e.g. building construction, renovations, major repairs, and land purchases. Additional data reveal amounts spent on food, inmate medical care, utilities, and contractual services. Highlights include the following: Prison operations consumed about 77% of State correctional costs in FY 2001. State correctional expenditures increased 145% in 2001 constant dollars from $15.6 billion in FY 1986 to 38.2 billion in FY 2001; prison expenditures increased 150% from $11.7 billion to $29.5 billion. Spending on medical care for State prisoners totaled $3.3 billion, or 12% of operating expenditures in 2001. 06/04 NCJ 202949. Report is available in both .PDF and plain text versions, and spreadsheets of data are also downloadable at the link given.

     Statistics: Probation and Parole in the United States, 2003 Reports the number of persons on probation and parole, by State, at year end 2003 and compares the totals with year end 1995 and 2002. It lists the States with the largest and smallest parole and probation populations and the largest and smallest rates of community supervision, and identifies the States with the largest increases. The Bulletin also describes the race and gender of these populations and reports the percentages of parolees and probationers completing community supervision successfully, or failing because of a rule violation or a new offense. Highlights include the following: The adult probation population grew 1.2% in 2003, an increase of 49,920 probationers, less than half the average annual growth of 2.9% since 1995. Overall, the Nation's parole population grew by 23,654 in 2003, or 3.1%, almost double the average annual growth of 1.7% since 1995. 49% of all probationers had been convicted of a felony, 49% of a misdemeanor, and 2% of other infractions. The total Federal, State, and local adult correctional population -- incarcerated or in the community -- grew by 130,700 during 2003 to reach a new high of nearly 6.9 million. 07/25/04 NCJ 205336 Press release | Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Profile of Jail Inmates, 2002 Presents findings from the Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, 2002, the only national source of detailed information on persons held in local jails. The report describes the characteristics of jail inmates in 2002, including offenses, conviction status, criminal histories, sentences, time served, drug and alcohol use and treatment, and family background. Characteristics of jail inmates include gender, race, and Hispanic origin. Changes since the 1996 inmate survey are examined. Data in 2002 were compiled from in-depth personal interviews with a nationally representative sample of nearly 7,000 inmates in about 417 local jails. Highlights include the following: Jail inmates were older on average in 2002 than 1996; 38% were age 35 or older, up from 32% in 1996. Half of all jail inmates in 2002 were held for a violent or drug offense, nearly unchanged from 1996. In 2002, 41% percent of jail inmates had a current or prior violent offense; 46% were nonviolent recidivists; 13% had a current or prior drug offense only. 07/14/04 NCJ 201932 Press release | Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: The Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2002 (August 2004). Visit Sourcebook Online which is updated as new material becomes available. The Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2002, the 30th edition, presents a broad spectrum of criminal justice data from more than 100 sources in 6 sections: characteristics of the criminal justice systems, . public attitudes toward crime and criminal justice topics, the nature and distribution of known offenses, characteristics and distribution of persons arrested, judicial processing of defendants, and persons under correctional supervision. Nearly all the data presented are nationwide in scope and, where possible, they are displayed by regions, States, and cities to increase their value for local decision-makers and for comparative analyses. The report includes over 600 tables, figures, subject index, annotated bibliography, technical appendixes with definitions and methodology, and list of source publishers and their addresses. To order: Printed copies are available for a postage and handling charge of $9.00 for U.S. buyers and $39.00 for buyers from Canada and other countries. NCJ 203301. A CD-ROM of the 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997-1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 editions is available for a postage and handling charge of $9.00 for U.S. buyers and $39.00 for buyers from Canada and other countries. NCJ 203302.

     Statistics: State Prison Expenditures, 2001 Presents comparative data on the cost of operating the Nation's State prisons. The study is based on institutional corrections elements of the Fiscal 2001 Survey of Government Finances which State budget officers reported to the U.S. Census Bureau. State-level spending is presented on prison employee salaries and wages; employer contributions to employee benefits; supplies, contractual services, and other operating costs; and capital expenditures, e.g. building construction, renovations, major repairs, and land purchases. Additional data reveal amounts spent on food, inmate medical care, utilities, and contractual services. Highlights include the following: Prison operations consumed about 77% of State correctional costs in FY 2001. State correctional expenditures increased 145% in 2001 constant dollars from $15.6 billion in FY 1986 to 38.2 billion in FY 2001; prison expenditures increased 150% from $11.7 billion to $29.5 billion. Spending on medical care for State prisoners totaled $3.3 billion, or 12% of operating expenditures in 2001. 06/04 NCJ 202949 Acrobat file (197K) | ASCII version (42K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 53K)

     Statistics: Prisoners in 2003 Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. Reports the number of persons in State and Federal prisons at yearend, compares the increase in the prison population during 2003 with that of the previous year, and gives the prison growth rates since 1995. The report also provides the number of male and female prisoners on December 31, 2003. It includes incarceration rates for the States and the 5 highest and 5 lowest jurisdictions for selected characteristics, such as the growth rate, number of prisoners held, and incarceration rates. Tables present data on prison capacities and the use of local jails and privately operated prisons. Estimates are provided on the number of sentenced prisoners by gender, race, and Hispanic origin. Highlights include the following: During 2003, the number of inmates under State jurisdiction increased by 20,370; On December 31, 2003, State prisons were estimated to be at capacity or 16% above capacity, while Federal prisons were operating at 39% above capacity; At yearend 2003, 101,179 women were in State or Federal prisons - 6.9% of all prison inmates.(11/04) NCJ 205335 Press release | Acrobat file (602K) | ASCII file (33K) Spreadsheets (zip format 21K)

     Statistics: Profile of Nonviolent Offenders Exiting State Prisons, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. Provides a description of the general characteristics of prison populations serving time for nonviolent crimes as they exit State prisons. Nonviolent crimes are defined as property, drug, and public order offenses that do not involve a threat of harm or an actual attack upon a victim. To conduct this analysis, BJS used data collected under two statistical programs, the National Recidivism Reporting Program that last collected data on those discharged from prisons in 15 States in 1994 and the Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities last conducted in 1997. This report examines the responses of inmates who indicated to interviewers that they expected to be released within 6 months. (10/04) NCJ 207081 Acrobat file (528K) | ASCII file (5K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 8K)

     Statistics: "American Indians and Crime: A BJS Statistical Profile, 1992-2002." Summarizes data on American Indians in the criminal justice system and reports the rates and characteristics of violent crimes experienced by American Indians. This report updates a previous BJS report, American Indians and Crime, published in 1999. The findings include the involvement of alcohol, drugs, and weapons in violence against Indians. The report describes victim-offender relationships, the race of those involved in violence against Indians, and the rate of reporting to police by victims. It discusses the rates of arrest, suspect investigations and charges filed, and incarceration of Indians for violent crimes. Highlights include the following: * From 1976 to 2001 an estimated 3,738 American Indians were murdered. * Among American Indians age 25 to 34, the rate of violent crime victimizations was more than 2½ times the rate for all persons the same age. * Rates of violent victimization for both males and females were higher for American Indians than for all races. 12/04 NCJ 203097 Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: "HIV in Prisons and Jails, 2002". Provides the number of HIV-positive and active AIDS cases among State and Federal prisoners at yearend 2002. This annual bulletin reports the number of AIDS-related deaths in prisons, a profile of those inmates who died, the number of female and male prisoners with AIDS, and a comparison of AIDS rates for the general and prisoner populations. Based on the 2002 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, the report provides estimates of HIV infection among jail inmates by age, gender, race, Hispanic origin, education, marital status, and by current offense and selected risk factors such as prior drug use. Also included is information on AIDS-related deaths among jail inmates. Highlights include the following: * Between 1998 and 2002 the number of HIV-positive prisoners decreased about 7%, while the overall prison population grew almost 11%. * At yearend 2002, 3.0% of all female State prison inmates were HIV positive, compared to 1.9% of males. * In 2002 the overall rate of confirmed AIDS in the prison population (0.48%) was nearly 3½ times the rate in the U.S. general population (0.14%). 12/04 NCJ 205333 Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: "Felony Sentences in State Courts, 2002." Presents statistics for adults who were convicted of a felony and sentenced in State courts. The data were collected through a nationally representative survey of 300 counties in 2002. Within the 12 offense categories reported are the number and characteristics (age, sex, race) of offenders who were sentenced to prison, jail, or probation. Trends from 1994 to 2002 highlight the number and characteristics of adults convicted of felonies and the types and lengths of sentences imposed. This periodic report is published every two years. Highlights include the following: * Drug offenders were 32% of felons convicted in State courts in 2002. * State courts sentenced 41% of convicted felons to a State prison, 28% to a local jail, and 31% to straight probation with no jail or prison time to serve. * Guilty pleas accounted for 95% of felony convictions in State courts in 2002. 12/04 NCJ 206916 Acrobat file (557K) | ASCII file (25K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 28K)

     Statistics: Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2004. Presents data from the Survey on Sexual Violence, 2004, an administrative records collection of incidents of inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate sexual violence reported to correctional authorities. The report provides counts of sexual violence by type and includes tables on reporting capabilities, how investigations are handled, and characteristics of victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. The appendix tables include counts of sexual violence, by type, for the 2,730 facilities included in the survey. This report also includes an update on BJS activities related to implementation of the data collections required under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-79). Highlights include the following: In 2004, correctional authorities reported 3.15 allegations of sexual violence per 1,000 inmates. Males comprised 90% of victims and perpetrators of inmate-on-inmate nonconsensual acts in prison and jail. In State prisons 69% of victims of staff sexual misconduct were male, while 67% of perpetrators were female. 07/05 NCJ 210333 Press release | Acrobat file (322K) | ASCII file (39K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 40K)

     Statistics: Substance Dependence, Abuse, and Treatment of Jail Inmates, 2002. Presents data from the 2002 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails on inmates’ prior use, dependence, and abuse of alcohol and illegal drugs. The report also provides data on types of substance abuse treatment or other programs reported by jail inmates. It presents measures of dependence and abuse by gender, race, Hispanic origin, age, and most serious offense. The report compares the levels of prior substance use, dependence, abuse, and treatment by selected characteristics, such as family background, criminal record, type of substance, and offense. Tables include trends in the levels of substance use and treatment reported by jail inmates since the last national survey was conducted in 1996. Highlights include the following: In 2002 -- 68% of jail inmates reported symptoms in the year before their admission to jail that met substance dependence or abuse criteria. 16% of convicted jail inmates said that they committed their offense to get money for drugs. 63% of inmates who met substance dependence or abuse criteria had participated in substance treatment or other programs. 7/05 NCJ 209588 Acrobat file (211K) | ASCII file (35K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 19K)

     Statistics: Veterans in State and Federal Prison, 2004. Using the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities, this report presents data on the military and criminal backgrounds of incarcerated veterans, uses new measures to describe their substance abuse and dependence histories, and provides a detailed measure of their mental health problems. It compares incarceration rates for veterans and non-veterans in the U.S. population and describes trends from 1986 to 2004 in the prevalence of military service among inmates. The report also examines characteristics of incarcerated veterans who served in the 1990-91 Gulf War and the Afghanistan/Iraq operations since 2001. Highlights include the following: The percentage of veterans among State and Federal prisoners has steadily declined over the past three decades, according to national surveys of prison inmates conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics. In 2004,10% of State prisoners reported prior service in the U.S. Armed Forces, down from 12% in 1997 and 20% in 1986. The majority of veterans in State (54%) and Federal (64%) prison served during a wartime period, but a much lower percentage reported seeing combat duty (20% of State prisoners, 26% of Federal). 05/07 NCJ 217199 Press release | Acrobat file (152K) | ASCII file (28K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 22K)

     Study: A new analysis by The Sentencing Project provides a regional examination of the racial and ethnic dynamics of incarceration in the U.S., and finds broad variations in racial disparity among the 50 states. The report, Uneven Justice: State Rates of Incarceration by Race and Ethnicity (July 2007), finds that African Americans are incarcerated at nearly six (5.6) times the rate of whites and Hispanics nearly double (1.8) the rate.

Death Penalty

     Death Penalty: "Struck by Lightning: The Continuing Arbitrariness of the Death Penalty Thirty-Five Years After Its Re-instatement in 1976," A Report of the Death Penalty Information Center (July 2011). The report states that while there are approximately 15,000 murders each year in the U.S., last year there were 46 executions. It asserts that most of the executions have little to do with the severity of the crime, but instead are influenced by factors such as race, geography, quality of legal defense, and "uneven" appeals court review. In some jurisdictions, almost all death penalty convictions are affirmed in state court, according to the report, while in other states, most are overturned on appeal. Two-thirds of all death sentences are reportedly overturned on appeal nationwide.

     Death Penalty: Capital Punishment, 2004 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Presents characteristics of persons under sentence of death on December 31, 2004, and of persons executed in 2004. Preliminary data on executions by States during 2005 are included, and the report summarizes the movement of prisoners into and out of death sentence status during 2004. Numerical tables present data on offenders' sex, race, Hispanic origin, education, marital status, age at time of arrest for capital offense, legal status at time of capital offense, methods of execution, trends, and time between imposition of death sentence and execution. Highlights include the following: At yearend 2004, 36 States and the Federal prison system held 3,315 prisoners under sentence of death, 63 fewer than at yearend 2003. Of those under sentence of death, 56% were white, 42% were black, and 2% were of other races. Fifty-two women were under sentence of death in 2004, up from 43 in 1994. 11/05 NCJ 211349 Press release | Acrobat file (161K) | ASCII file (27K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 22K)

     Death Penalty: A History of the Death Penalty in Georgia, Executions by Year 1924-2005, Georgia Department of Corrections, Office of Planning and Analysis. (15 pgs. January 2006).

     Death Penalty: Bureau of Justice Statistics publications on capital punishment, including annual reports, from year 1993 through 2004 of the characteristics of persons under sentence of death and of persons executed during each year, as well as a summary of the movement of prisoners into and out of death sentence status during the year.

     Habeas Corpus: Final Technical Report: Habeas Litigation in U.S. District Courts: An Empirical Study of Habeas Corpus Cases Filed by State Prisoners Under the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, NIJ-Sponsored, 2007, NCJ 219559. (127 pages). PDF NCJRS Abstract

Disabilities

     Disability Benefits: Helping Inmates Obtain Federal Disability Benefits By Catherine H. Conly (December 2007) Helping Inmates Obtain Federal Disability Benefits looks at three programs—in the State of Texas, the city of Philadelphia, and the State of New York—that assist inmates in preparing and filing prerelease applications for Federal disability benefits so they can continue to receive treatment without interruption after they are released from prison or jail. The results of the research indicate that helping offenders obtain Federal benefits not only can increase releasees' access to care, but also can reduce the financial burden on State and local governments that fund indigent health care systems. National Institute of Justice (NIJ), U.S. Department of Justice.

     Disabled Inmates: Helping Inmates Obtain Federal Disability Benefits: Serious Medical and Mental Illness, Incarceration, and Federal Disability Entitlement Programs, NIJ-sponsored. NCJ 211989. (74 pgs). Abstract. Full Document.

     Videos: Police Response to People with Disabilities. Produced by: Law Enforcement Resource Center, 1523 Nicollet Ave., Minneapolis, MN 55403, 800-279-8284 Website: http://www.lerc.com/ Mental Illness: Police Response. Produced by NAMI (National Alliance for the Mentally Ill) in cooperation with the Police Executive Research Forum, 508-875-1544. NAMI website: http://www.nami.org/ PERF website: http://www.policeforum.org/

     Websites: Disabilities: 1). Commonly Asked Questions About the ADA and Law Enforcement http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/q&a_law.htm 2). US Dept of Justice ADA homepage http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adahom1.htm  3). Commonly Asked Questions About Title II of the ADA for state and local govts - http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/pubs/t2qa.txt

DNA

     DNA: "Post-Conviction DNA Testing and Wrongful Conviction," by John Roman, Kelly Walsh, Pamela Lachman, and Jennifer Yahner (June 2012).

     DNA: Fourth Amendment Probationers, Parolees and DNA Collection: Is This "Justice for All"? by Jessica K. Fender, 3 Seventh Circuit Rev. 312 (2007), Both an abstract and the full article are available on-line at the link.

Drugs

     Behavioral Health Problems: "Adults with Behavioral Health Needs under Correctional Supervision: A Shared Framework for Reducing Recidivism and Promoting Recovery," Justice Center, The Council of State Governments (September 27, 2012).

     Drug Abuse and Treatment: "Treatment Behind Bars: Substance Abuse Treatment in New York State Prisons, 2007-2010," The Correctional Association of New York (Feb. 2011).

     Drugs: "Drug Offenders in Prison Backgrounder - February 2011," Minnesota Department of Corrections.-

Education

     Education: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Education: A Meta-Analysis of Programs That Provide Education to Incarcerated Adults (NCJ 243309). BJA-Sponsored, August, 2013.

     Educational Programs: "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Education," by Lois M. Davis, Robert Bozick, Jennifer L. Steele, Jessica Saunders, and Jeremy N.V. Miles, RAND Corporation sponsored by the Bureau of Justice Assistance (2013).

     "Unlocking Potential: Results of a National Survey of Postsecondary Education in State Prisons," by Lara E. Gorgol and Brian A. Sponsler, Institute for Higher Education Policy (May 2011). Based on data from 43 states, this survey found that only 6 percent of prisoners were enrolled in vocational or academic post-secondary programs during the 2009-2010 school year. Of enrollees, 86 percent were serving time in 13 states, suggesting other states provide little access to inmate education.

Elderly Prisoners

     Elderly Prisoners: "Aging prisoners' costs put systems nationwide in a bind," by Kevin Johnson and H. Darr Beiser, U.S.A. Today, July 11, 2013.

     Elderly Prisoners: "At America's Expense: The Mass Incarceration of the Elderly," by the ACLU (June 2012).

     Elderly Prisoners: "Old Behind Bars: The Aging Prison Population in the United States," by Human Rights Watch (January 28, 2012).

     Elderly Prisoners: True Grit: An Innovative Program for Elderly Inmates, by Marry T. Harrison, Corrections Today, published by the American Correctional Association. (December 2006). Discusses a program developed at the Northern Nevada Correction Center in Carson City, Nevada to address special physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual needs of elderly inmates.

     Elderly & Ill Prisoners: "Correctional Health Care: Addressing the Needs of Elderly, Chronically Ill, and Terminally Ill Inmates," by Anno, B. Jaye; Graham, Camelia; Lawrence, James E.; Shansky, Ronald. An exploratory report regarding the management of aging and infirm inmates is presented. Six chapters follow an executive summary: introduction; what we know about elderly; chronically ill, and terminally ill inmates; effective evaluation for identifying the special needs of inmates; program, housing, and treatment considerations; ethical and policy considerations for the care of elderly and infirm inmates; and conclusion. Appendixes include: Criminal Justice Institute Survey-Managing the Needs of Aging Inmates and Inmates With Chronic and Terminal Illnesses; site-visit reports; and site visit checklist. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC) Criminal Justice Institute (Middletown, CT) (148 pgs. 2004) [PDF]

     Publication: "Elderly Prisoner Profile," Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. A report on the growth rate of the state's elderly prison population, and the consequences of this growth. 6 pgs. [PDF].

     Report: Dignity Denied: The Price of Imprisoning Older Women in California, by the California group Legal Services for Prisoners with Children. (December 15, 2005). Full Report (82 pgs., 2 MB). Executive Summary (50 KB). Discusses issues related to the conditions of confinement for the more than 350 women over the age of 55 in California state prisons, the impact of the "Three Strikes" law, and the annual cost of imprisoning an older person, estimated to be at least $70,000, or twice that of a younger prisoner. The report questions the wisdom of committing "such vast economic resources" for continued punishment of older prisoners, which it contends is the group with the lowest recidivism rate of any segment of the prison population. The report also estimates that by 2022, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation will incarcerate approximately 30,000 elderly prisoners.

Electronic Weapons, Stun Guns, and Tasers

    Electronic Control Weapons: COPS 2011 Electronic Control Weapon Guidelines (April 7, 2011).

     Electronic Weapons: Conducted Energy Devices: Use in a Custodial Setting. Bureau of Justice Assistance, Police Executive Research Forum, and National Sheriffs' Association, August 2009. The report discusses the survey results to determine the extent to which sheriffs' offices are using the devices and have developed policies on CEDs and also provides general guidelines for the use of CEDs and other electronic devices in custodial settings.

Employment Issues

     Employment Discrimination: Federal Equal Employment Opportunity Statistical Reports of Discrimination Complaints Bureau of Prisons (BOP) 2004 - PDF, HTML.

     Employment Issues: Camp, S. D. and Lambert, E. G. (2006). The Influence of Organizational Incentives on Absenteeism: Sick Leave Use Among Correctional Workers. Criminal Justice Policy review, 17: 2: 144-172 (47 pages, pdf format).

     Ex-Inmate Employment: "Reaching a Higher Ground: Increasing Employment Opportunities for People with Prior Convictions," The Berkeley Center for Criminal Justice (Nov. 2010).

     Jail Employees: The Future is Now: Recruiting, Retaining, and Developing the 21st Century Jail Workforce. BJA and the Center for Innovative Public Policies, January 2010 This toolkit provides strategies for improving employee recruitment, retention, succession planning and leadership development, based on current research in the field as well as input from some 2,106 line staff and 569 administrators responding to the first National Jail Workforce Survey.

      Prison & Jail Employees: "Federal Bureau of Prisons: Enhanced Screening of BOP Correctional Officer Candidates Could Reduce Likelihood of Misconduct, Evaluation and Inspections," Report I-2011-002, U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of the Inspector General (September 2011). The report indicates that arrests of federal prison guards increased by almost 90% in the past ten years, and states that this may be because of poor hiring practices during a period which saw a 25 percent increase in prison growth. The number of misconduct investigations doubled, and over half of the alleged offenses were committed during an officer's first two years on the job. Recommendations include better background screening of applicants and improvements in the assessment of new employees.

Environmental Issues

     Environmental Issues:  "The Greening of Corrections: Creating a Sustainable System," (NIC. March, 2011).

     Environmental Issues: Working Toward a Sustainable DOC, Washington State Department of Corrections (Olympia, WA 2008). The application of sustainability to correctional operations in Washington State is explained at this website. "Sustainability is the protection and management of our resources to meet current needs without sacrificing the needs of future generations." Points of entry include accountability, OMNI (Offender Management Network Information) System, strategic plan, going green, energy and fuel, water, toxic materials, facilities, waste, commitment and awareness, related links, and Sustainability Progress Report.

E-Mail Discussion Lists

     E-mail discussion list: "NIC Corrections Exchange (Correx): An E-Mail Discussion List for People Serious About Corrections" The NIC Corrections Exchange ("correx") is a communication opportunity for corrections professionals. Launched in 1998, the list now serves more than 600 members. Correx provides a public, online forum for discussing corrections issues and practices and for exchanging views and information. Posts to the list are moderated. Correx also facilitates communication between the NIC and field practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and others concerned with corrections. Announcements of new NIC publications and program opportunities are a standard feature. When you join correx, the system will ask you to confirm your email address and will send you user guidelines. Please save the guidelines on your computer for future reference. (See Member Guidelines.) To Join-- Address e-mail to lyris@www.nicic.org. No subject line is needed. In the body of the message, type: subscribe correx (first name) (last name), omitting the parentheses.

     E-mail discussion list: Correctional Training Network (CTN) E-mail Discussion List is a discussion group established by the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) for correctional staff trainers in public agency settings. Members are encouraged to use the list to locate or share curriculum materials and to discuss issues related to training. Membership is limited to staff of correctional agencies who provide staff training in their agencies, either as a full-time or part-time responsibility. See Member Guidelines for details on participating in the discussion group. To apply, complete the Online Application Form. NIC may contact new applicants for membership to verify their eligibility.

Escape

     Legal Memorandum: "Constitutionality of 18 U.S.C. Sec. 1120," U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Legal Counsel, written August 31, 2000, made available on the DOJ website 12/23/04. "Congress has clear constitutional authority to proscribe killings committed by escaped federal inmates serving life sentences, as provided in 18 U.S.C. § 1120, where the killings facilitate the escape or the avoidance of recapture. Congress's penological and custodial interests in ensuring the incapacitation of life-sentenced federal inmates provide compelling support for the constitutionality of 18 U.S.C. § 1120 even when it is applied with respect to a post-escape killing that is not related to the escape or subsequent efforts to avoid recapture."

Federal Prisons

     Annual Report: Federal Prison Industries, Inc. Annual Financial Statement, Fiscal Year 2007, Audit Report 08-10, March 2008 (Commentary and Summary Only). Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Justice.

     Annual Report: Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statement, Fiscal Year 2007, Audit Report 08-09, March 2008 (Commentary and Summary Only). Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Justice.

     Annual Report: State of the Bureau 2004. Annual report on the Federal Bureau of Prisons. [PDF]

     Annual Report: State of the Bureau (2005). Bureau of Prisons (BOP). Reports on the federal prison system, including information about facilities and statistics.

     Annual Reports: State of the Bureau 2006. The annual report of the U.S. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Prisons.

     Federal Prisons: Legal Resource Guide to the Federal Bureau of Prisons (2014).

     Federal Prisons: Operations Memorandum 004-2014 Guidelines for Background Clearance of Volunteers (July 31, 2014).

     Federal Prisons: Operations Memorandum 006-2014 (6701) Guidelines for Medical Management of Staff Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens (Aug. 30, 2014).

     Federal Prisons: "The Growth & Increasing Cost of the Federal Prison System: Drivers and Potential Solutions," by Nancy La Vigne and Julie Samuels (Public Welfare Foundation, Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center, December 2012).

     Federal Prisons: Federal Bureau of Prisons Operations Memorandum 002-2009 (Jan. 24, 2009) Bureau Mandatory Training Standards.

     Federal Prisons: Quick Facts About the Bureau of Prisons (Updated March 24, 2012).

     Federal Prisons. Legal Resource Guide to the Federal Bureau of Prisons 2008 (Revised 11/25/08). This publication is intended to serve as a guide to legal resources, including relevant statutes, regulations, program statements, and current case law on issues the BOP is facing today. It provides a general overview of the prison system, its services, and programs. The statutes, regulations, program statements, and case law decisions referred to in this guide may have been updated since publication. Thus, it is suggested that readers conduct independent research and confirm cited legal references within when exploring Bureau matters.

     Medical Care: The Federal Bureau of Prison's Efforts to Manage Inmate Health Care, Audit Report 08-08, February 28, 2008. Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Justice.

     Policies and Regulations: Federal Bureau of Prisons, Program Statement on Health Information Management, No. 6090.02 (October 13, 2008).

     Policies and Regulations: Federal Bureau of Prisons, Program Statement on Inmate Work and Performance Pay, No. 5251.06(October 1, 2008).

     Prison Recycling: "A Review of Federal Prison Industries’ Electronic-Waste Recycling Program," U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General (October 2010).

     Report: Congressional Research Service: Federal Prison Industries (updated 2007).

     Sexual Harassment: Federal Bureau of Prisons Program Statement P3713.23 (2005) on Discrimination and Retaliation Complaints Processing. Includes chapter 14 on sexual harassment, including harassment by inmates.

Female Prisoners

     Children of Prisoners: Children of Incarcerated Parents: An Action Plan for Federal Policymakers (2009), a report by the Council of State Governments (CSG) Justice Center. The plan outlines promising practices and 70-plus recommendations for improving outcomes for the more than 1.7 million children of incarcerated parents.

     Female Inmates: "Mothers Behind Bars: A state-by-state report card and analysis of federal policies on conditions of confinement for pregnant and parenting women and the effect on their children," by the National Women's Law Center and the Rebecca Project for Human Rights (Oct. 28, 2010). The report analyzes policies in three areas—prenatal care, shackling of pregnant women during childbirth, and community-based alternatives to incarceration enabling mothers to be with their children.

     Female Inmates: "An Examination of Admissions, Exits and End-of-the-Year Populations of Adult Female Inmates in the Illinois Department of Corrections, State Fiscal Years 1989-2011," by David E. Olson, Gipsy Escobar, and Loretta Stalans, The Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (Oct .2011).

     Female Prisoners: Sterilization of Female Inmates: Some Inmates Were Sterilized Unlawfully, and Safeguards Designed to Limit Occurrences of the Procedure Failed, report of the California State Auditor, #2013-120 (June 19, 2014).

    Female Prisoners: Best Practices in the Use of Restraints with Pregnant Women and Girls Under Correctional Custody, Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Dept. of Justice (2014).

     Female Prisoners: Worse Than Second-Class: Solitary Confinement of Women in the United States, ACLU (April 2014).

     Female Prisoners: "The Changing Racial Dynamics of Women's Incarceration," by Marc Mauer (The Sentencing Project, February 2013).

     Female Prisoners: "The Top 5 Facts About Women in Our Criminal Justice System: Many Face Difficulties During and After Incarceration," by Julie Ajinkya, Center for American Progress (March 7, 2012).

     Female Prisoners: "Reproductive Health Locked Up: An Examination of Pennsylvania Jail Policies," Pennsylvania ACLU (Feb. 15, 2012).

     Female Prisoners: A new law, Bill No. 3373-A, signed by New York's governor on August 26, 2009 generally prohibits the use of restraints on pregnant prisoners during childbirth, making it the sixth state to do so. The statute does allow a pregnant prisoner to be cuffed by one wrist while being transported to a hospital if she is thought to be a danger to herself or others. Texas, Illinois, California, Vermont and New Mexico are the other states with similar prohibition. Fact Sheet:" Shackling of Pregnant Women in Custody" The Rebecca Project for Human Rights (2009), which also has a memo on state shackling policies (Aug. 20, 2008). See also, "Laboring in Chains: shackling pregnant inmates, even during childbirth, still happens," Vol. 106 American Journal of Nursing, No. 10, pgs. 25-26 (October 2006).

    Female Prisoners: From Prison to Home: Women's Pathways In and Out of Crime. NCJ 226812, 244 pgs., May 2009, Grant Report, by Jennifer E. Cobbina.

     Female Prisoners: National Directory of Programs for Women Offenders. Aug 6, 2009. The National Institute of Corrections, in partnership with the Women's Prison Association, has developed an online directory of programs for women offenders. This nationwide resource provides profiles of programs and services for women at all stages of criminal justice involvement, both in correctional facilities and in the community.

     Female Prisoners: Women's Prison Association Resource Library Bibliography. 16 pgs. .pdf.

     Female Prisoners: Amnesty International USA's website has a page presenting a report "Abuse of Women in Custody: sexual misconduct and shackling of pregnant women," on current laws, policies and practices in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and the federal Bureau of Prisons regarding custodial sexual misconduct, and the practice of shackling of inmates who are pregnant or giving birth.

     Female Prisoners: "Custody and Control: Conditions of Confinement in New York's Juvenile Prisons for Girls," Human Rights Watch. 2006.

     Female Offenders: "Developing Gender-Specific Classification Systems for Women Offenders," by Hardyman, Patricia L.; Van Voorhis, Patricia. This report addresses the need for classification systems that provide necessary information about women offenders, are adapted to women, and are effective in matching women to appropriate custody levels and programming. It highlights study findings on current practices for classifying women offenders and reviews the key elements of NIC-assisted classification initiatives in seven states. Publisher National Institute of Corrections. Prisons Division (Washington, DC) George Washington University. Institute on Crime, Justice and Corrections (Washington, DC 2004) (81 pgs. PDF).

     Female prisoners: "Post-traumatic stress disorder and victimization among female prisoners in Illinois" (Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority. Nov. 2010) summarizes a study involving interviews with 163 randomly-selected female prisoners at Illinois Department of Corrections facilities. Study participants were asked questions on prior victimization in their lives, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were gauged using the PTSD Symptoms Checklist. Findings indicated that many female prisoners have or previously experienced PTSD symptoms. In addition, those who experienced any childhood abuse, more severe abuse, and sexual abuse were more likely to experience PTSD or greater levels of PTSD. These findings indicate needs for services to treat female prisoners suffering from PTSD.

     Female Prisoners: "Mothers, Infants and Imprisonment. A National Look at Prison Nurseries and Community-Based Alternatives," Women's Prison Association, Institute on Women & Criminal Justice. (May 2009). According to the report, nine states have prison nursery programs in operation or under development. The authors of the report state that "Prison nursery programs keep mothers and infants together during the critical first months of infant development, and the research shows that these programs produce lower rates of recidivism among participating mothers." Between 1977 and 2007, the number of women in U.S. prisons increased by 832 percent.

     Female Prisoners: "Gendered Violence and Safety: A Contextual Approach to Improving Security in Women's Facilities," by Barbara Owen, Ph.D., James Wells, Ph.D., Joycelyn Pollock, Ph.D., J.D., Bernadette Muscat, Ph.D., Stephanie Torres, M.S. (December 2008).

     Female Prisoners: Handbook for Prison Managers and Policymakers on Women and Imprisonment by Atabay, Tomris, United Nations. Office on Drugs and Crime (Vienna, Austria) Published 2008. 117 pages. "The main focus of th[is] handbook is female prisoners and guidance on the components of a gender-sensitive approach to prison management, taking into account the typical background of female prisoners and their special needs as women in prison" (p. 1). Sections following an introduction include: the special needs of female prisoners; management of women's prisons; reducing the female prison population by reforming legislation and practice - suggested measures; management of women's prisons -- key recommendations; and reducing the female prison population -- key recommendations. Accession Number: 023592, National Institute of Corrections.

     Policies and Procedures:  Body Searches of Clothed Female Inmates, Administrative Bulletin, California Department of Corrections, May 26, 2005. [PDF]

     Publication: Gender-Responsive Strategies: Research, Practice, and Guiding Principles for Women Offenders. Summary: In September 1999, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) began a 3-year project to create a foundational body of work on gender-relevant approaches to managing and intervening effectively with women offenders in adult corrections. An NIC-wide team on women offenders saw the need to summarize current evidence regarding what is known and not known about gender-responsive policy and practice. NIC Accession Number 018017 (June 2003) [PDF].

     Publications: A Summary of Research, Practice, and Guiding Principles for Women Offenders: The Gender-Responsive Strategies Project: Approach and Findings by Bloom, Barbara; Owen, Barbara; Covington, Stephanie, National Institute of Corrections (205 Washington, DC) [PDF] Reviews information on gender-specific policies, programs, and services in corrections. Topics covered by this bulletin include: the Gender-Responsive Strategies Project -- approach and findings; defining gender responsiveness; national profile of women offenders; the foundation for the principles a new vision -- six guiding principles for a gender-responsive criminal justice system; general strategies for implementing guiding principles; gender-responsive policy elements; and conclusion -- addressing the realities of women's lives is the key to improved outcomes.

     Report: Dignity Denied: The Price of Imprisoning Older Women in California, by the California group Legal Services for Prisoners with Children. (December 15, 2005). Full Report (82 pgs., 2 MB). Executive Summary (50 KB). Discusses issues related to the conditions of confinement for the more than 350 women over the age of 55 in California state prisons, the impact of the "Three Strikes" law, and the annual cost of imprisoning an older person, estimated to be at least $70,000, or twice that of a younger prisoner. The report questions the wisdom of committing "such vast economic resources" for continued punishment of older prisoners, which it contends is the group with the lowest recidivism rate of any segment of the prison population. The report also estimates that by 2022, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation will incarcerate approximately 30,000 elderly prisoners.

     Report: When “Free” Means Losing Your Mother The Collision of Child Welfare and the Incarceration of Women in New York State, (73 pgs., February 2006), a report by the Correctional Association of New York. "This report examines the damaging, far-reaching and often overlooked consequences of maternal incarceration on children and families. It includes interviews with caregivers, foster care caseworkers, formerly incarcerated mothers and young people with mothers in prison, and offers practical recommendations for reforms that would help rebuild families affected by incarceration, reduce recidivism and interrupt the intergenerational cycle of crime and prison."   

     Sexual Assault: Kim Shayo Buchanan, Impunity: Sexual Abuse in Women's Prisons, 47 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties L. Rev. 45 (2007).

First Amendment Issues

     First Amendment: "Prisoners' Rights. Dobbey v. Illinois Department of Corrections: A Small Piece of a Growing Policy Puzzle" by Ashley M. Belich, 5 Seventh Circuit Rev. 272 (2009) [Full Article] [Synopsis: 16 MB mp3]

     First Amendment: "First Amendment. Prisoners and Public Employees: Bridges to a New Future in Prisoners' Free Speech Retaliation Claims" by Matthew D. Rose, 5 Seventh Circuit Rev. 159 (2009) [Full Article] [Synopsis: 20 MB mp3]

     Legal Memorandum: "Regulation of an Inmate's Access to the Media," U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Legal Counsel, written April 13, 2001, made available on the DOJ website 12/23/04. "So long as the Bureau of Prisons' decision to regulate an inmate's access to the media is reasonably related to the legitimate penological interests articulated in the applicable regulations, the Bureau of Prisons may bar face-to-face interviews or videotaped interviews with an inmate, or place other reasonable conditions and restrictions on such interviews."

Foreign Prisoners & Foreign Language Proficiencies

     Immigration Detainees: "The Cost of Responding to Immigration Detainers in California," Justice Strategies (Aug, 23, 2012).

     Immigration Detainees: "Privately Operated Federal Prisons for Immigrants: Expensive. Unsafe. Unnecessary," Justice Strategies (Sept. 13, 2012).

     Immigration Detention: "Immigration Detention Overview and Recommendations," report by Dr. Dora Schriro (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Oct. 6, 2009). Companion fact sheet: "ICE Detention Reform: Principles and Next Steps. Secretary Napolitano announces new immigration detention reform initiatives."

     Publications: Library Services for Incarcerated Spanish Speakers. Source(s) WebJunction (Dublin, OH) OCLC Online Computer Library Center (Dublin, OH) Published 2007. 101 pages. Materials from a presentation about providing better library service to Spanish speakers are supplied. Items comprising this collection are: copies of overheads; resource packet containing learning objectives, action plan guide, Four Dimensions of Diversity chart, guide for conducting community leader interviews, resources for working with Spanish speakers, and Serving Latino Communities checklist; and suggested outreach activities for correctional libraries. Accession Number: 022851

     Publication: Magistrate's Guide to the Vienna Convention on Consular Notifications. [PDF format] Published by the Texas Attorney General's Office (2000). Contains instruction and guidance relating to the arrest and detention of foreign nationals and related issues pertaining to the provision of consular services to foreign nationals in the U.S. Includes translations of suggested statements to be made to foreign nationals who are arrested or detained (Arabic, Chinese, Farsi, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Vietnamese) and a suggested fax sheet for notifying consular offices of an arrest or detention. Under the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, an international treaty to which 160 countries, including the U.S., are parties, foreign nationals are supposed to be allowed to contact the consulate of their country of nationality when incarcerated, imprisoned, or taken into custody or detained. In the instance of some countries, notification is mandatory, as opposed to being at the option of the foreign national, and this publication discusses a number of issues that arise as a result. EDITOR'S NOTE: At least one federal court has held that the failure to allow a foreign national to contact the consulate of their country can be the basis for a federal civil rights lawsuit. See Standt v. City of New York, No. 99-Civ-110008, 153 F. Supp. 2d 417, 2001 U.S. Dist. Lexis 9954 (S.D.N.Y.), reported in Liability Reporter, October 2001. (City could be sued for violation of civil rights for failure to allow a German visitor arrested to contact the German consulate as required by treaty). The U.S. State Department also maintains a web page containing "Instructions for Federal, State, and other Local Law Enforcement and Other Officials Regarding Foreign Nationals in the United States and the Rights of Consular Officials To Assist Them," which is updated from time to time.

     Foreign Language Proficiency: Español for Law Enforcement: An Interactive Training Tool February 2004 This CD-ROM (NCJ 201801) was developed to help law enforcement officers obtain a working knowledge of Spanish and apply it to law enforcement situations. The video walks viewers through English translations, phonetic spellings, and pronunciations of Spanish words in situations involving interviews, crime scenes, motor vehicles, and domestic violence. To obtain a copy of this CD-ROM, visit NCJRS's Online Store or call or write to NCJRS at: NCJRS P.O. Box 6000 Rockville, MD 20859-6000 Fax: 301-519-5212 Phone: 800-851-3420 (toll free).

     Foreign Prisoners & Vienna Convention: Mexico v. United States of America (March 31, 2004) The World Court decision that under the Vienna Convention the United States violated the rights of more than 50 convicted Mexican Nationals on death row by not providing them with access to their country's consular officials when they were accused of serious crimes abroad. [.html and PDF files both available].

     Websites: International Prisoner Transfer Program. The International Prisoner Transfer Program began in 1977 when the U.S. government negotiated the first in a series of treaties to permit the transfer of prisoners from countries in which they had been convicted of crimes to their home countries. The program is designed to relieve some of the special hardships that fall upon offenders incarcerated far from home, and to facilitate the rehabilitation of these offenders. Prisoners may be transferred to and from those countries with which the United States has a treaty. (Participating countries are listed on the site). While all prisoner transfer treaties are negotiated principally by the United States Department of State, the program itself is administered by the United States Department of Justice.

Furlough Programs

     Furlough Programs: Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons' Furlough Program, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, Audit Report 10-44, September 2010

Gang Activity

     Article: "Career Criminals, Security Threat Groups, and Prison Gangs," by David M. Allender and Frank Marcell, 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 6, pgs. 8-12 (June 2003). Also available in .html format.

     Gangs: Report: "Public Enemy Number 1: California's Growing Racist Gang," (2007) by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) discusses a white supremacist gang which is an "unusual hybrid of a racist skinhead gang, a violent white street gang, and a prison gang" which has grown substantially in recent years. The gang was the target of a December 14, 2006 series of search and arrest warrants executed by nearly 300 police officers from two dozen federal and local law enforcement agencies in Southern California at 75 different locations, resulting in the arrests of 67 alleged members of the gang "Public Enemy Number 1 (PENI)." The raids occurred after information was uncovered concerning an alleged PENI "hit list" with the names of a prosecutor and five police officers from several different departments.

     Prison Gangs: Basic information about six major nationwide prison gangs--Neta, Aryan Brotherhood, Black Guerrilla Family, Mexican Mafia, La Nuestra Familia, and Texas Syndicate--prepared by the Florida Department of Corrections.

     Report: The 2005 National Gang Threat Assessment provides a national and regional picture of the threat posed by gangs. This document will help federal, state, and local policymakers and law enforcement administrators to better understand the dimensions of the gang problem and assist them in formulating policy and allocating resources most wisely. The National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations (NAGIA), with funding and guidance from the Bureau of Justice Assistance and its partner agencies within the Department of Justice including the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the National Drug Intelligence Center, conducted this threat assessment and prepared this report. [74 pgs. PDF]

     Report: "Dangerous Convictions: An Introduction to Extremist Activities in Prisons," by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) (July 2002). A discussion of what makes U.S. prisons and prisoners vulnerable to recruitment by fanatic organizations, and how such groups attempt to get around restrictions on their activities in correctional facilities. Includes discussion of specific extremist groups and gangs. [PDF format].

Gay and Lesbian Prisoners

     Homosexual, Bisexual, and Transgender Prisoners: The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, or Intersex Inmate Population: "A 21st Century Dilemma!" by Adam E. Hopkins and Margaret A. Dickson. National Jail Exchange, National Institute of Corrections (2014).

     Publications: Managing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex Inmates: Is Your Jail Ready? Author(s) Leach, Donald L., II Source(s) LIS, Inc. (Longmont, CO) National Institute of Corrections Information Center (Aurora, CO) Sponsor(s) National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC) Details Published 2007. 6 pages. "The management of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex inmates (LGBTI) in a jail setting is addressed. Sections contained in this article are: a terminology lesson; the sexual being -- physiognomy, gender identity, and sexual orientation; and responses in the jail regarding medical care, data systems, security, housing, and clothing."

HIPAA -- Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996

    Medical Privacy: U.S. Justice Department, Office of Legal Counsel, opinion on the scope of criminal liability under the HIPAA privacy law for breaches of patient confidentiality. (June 1, 2005). [PDF]

     Website: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has created a website containing information about compliance with medical records privacy standards imposed by federal statutes and regulations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). The website contains fact sheets, training materials including PowerPoint presentations, a list of HIPAA-Related links, educational materials, and a list of answers to frequently asked questions about the rules and their applicability.

History

     Bibliography: Selected Bibliography on the History of the Bureau of Prisons.

     Historical Information: Chronological History of the New Hampshire Department of Corrections Since 1810.

     History: Alcatraz Inmate Regulations, 1956. These "Institution Rules & Regulations" were in effect at the United States Penitentiary, Alcatraz, during Warden Paul J. Madigan's administration (1955-1961). They were issued to all inmates in the form of a typewritten booklet to be kept in the cell.

     History: A short History of the Alabama Department of Corrections. (Taken from the Department's Employee Handbook).

     History: Florida Corrections: Centuries of Progress. Florida Department of Corrections.

     History: Historical Summary of Sentencing and Punishment in Florida. Provides an overview of sentencing changes affecting Florida prisoners from 1972 through 2000. Florida Department of Corrections.

     History: Pennsylvania Department of Corrections: Past & Present. 13 pgs. [PDF]

Hunger Strikes

     Hunger Strikes: Standard Operating Procedure: Medical Management of Detainees on Hunger Strike," Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (March 5, 2013.

Identity Theft

     Identity Theft: President Obama has signed into law the "Social Security Protection Act of 2011," aimed at reducing identity theft by prohibiting government agencies from printing social security numbers on checks and prohibiting prison inmates' access to social security numbers.

Immigration Detention Facilities and Issues

     Immigration: 2009 Immigration Detention Reforms (August 6, 2009). The U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency (ICE) has announced a series of reforms of the immigration detention system designed to "address the vast majority of complaints about our immigration detention, while allowing ICE to maintain a significant, robust detention capacity to carry out serious immigration enforcement." These actions include creating an Office of Detention Policy and Planning (ODPP) to design and plan a civil detention system tailored to addresses ICE's needs. The ODPP will evaluate the entire detention system in a methodical way, with seven areas of focus, each with benchmarks for progress: •Population Management: To ensure the best location, design, and operation of facilities reflecting the unique nature of civil detention; •Detention Management: To ensure appropriate custodial conditions and address day-to-day detention functions, including classification, discipline and grievances; •Programs Management: To ensure the provision of religious services, family visitation, recreation and law libraries; •Health Care Management: To ensure the timely provision of medical, dental and mental health assessment and services; •Alternatives to Detention Management: To develop a national strategy for the effective use of alternatives to detention including community supervision; •Special Populations Management: To provide attention to women, families, the elderly and vulnerable populations; and •Accountability: To ensure ICE employees perform the core functions of detention oversight, detainee classification and discipline, and grievance review. Other immediate actions include: •Discontinued use of family detention at the T. Don Hutto Family Residential Facility in Texas. In place of housing families, we will propose that the Texas facility will be used solely as a female detention center. Presently, Hutto is used to detain families and low custody female detainees. Detained families will now be housed at Berks Family Residential Center in Pennsylvania. •Formation of two advisory groups of local and national organizations interested in ICE's detention system. These groups will provide feedback and input to the Assistant Secretary. One will focus on general policies and practices, while the other will focus on detainee health care. •Appointment of 23 detention managers to work in 23 significant facilities - facilities which collectively house more than 40 percent of our detainees. These 23 federal employees will directly monitor the facilities and ensure appropriate conditions. •Establishment of an Office of Detention Oversight (ODO) whose agents will inspect facilities and investigate detainee grievances in a neutral manner. The ODO will be part of ICE's Office of Professional Responsibility.

     Immigration Detainees: "Civil Immigration Enforcement: Guidance on the Use of Detainers in the Federal, State, Local, and Tribal Criminal Justice Systems," U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Memorandum (December 31, 2012).

     Immigration Detainees: "The Cost of Responding to Immigration Detainers in California," Justice Strategies (Aug, 23, 2012).

     Immigration Detainees: "Privately Operated Federal Prisons for Immigrants: Expensive. Unsafe. Unnecessary," Justice Strategies (Sept. 13, 2012).

     Immigration Detainees: "Improving the Carceral Conditions of Federal Immigrant Detainees," 125 Harvard Law Review 1476 (April 2012).

     Immigration Detainees: A new publication from the Immigrant Justice Network examines what it terms the “Dangerous Merger” between the criminal justice system and immigration enforcement system. The paper touches on such phenomenon as the “Criminal Alien” program and how ICE contracts with local jails allegedly increase racial profiling.

     Immigration Detainees: A 78-page Human Rights Watch report, "Detained and Dismissed: Women's Struggles to Obtain Health Care in United States Immigration Detention," claims to document dozens of cases in which the immigration agency's medical staff either failed to respond at all to health problems of women in detention or responded only after considerable delays. Letter from US Immigration and Customs Enforcement to Human Rights Watch is a response to the report. (PDF, 656.77 KB) (March, 2009).

     Immigration Detainees: Dying for Decent Care: Bad Medicine in Immigration Custody a report by the Florida Immigrant Advocacy Center (FIAC). (77 pages .pdf) (February 2009).

     Immigration Detainees: "Jailed Without Justice," a report by Amnesty International criticizing the immigration detention system in the U.S. (March 25, 2009). Executive Summary | Key Findings | Full Report (PDF 662K)

     Immigration Detention: "Immigration Detention Overview and Recommendations," report by Dr. Dora Schriro (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Oct. 6, 2009). Companion fact sheet: "ICE Detention Reform: Principles and Next Steps. Secretary Napolitano announces new immigration detention reform initiatives."

     Immigration Prisoners: "Immigration Offenders in the Federal Justice System," Mark Motivans, Ph.D, July 18, 2012 NCJ 238581

     Policies and Procedures: Detention Operations Manual of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. [PDF format, downloadable by Chapter].

     Report: No Refuge Here: A First Look at Sexual Abuse in Immigration Detention, by Stop Prison Rape. (34 pgs., October 2004, PDF, 3.15 megabytes). A report on alleged sexual assaults in U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention facilities, which house an average of 200,000 people.

     Websites: International Prisoner Transfer Program. The International Prisoner Transfer Program began in 1977 when the U.S. government negotiated the first in a series of treaties to permit the transfer of prisoners from countries in which they had been convicted of crimes to their home countries. The program is designed to relieve some of the special hardships that fall upon offenders incarcerated far from home, and to facilitate the rehabilitation of these offenders. Prisoners may be transferred to and from those countries with which the United States has a treaty. (Participating countries are listed on the site). While all prisoner transfer treaties are negotiated principally by the United States Department of State, the program itself is administered by the United States Department of Justice.

Indian Prisons

     Indian Prisons: Testimony of the Honorable Earl E. Devaney, Inspector General for the Department of the Interior Before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, June 23, 2004, concerning the "state of detention facilities in Indian Country." [PDF] In the testimony, Devaney indicated that an investigation found a "disturbing" number of suicides and unreported escapes in some of the facilities. U.S. Department of Justice statistics show that there are "74 detention facilities in Indian County," with eight of them run by Indian tribes, twenty run by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and 46 receiving BIA funds under contract agreements. Half of these facilities operated at full capacity in 2002, and nineteen were reportedly operating at 150% of capacity. Devaney stated that "BIA's detention program is riddled with problems and, in our opinion, is a national disgrace, with many facilities having conditions...[similar] to Third World Countries." A more detailed report is expected from the Inspector General's office in the summer of 2005.

     Statistics: "Jails in Indian Country, 2012," by Todd Minton (June 27, 2013 NCJ 242187).

     Statistics: "Jails in Indian Country, 2010," by Todd D. Minton (December 6, 2011 NCJ 236073). Presents findings from the 2010 Survey of Jails in Indian Country, an enumeration of all jails, confinement facilities, detention centers, and other correctional facilities operated by tribal authorities or the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) on June 30, 2010. The report includes data on the number of adults and juveniles held, type of offense, number of persons confined on the last weekday of each month, average daily population, peak population, and admissions in June 2010. It also provides detailed data on rated capacity, facility crowding, and jail staffing for each facility. Highlights include the following: At midyear 2010, a total of 2,119 inmates were confined in Indian country jails, a 2.6% decrease from the 2,176 inmates confined at midyear 2009. Nationwide, 78,900 American Indians and Alaska Natives were under correctional supervision in the United States. The number of inmates admitted into Indian country jails (12,545) during June 2010 was about 6 times the size of the average daily population (2,009). The expected average length of stay during June 2010 was the highest (12.5 days) in facilities rated to hold 50 or more inmates and the lowest (2.3 days) for jails rated to hold 10 to 24 inmates. Press Release PDF (756K) ASCII file (36K) Spreadsheets (Zip format 32K).

     Statistics: "Jails in Indian Country, 2009" (Feb. 2011, NCJ 232223, 20 pp.) presents findings from the 2009 Survey of Jails in Indian Country. The report includes data on the number of adults and juveniles held, type of offense, number of persons confined on the last weekday of each month, average daily population, peak population, and admissions in June 2009.

Informants

     Jailhouse Informants: Article: "Jailhouse Informants," by Robert M. Bloom, Professor, Boston College School of Law. Criminal Justice Magazine Spring 2003 Volume 18 Number 1.

Inmate Behavior Management

     Inmate Behavior Management: "Programs and Activities: Tools for Managing Inmate Behavior" (ACCN 024368) offers practical information and guidance on planning and implementing programs and activities for jail inmates. It includes examples of activity-focused, reformative, and reintegrative programs with varying levels of complexity and resources, including those that are free and easy to implement. (NIC)

Inmate & Family Handbooks and Publications

     Inmate and Family Handbooks and Publications: Information Guidebook for Family Members and Friends of Arizona Department of Corrections Inmates. [PDF] [HTML]

     Publications: Department of Corrections Guide for Friends and Family of Incarcerated Offenders, Washington State Department of Corrections, 76 pgs. [PDF].

     Publication: Handbook for the Families and Friends of Pennsylvania Department of Corrections Prison Inmates. Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. (October 2004). 67 pgs. [PDF].

     Publication: Inmate Handbook. Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. (2003). 78 pgs. [PDF]

Inmate Debts and Financial Obligations

     Inmate Debts and Financial Obligations: "Repaying Debts." (October 2007). The Council of State Governments Justice Center has released a report on the financial obligations of people released from prisons and jails, which was developed with the support of BJA. The report includes recommendations to help policymakers increase accountability among people who commit crimes, improve rates of child support collection and victim restitution, and make people’s transition from prisons and jails to the community safe and successful. (Summary or Full Report).

Inmate Property

     Inmate Property: "Taking a Second Look at Prisoners' Property," pages 1-8, Point of View, published by the Alameda County, California, District Attorney's Office (Fall 2005).

Jail and Prison Administration, Design & Construction

     Environmental Issues: Working Toward a Sustainable DOC, Washington State Department of Corrections (Olympia, WA 2008). The application of sustainability to correctional operations in Washington State is explained at this website. "Sustainability is the protection and management of our resources to meet current needs without sacrificing the needs of future generations." Points of entry include accountability, OMNI (Offender Management Network Information) System, strategic plan, going green, energy and fuel, water, toxic materials, facilities, waste, commitment and awareness, related links, and Sustainability Progress Report.

     Jail Administration: "Leadership Development for Jail Administration ," BJA, the Center for Innovative Public Policies, the American Jail Association, and the Correctional Management Institute of Texas, (June 2011). With funding from BJA, the Center for Innovative Public Policies, the American Jail Association, and the Correctional Management Institute of Texas, Sam Houston State University developed several tools to enable jails to successfully develop and implement their own leadership development and succession planning initiatives.

     Jail Capacity Planning:  "Jail Capacity Planning Guide: A Systems Approach" (ACCN 022722, 88 pp.) discusses the need to approach jail capacity planning using a systems approach that analyzes the connections and interactions of the smaller components of a larger system, taking into account not only jail operations but also the larger criminal justice system and county population trends.

     Jail Conditions: Report of U.S. Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York into the treatment of adolescent male inmates between the ages of 16 and 18 at the jails on Rikers Island (Aug. 4, 2014).

     Jail Design: Jail Design Review Handbook by Mark Goldman (July 2003) (125 pgs. PDF Document) National Institute of Corrections, U.S. Department of Justice.

     Jail Planning: "New Jail Planning: Getting It Right" (ACCN 024347) highlights the four major steps of the Facility Developmental Process model: determine the need and feasibility; deciding to build, plan operations; design the jail; and build the jail, plan the transition. (NIC)

     Jail Planning: Jail Planning and Expansion: Local Officials and Their Roles, Second Edition, NIJ, March 2010, NCJ 230031.

     Prison Costs: "The Price of Prisons: What Incarceration Costs Taxpayers," by Christian Henrichson and Ruth Delaney. Vera Institute of Justice (January, 2012).

     Prison Growth: "Economic Impacts of Prison Growth," Congressional Research Service (April 13, 2010).

     Publications: Controlling Inmate Population Size: A Case Study of 20 Years of Success Controlling Inmate Population Size. Author(s) Ford, Marilyn Chandler Source(s) LIS, Inc. (Longmont, CO) National Institute of Corrections Information Center (Aurora, CO) Sponsor(s) National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC) Details Published 2007. 6 pages. "This article explains how Volusia County (FL) keeps its jail population at such a level that no new jail construction has been needed for over 20 years. Topics discussed include: about Volusia County; the solution blueprint -- interacting with the external criminal justice system and data management systems; and sustaining the focus."

      Publication: Resource Guide for Jail Administrators by Martin, Mark D.; Rosazza, Thomas A, National Institute of Corrections (300 pgs. 2004). [PDF] A guide "developed to enhance the leadership skills, knowledge, and capabilities of jail administrators on issues of basic jail administration" is presented (p. v). Fourteen chapters comprise this guide: introduction; role, purpose, and characteristics of the jail; administration; facilities; staffing and scheduling; staff recruiting, selection, and retention; staff training; security, safety, and emergency preparedness; inmate behavior management; inmate discipline and grievance; special management; inmate services and programs; jail intake and release; and getting started on the job. Sixteen checklists allow administrators to assess performance and effectiveness of jail operations.

    Publication: Resource Manual for Transition to a New Jail by Elias, Gail; Milosovich, John, National Institute of Corrections (194 pgs. 2005). [PDF] "This resource document will assist agencies starting the process of planning for a successful transition to a new detention facility" Nine chapters comprise this manual: introduction; transitional management; construction; staff/human resources; document development; training and orientation; furniture, fixtures, equipment, and supplies; move logistics; and transition themes of managing change and community relations.

     Publication: "Jail Planning and Expansion: Local Officials and Their Roles," by James R. Robertson, January 2003. This document describes a process to help communities, elected officials, and their policymakers plan and construct new jails and major expansions of existing jails. The process, involving 16 separate "steps" with five overlapping phases of activity, outlines all participants' roles, the decisions they make, and the products they create. The phases incorporate both concurrent and consecutive activities such as pre-architectural planning, site selection and planning, architectural and engineering design, construction, and occupancy. The discussion of each of the 16 steps lists major work activities and products developed. Tables exhibit the tasks to be performed for each step, which participants perform them, and what actions participants take throughout the process. Also includes exhibits and a bibliography. "Jail Planning and Expansion: Local Officials and Their Roles" is available in paper copy from the NIC Information Center at asknicic@nicic.org; telephone (800) 877-1461 or (303) 682-0213; fax (303) 682-0558. Request title no. NIC-017831 Available on-line in .PDF format.

     State Jails: "Putting 'Corrections' Back in State Jails: How to Reform Texas' Expensive, Ineffective State Jail System," by Jeanette Moll (Texas Public Policy Foundation December 3, 2012).

Jail Inspection

     Jail Standards & Inspections: Jail Standards and Inspection Programs: Resource and Implementation Guide. Author(s) Martin, Mark D. Source(s) National Institute of Corrections. Jails Division (Washington, DC) Details Published 2007. 64 pages. “The purpose of this guide is to give information that will help states and state jail-related organizations to develop or update jail standards and inspection programs" (p. v). This publication contains the following sections: introduction; role and purpose of jail standards; jail standards and liability; key elements of jail standards and inspection programs; strategies for developing and implementing jail standards programs; technical assistance and resources available from the National Institute of Corrections; topics of litigation; summary of state standards and inspection programs; profiles of three organizational models of standards programs; example of a group charter for a jail standards planning committee; excerpted sections of enabling legislation for Nebraska Jail Standards; and Competency Profile of a Detention Facility Inspector.

     Jail Inspection: Jail Inspection Basics: An Introductory Self-Study Course for Jail Inspectors. 2nd ed. Author(s) Rosazza, Thomas A. Source(s) National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC) Sponsor(s) National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC) Published 2007. 136 pages. This self-paced, self-instruction course explains the role and responsibilities of a jail inspector. Questions are asked at the end of each chapter which lead to answers from and discussion with their supervisors. Chapters cover: legal issues; standards; the inspection process; facility design; communication; government structures and processes; and resources. Also see: Jail Inspection Basics: An Introductory Self-Study Course for Jail Inspectors, Supervisor's Guide.

Justice Department Documents

      Department of Justice Document: DoJ Inspector General's "Memorandum on Performance Challenges: National Security, Cyber Security, Federal Prisons, Protecting Civil Rights, Fraud and Financial Offenses" (11-7-2012).

     Report: U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Report on Investigation of the King County Correctional Facility, Seattle, Washington pursuant to the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act, 42 U.S.C. Sec. 1997. November 13, 2007.

     Report: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, Semi-Annual Report to Congress, April 1, 2007-September 30, 2007. Includes sections on investigations into allegations of misconduct by personnel of the U.S. Marshals Service and Federal Bureau of Prisons. (December 3, 2007). [.html format].

Legislation

     Legislation: California Senate Bill No. 81, Chapter 175 Source: California. Legislature. Senate (Sacramento, CA). 36 pages. This bill, approved by the Governor of California on August 24, 2007, amends sections of California's Government Code, Penal Code, and Welfare and Institutions Code related to corrections. Required changes will affect reporting of site assessments, master planning, funding for new jail construction, budget, operational and fiscal information, assessment of facility maintenance, reimbursement for detention costs, approval and administrative oversight of appropriated funds, approval for housing older juveniles, authority of juvenile courts, juvenile parole supervision, composition of the State Commission on Juvenile Justice, Youthful Offender Block Grant Program establishment, construction of a local youthful offender rehabilitation facility, telephone services to inmates, funding for offender rehabilitation, probation pilot project funding, and reimbursement of local agencies and school districts. Bill provisions are severable and "to take effect immediately as urgency statutes" p. 6. Accession Number: 022559

Litigation Documents

     Court Documents: U.S. v. Barnes, et al. Grand jury indictment of guards at a federal detention facility in Florida on claims arising out of purported trading of contraband with female inmates for sexual favors. (U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Florida, June 20, 2006).

     Legal Memoranda and Opinions: Bureau of Prisons Practice of Placing in Community Confinement Certain Offenders Who Have Received Sentenced of Imprisonment, Office of Legal Counsel, U.S. Department of Justice. (Dec. 13, 2002). Overview: "When an offender has received a sentence of imprisonment, the Bureau of Prisons does not have general authority, either upon the recommendation of the sentencing judge or otherwise, to place such an offender in community confinement at the outset of his sentence or to transfer him from prison to community confinement at any time BOP chooses during the course of his sentence."

     Litigation Documents: Agreed order in lawsuit by U.S. government concerning conditions in Dallas County, Texas jail, U.S. District Court, Northern District of Texas (11/06/07). See also U.S. v. Dallas County, Civil No. 307 CV 1559 (Complaint, 9/11/07).

    Litigation Documents: U.S. Department of Justice reaches agreement with Louisiana regarding conditions at Louisiana's Juvenile Correctional Facilities.

     Litigation Documents: Amended Settlement Agreement Between the United States of America and the State of Maryland Regarding Conditions at Three Juvenile Justice Facilities. Source(s) U.S. District Court. District of Maryland (Baltimore, MD) Details Published May 17, 2007. 41 pages. "The denial of particular constitutional rights of youth confined at the Cheltenham Youth Facility, Charles H. Hickey, Jr. School, and Baltimore City Juvenile Justice Center (all located in Maryland) is rectified by this amended agreement. Sections of this document are: introduction; definitions; substantive remedial measures - in general, protection from harm, suicide prevention, mental health, medical care, special education, and fire safety; compliance and quality assurance; monitoring and enforcement; reporting requirements and right of access; and implementation and termination. A copy of the original agreement is also included."

    Web document: U.S. Dept. of Justice findings of an investigation of conditions at the Baltimore City Detention Center.

     Youthful Prisoners: Settlement Agreement of United States v. State of Indiana, the Logansport Intake/Diagnostic Facility and the South Bend Juvenile Correctional Facility. (PDF) (02/08/06)

     Youthful Prisoners: Settlement Agreement in United States v. State of Hawai'i, the Hawai'i Youth Correctional Facility (Memorandum of Agreement) (PDF)(02/07/06)

Mail and Other Inmate Communications

     Inmate Communications: "Intercepting Inmate Communications," pages 15-20, Point of View, published by the Alameda County, California, District Attorney's Office (Winter 2005).

     Report: The Federal Bureau of Prisons' Monitoring of Mail for High-Risk Inmates, Evaluations and Inspections Report I-2006-009, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General. September 2006.

Management Tools

     Publication: Correctional Leadership Competencies for the 21st Century: Executive and Senior Levels. National Institute of Corrections. Published Date: 2005. Characteristics that result in the best performance of executive and senior level leaders are identified along with the key skills, knowledge, and attributes of effective and successful leaders which are then linked to a set of specific behaviors. Following an executive summary, this manual provides an exploration of: managerial profiles; self awareness; ethics and values; vision and mission; strategic thinking; managing the external environment; power and influence; strategic planning and performance measurement; collaboration; and team building. [PDF]

      Publication: Resource Guide for Jail Administrators by Martin, Mark D.; Rosazza, Thomas A, National Institute of Corrections (300 pgs. 2004). [PDF] A guide "developed to enhance the leadership skills, knowledge, and capabilities of jail administrators on issues of basic jail administration" is presented (p. v). Fourteen chapters comprise this guide: introduction; role, purpose, and characteristics of the jail; administration; facilities; staffing and scheduling; staff recruiting, selection, and retention; staff training; security, safety, and emergency preparedness; inmate behavior management; inmate discipline and grievance; special management; inmate services and programs; jail intake and release; and getting started on the job. Sixteen checklists allow administrators to assess performance and effectiveness of jail operations.

    Publication: Resource Manual for Transition to a New Jail by Elias, Gail; Milosovich, John, National Institute of Corrections (194 pgs. 2005). [PDF] "This resource document will assist agencies starting the process of planning for a successful transition to a new detention facility" Nine chapters comprise this manual: introduction; transitional management; construction; staff/human resources; document development; training and orientation; furniture, fixtures, equipment, and supplies; move logistics; and transition themes of managing change and community relations.

     Publication: Budget Guide for Jail Administrators. by Mark D. Martin, 2002. U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections. Three parts, all available on-line in .pdf format. Part 1: Developing the Budget. Discusses the elements of an effective process for budgeting both capital and operational jail expenses. Outlines the roles of key participants and methods for assessing needs, estimating costs, and documenting the budget request. Includes sample forms and worksheets. 48 pp. Accession no. NIC-017626. Part 2: Managing the Budget. Provides an overview of jail budget management, including key aspects of management, the jail administrator's responsibilities, and useful strategies. 35 pp. Accession no. NIC-017628. Part 3: Beyond Budget Allocation - Sources of Funding and Services. Describes strategies for identifying, securing, and coordinating jail resources from multiple sources, both internally and externally. Emphasizes nontraditional funding approaches outside the local tax-funded budget. 35 pp. Accession no. NIC-017627.

     Publication: Developing a Jail Industry: A Workbook. 8/2002, NCJ 182506. PDF File ASCII Text File. (National Criminal Justice Reference Service).See also Business Planning Guide for Jail Industries. 8/2002, NCJ 165147. PDF File ASCII Text File.

     Publication: Topics in Community Corrections. Annual series produced jointly by the NIC Community Corrections Division and Information Center. Annual Issue, 2002: Responding to Budget Cuts - Focusing on What's Critical. NIC Information Center, 2002. Nine articles covering a range of budgetary issues, including practical ideas on how to cut costs while maintaining a positive working environment. 54 pp. National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Accession no. NIC-period220. PDF format.

     Publication: Preventing Jail Crowding: A Practical Guide. Robert C. Cushman, 2002. Explains a methodology for jail population analysis that considers sources of jail crowding and dynamic factors affecting jail occupancy levels, chiefly admissions and length of stay. Discusses ways to reduce the inmate population in a crowded jail and use population data to support policy choices that maximize public safety and effective use of the jail. 12 pp. National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Accession no. 016720. PDF format.

     Publication: Corrections Employment Eligibility for Ex-Offenders. [PDF]. National Institute of Corrections Information Center, September 2002. Presents the findings of a study to examine the practices of correctional agencies in hiring persons with a criminal record. 12 pp. Accession no. NIC-018209.

     Publication: Jail Planning and Expansion: Local Officials and Their Roles. [PDF] by James R. Robertson, January 2003. Describes 16 steps to help elected officials and policy makers develop jail facilities. The development process is contained within the five overlapping phases of pre-architectural planning, site selection and planning, architectural and engineering design, construction, and occupancy. Includes tables, bibliography, and exhibits. 38 pp. Accession no. NIC-017831.

     Publication: Serving Families of Adult Offenders: A Directory of Programs. [PDF] by James W. Mustin and Donna D'Arville. Family and Corrections Network, November 2002. Lists public and private organizations throughout the United States and Canada that serve offenders' families. Entries include contact persons and descriptions of services. 89 pp. Accession no. NIC-017081.

     Publication: "Legal Resource Guide to the Federal Bureau of Prisons" 61 pgs. U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons (2003). [PDF]

     Publications: DOCS Today, a monthly publication of the New York State Department of Correctional Services, is available for download on the web, beginning with the January 2003 issue, through the current June 2003 issue, in PDF format.

     Publication: Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting, February 2003. Summary: National Institute of Corrections, 2003. Meeting topics included the future of jail legislation, resources, and funding; handling legislation and dealing effectively with funding authorities; the role of professional standards and internal affairs; and a legal issues update. Accession no. 018479. [PDF]

     Publication: Defining and Measuring Corrections Performance. (123 pages, February 2003). Published by the Association of State Correctional Administrators. [PDF]

     Publication: "Addressing Correctional Officer Stress: Programs and Strategies," by Peter Finn. 134 pgs. (December 2000 NCJ 183474). [PDF format]

     Report: "Jail Leaders Speak: Current and Future Challenges to Jail Administration and Operations. A Summary Report to the Bureau of Justice Assistance," by Jeanne B. Stinchcomb, Ph.D. and Susan W. McCampbell, The Center for Innovative Public Policies, Inc. The Center, in a partnership with the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the National Institute of Corrections, and national organizations, conducted two focus groups to identify the major issues facing jails today and in the immediate future. (July 27, 2007). Also see Appendices, or White Papers issued in connection with the report.

Media Access

     Media Access to Prisons: "The Battle to Open Prisons to Journalists," by Jessica Pupovac (The Crime Report, January 3, 2013).

Medical Care

     Article: "Public Health Dispatch: Outbreaks of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Skin Infections --- Los Angeles County, California, 2002--2003" (February 7, 2003 issue of CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report). Addresses recent outbreaks in Los Angeles County, California of drug resistant staph bacteria that cause painful and potentially dangerous skin infections. In the Los Angeles County Jail, 928 inmates had wound infections of this type diagnosed in 2002. Patients were reported as having spider bites but subsequently were found to be infected with MRSA. Review of medical charts of 39 of the 66 inmates hospitalized with these infections indicated that all initially had skin infections, but 10 later had invasive disease, including bacteremia, endocarditis, or osteomyelitis. The Los Angeles County Jail is the largest jail system in the United States; 165,000 persons are incarcerated in the jail each year. The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (LACDHS) issued recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of skin infections in the jail and is working with the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department to review policies and procedures on laundry, showers, environmental cleaning, skin care, and control of person-to-person transmission. According to published reports, jails in at least six states reported outbreaks of drug-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, a strain of the common staph infection that can result in pimples, oozing boils, blood infections or pneumonia.

     Article: "The Protection of Inmates' Medical Records: The Challenge of HIPAA Privacy Regulations," By Wesley D. Bizzell, attorney in the Washington, D.C. office of Winston & Strawn. Addresses issues of compliance with the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. The article notes that "Correctional institutions that are required to become HIPAA-compliant must do so by April 14, 2003. Failure to initiate the required policies and procedures may create substantial liabilities for the correctional institution in the form of Federal fines or inmate lawsuits."

     Book: Protecting Your Health and Safety: A Litigation Guide for Inmates, by Robert E. Toone. The complete text of this book is available on-line. The book is designed for inmates who are not represented by an attorney. Bound copies of the 328-page book are available for $10 from the Southern Poverty Law Center, P.O. Box 548 Montgomery, Alabama 36101-0548. Their website states that "upon request, prison law libraries will be sent a copy at no cost."

     Book: An on-line shortened version (incomplete) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), published by the American Psychiatric Association, Washington D.C., 1994, the main diagnostic reference of Mental Health professionals in the United States of America. Diagnostic Criteria for the most common mental disorders including: description, diagnosis, treatment, and research findings.

     Compassionate Release: "The Federal Bureau of Prisons’ Compassionate Release Program," U.S. Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General Evaluation and Inspections Division (April 2013 I-2013-006).

     Guidelines: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Prevention and Detection of Infectious Disease. The National Institute of Corrections (NIC)  and the U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons, are making available information to help meet the requirements of the Correctional Officers Health and Safety Act of 1998, which requires that the Attorney General and the Secretary of Health and Human Services provide guidelines for infectious disease prevention and detection, and treatment of inmates and correctional employees who face exposure to infectious diseases in correctional facilities. The following clinical guidelines are all available in .PDF format: General Resources: Federal Bureau of Prisons Clinician Notes, October 2002. (PDF format, 88 pp.) Federal Bureau of Prisons Report on Infectious Disease Management, January 2001. (PDF format, 9 pp.) Infectious Disease Management Technical Reference Manual, January 1999. (PDF format, 115 pp.)

     Treatment and Clinical Practice Guidelines: Clinical Practice Guidelines: Detoxification of Chemically Dependent Inmates, December 2000. (PDF format, 44 pp.) Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes, September 2002. (PDF format, 51 pp.) Clinical Practice Guidelines for High Cholesterol, June 2002. (PDF format, 36 pp.) Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management and Treatment of Viral Hepatitis, Revised February, 2003. (PDF format, 51 pp.) Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of Asthma, November 2000. (PDF format, 37 pp.) Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of Coronary Artery Disease, September 2001. (PDF format, 42 pp.) Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of HIV Infection, February 2002. (PDF format, 57 pp.) Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of Major Depressive Disorder, May 2001. (PDF format, 45 pp.) Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Dyspepsia, and Peptic Ulcer Disease, November 2001. (PDF format, 36 pp.) Clinical Practice Guidelines for Psychiatric Evaluations, March 2002. (PDF format, 16 pp.) Clinical Practice Guidelines for Social Work Professionals, May 2002. (PDF format, 20 pp.) Clinical Practice Guidelines: Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) and Tuberculosis Disease, February 2001. (PDF format, 38 pp.) Addendum to Clinical Practice Guidelines: Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) and Tuberculosis Disease, September 2001. (PDF format, 3 pp.) Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of Varicella Zoster Virus Infections, October 2002. (PDF format, 16 pp.) Treatment Guidelines: Hypertension, Updated June 2002. (PDF format, 33 pp.)

     Hepatitis: "Hepatitis Testing and Treatment in State Prisons." Presents facility policies related to hepatitis C testing and treatment and hepatitis B vaccinations, based on the 2000 Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities, which gathered data from 1,584 State institutions. This report also includes data on the number of hepatitis C tests conducted, the number of tests confirmed positive, and the number of inmates treated for hepatitis C. The report provides information on hepatitis B, the number of 3-dose series hepatitis B vaccination policies, and the number of inmates who received vaccinations in the 12-month period ending June 30, 2000. Highlights include the following: At midyear 2000, 1,113,035 inmates (94% of all inmates) were held in facilities that reported having a testing policy for hepatitis C. 33% of tests in facilities that tested only targeted groups were positive compared to 27% of those in facilities that conducted broad tests (random basis or all inmates). Of the 1,033 facilities that provide hepatitis B vaccinations, 680 (66%) had a policy to vaccinate inmates in high-risk groups. 4/04 NCJ 199173 Acrobat file (12K) | ASCII file (161K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 12K)

     Immigration Detainees: A 78-page Human Rights Watch report, "Detained and Dismissed: Women's Struggles to Obtain Health Care in United States Immigration Detention," claims to document dozens of cases in which the immigration agency's medical staff either failed to respond at all to health problems of women in detention or responded only after considerable delays. Letter from US Immigration and Customs Enforcement to Human Rights Watch is a response to the report. (PDF, 656.77 KB) (March, 2009)

     Immigration Detainees: Dying for Decent Care: Bad Medicine in Immigration Custody a report by the Florida Immigrant Advocacy Center (FIAC). (77 pages .pdf) (February 2009).

     Medical Care: Poor health and social outcomes for ex-prisoners with a history of mental disorder: a longitudinal study, by Zoe Cutcher, Louisa Degenhardt, Rosa Alati, and Stuart A Kinner, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health (June 24, 2014). [Abstract].

     Medical Care: "Ex-Felons Are About to Get Health Coverage" by Michael Ollove, Stateline, The Daily News Service of the Pew Charitable Trusts (April 5, 2013). Discusses the fact that in January of 2014, many of the 650,000 inmates released each year will be eligible for Medicaid health care benefits under the provisions of  "Obamacare."

     Medical Care: "The Prison Health Care Dilemma," by Katti Gray, The Crime Report (August 2, 2012). A discussion of the possible impact of "Obamacare" on prison medical care.

     Medical Care: "Health Care Services in State Correctional Facilities," Maine Office of Program Evaluation & Government Accountability (Nov. 2011).

     Medical Care: Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Planning: Guidelines for Community Corrections. Bureau of Justice Assistance and the American Probation and Parole Association, August 2009. This document provides guidance to community corrections for developing preparedness and response plans for pandemic flu and other crises.

     Medical Care: Federal Bureau of Prisons Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) on Diabetes (2009), Hepatitis C and Cirrhosis (2009), Lipid Disorders (2009), and Varicella Zoster Virus Infections (2009). Earlier issued CPGs can be accessed at: http://www.bop.gov/news/medresources.jsp

  Medical Care: Bureau of Prisons (BOP) Pandemic Influenza Plan Module 3: Health Care Delivery and Module 4: Care for the Deceased (8/26/08).

     Medical Care: The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) has published several revised 2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) regarding treatment of inmates and correctional employees. They are in the areas of Diabetes, Lipid Disorders, and Ophthalmology Guidance. The Bureau also published a Pandemic Influenza Plain in May of 2008 in two modules, covering surveillance and infection control and antiviral medications and vaccines. A complete list of the Clinical Practice Guidelines and other health care resources are available at http://www.bop.gov/news/medresources.jsp

     Medical Care: The Federal Bureau of Prison's Efforts to Manage Inmate Health Care, Audit Report 08-08, February 28, 2008. Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Justice.

     Medical Care: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a growing problem in correctional and detention facilities. The National Institute of Corrections Information Center has many resources available on MRSA, including training videos from the Federal Bureau of Prisons, "MRSA Awareness," and the New Jersey Department of Corrections "MRSA: Preventing Outbreaks in NJ Prisons" and "MRSA: What You Need to Know."

    Medical Care: Management of Tuberculosis. Federal Bureau of Prisons Clinical Practice Guidelines. April 2007.

     Medical Care: Medical Management of Exposures: HIV, HBV, HCV, Human Bites and Sexual Assaults. Federal Bureau of Prisons Clinical Practice Guideline. May 2007.

     Medical Care: Medical Problems of Jail Inmates.  Presents findings on jail inmates who reported a current medical problem, a physical or mental impairment, or an injury since admission based on data from the 2002 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails. The prevalence of specific medical problems and conditions are also included. The report examines medical problems and other conditions by gender, age, time served since admission, and select background characteristics. Highlights include the following: * More than a third of jail inmates reported having a current medical problem. * 22% of jail inmates reported having a learning impairment; 11% said they had impaired vision. * Heart valve damage (290 per 10,000 inmates) and arrhythmia (211 per 10,000) were the most commonly reported types of heart problems. 11/06 NCJ 210696  Press release | Acrobat file (280K) | ASCII file (25K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 21K)

     Medical Care: Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) of the Federal Bureau of Prisons. These provide guidelines for infectious disease prevention and detection, and treatment of inmates and correctional employees who face exposure to infectious diseases in correctional facilities. The clinical guidelines referenced are being made available to the public for informational purposes only. The Bureau does not make any promise or warrant these guidelines for any other purpose, and assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage resulting from the reliance thereof. Proper medical practice necessitates that all cases be evaluated on an individual basis and that treatment decisions be patient-specific. Topics covered (and the year they were issued or revised) include: Asthma (2000) Coronary Artery Disease (2001) Depression (2001) Detoxification of Chemically Dependent Inmates (2000) Diabetes (2002) Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Dyspepsia & Peptic Ulcer Disease (2001) Headache (2003) Hepatitis - Viral (2005) Hypertension (2004) Lipid Disorders (2006) Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infections (2005) Preventive Health Care (2005) Tuberculosis (2004) Varicella Zoster Virus Infections (2002). Also of possible interest is the BOP's July of 2005 Health Services National Formulary, an 82-page document listing medications that are considered by the organization's professional staff to ensure high quality, cost-effective drug therapy for the prison population served, and the BOP's Report on Infectious Disease Management.

     Medical Care: Texas Correctional Office on Offenders with Medical or Mental Impairment (TCOOMMI) Biennial Report (58 pgs., 2005).

     Medical Care: Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Pharmacy Services, Audit Report 06-03, November 2005. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General.

     Medical Care: Federal Bureau of Prisons, Pandemic Influenza Plan. Module 1: Surveillance and Infection Control (November 2009) Module 2: Antiviral Medications and Vaccines (October 2009) Module 3: Health Care Delivery (October 2009) Module 4: Care for the Deceased (October 2009).

     Mentally-Ill Prisoners: "Ill-Equipped U.S. Prisons and Offenders with Mental Illness" by Human Rights Watch. (October 2003). According to this report, one in six U.S. prisoners is mentally ill, and many correctional facilities are ill-equipped to handle their medical and other needs. The full 215-page report is available in .PDF format or can be read on the web in .html format in different chapters, or see the Summary press release.

     Policies and Regulations: Federal Bureau of Prisons, Program Statement on Health Information Management, No. 6090.02 (October 13, 2008).

     Proposed Legislation: Mentally Ill Offender Treatment and Crime Reduction Act [PDF], as introduced in U.S. Senate, June 5, 2003 and passed by the Senate on October 29, 2003. Introduced in the Senate by Senator Mike Dewine (R-Ohio), the bipartisan bill was cosponsored by Senators Patrick Leahy (D-VT), Maria Cantwell (D-WA), Pete Domenici (R-NM), Charles Grassley (R-IA), and Orrin Hatch (R-UT). The legislation authorizes federal grants to support collaborations between mental health, criminal justice, juvenile justice, and corrections systems to reduce the number of mentally ill offenders in the criminal justice system, to improve the mental health care received by those who are incarcerated, and to increase the number of transitional and discharge programs to help reduce the rate of recidivism of mentally ill offenders discharged from prison and jail. U.S. Representative Ted Strickland (D-OH) introduced the bill in the House.

     Proposed Rule: The Bureau of Prisons (BOP) of the U.S. Department of Justice has published proposed rules for the procedures it will follow for imposing prisoner fees for some health services, as required under the Federal Prisoner Health Care Co-payment Act of 2000. The proposed rules were published in the Federal Register, Oct. 10, 2002, pp. 63059-63060. Once finally enacted, the rules will add subpart F to the BOP's regulations in 28 CFR part 549 on medical services. The proposal is that a prisoner must pay $2.00 for medical services in connection with a visit to health care providers that they requested (with some exceptions) or, if they injure a prisoner who requests medical services as a result of the injury. Staff referred health care visits, staff-approved follow-up care for chronic conditions, preventative health care services, emergency services, prenatal medical care, mental health care, substance abuse treatment or treatment of chronic infectious diseases will not be subject to the imposition of fees under the proposed rule. An appeals procedure will be available through the BOP's Administrative Remedy Program if the prisoner disagrees with the imposition of a fee. No fees may be charged to indigent inmates who are unable to pay.

    Pre-Trial Detainees: Analyzing a Pretrial Detainee's § 1983 Claims Under the Deliberate Indifference Standard Amounts to Punishment of the Detainee, Leslie B. Elkins 4 Seventh Circuit Rev. 91 (2008)

     Publication: Correctional Health Care by Morris L. Thigpen, Director, National Institute of Corrections (December 2001). 594 pages in PDF format. (To download individual chapters, rather than the entire document, click here).

     Report: Centers for Disease Control issues report (published in the January 24, 2003 issue of CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report), on hepatitis C in correctional facilities, along with recommendations on prevention measures. See also telebriefing on the subject on CDC web page. The report indicates that at least 1.3 million inmates released from jail or prison in 1996 were infected with hepatitis C. That was 29 percent of the 4.5 million cases nationwide. The report also states that newly released inmates accounted for 35 percent of the 34,000 Americans with tuberculosis in 1996, and 13 to 17 percent of Americans infected with H.I.V. or AIDS.

     Report: Research Report, Implementing Telemedicine in Correctional Facilities by Peter L. Nacci, C. Allan Turner, Ronald J. Waldron, and Eddie Broyles, May 2002. In the late 1990s, an independent evaluation of an experiment determined that providing long-distance health care to inmates is feasible through a system called telemedicine. This system uses telecommunications equipment that allows health care providers to see and diagnose inmates in prisons located far from health care providers' offices. The experiment showed that prisons could improve inmate health care by providing remote access to more medical specialists while reducing prisoner transport costs and related security management costs. This report provides a model for estimating the relative costs of telemedicine under varying conditions in a correctional setting. With the information tools provided in this document, the correctional administrator will be able to determine if telemedicine is a cost-effective option. (pdf format).

     Statistics: HIV in Prisons, 2007-08. Presents year end 2007 and 2008 data from the National Prisoner Statistics and the Deaths in Custody series. The report provides data on the number of female and male prisoners who were infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or had confirmed AIDS. Findings include the number of AIDS-related deaths in state and federal prisons, a profile of those inmates who died in state prison, and a comparison of AIDS rates between prison inmates and the general population. The report also covers the circumstances under which inmates were tested for HIV. Highlights include the following: At year end 2008, 1.5% (20,231) of male inmates and 1.9% (1,913) of female inmates held in state or federal prisons were HIV positive or had confirmed AIDS. Between 2007 and 2008, California (up 246), Missouri (up 169), and Florida (up 166) reported the largest increases in the number of prisoners who were HIV positive or had confirmed AIDS. During 2007, 130 state and federal prisoners died from AIDS-related causes. 12/09 NCJ 228307 Press release | Acrobat file (1.4M) | ASCII file (17K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 16K)

     Statistics: Medical Causes of Death in State Prisons, 2001-2004. Describes the specific medical conditions causing deaths in State prisons nationwide during a four-year period. For the leading medical causes of death, mortality rates are presented by gender, age, race and Hispanic origin, and the length of time served in prison. The report includes detailed statistics on cancer deaths. Mortality among older prisoners is examined in detail. Prisoner death rates are compared with rates in the general U.S. resident population. Data on medical treatments provided for these fatal illnesses are presented, along with findings on the presence of medical problems at time of admission to prison. State-by-state mortality rates are presented for the leading causes of illness deaths in appendix tables. Detailed data tables on topics covered in the report will be available on the BJS website. 1/07 NCJ 216340  Press release | Acrobat file (254K) | ASCII file (16K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 18K)

     Statistics: Medical Problems of Prisoners, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (April 2008). Findings on state and federal prisoners who reported a current medical problem, a physical or mental impairment, a dental problem, or an injury since admission based on data from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional facilities.

     Website: National Prison Hospice Association. Addresses issues concerning the care of dying prisoners, and includes on-line resources and links to helpful information, and a selected bibliography.

     Website: Mental Health in Corrections Consortium. This organization holds an annual symposium conference on correctional mental health issues. The 2004 Symposium is entitled "Mental Health Training for the Correctional Environment: Research, Practice, Results," and will be held on April 19 through April 21, 2004 in Kansas City, MO. The website also has a listing of links to organizations of interest to those involved in correctional mental health.

Mentally Ill Prisoners

     Mental Health: "One Year Longitudinal Study of the Psychological Effects of Administrative Segregation: Abstract and Summary" by Maureen L. O'Keefe, Kelli J. Klebe, Alysha Stucker, Kristin Sturm, and William Leggett, Corrections and Mental Health (NIC June 21, 2011).

     Mental Health: Getting Inside the Black Box: Understanding How Jail Diversion Works, National GAINS Center (Delmar, NY 2010). People interested in or involved with the diversion of mentally ill offenders from jail will find the results of this program evaluation interesting. Sections of this report are: the Center for Mental Health Services Targeted Capacity Expansion (CMHS TCE) Jail Diversion Program; convening the assessment experts; major findings; beyond data—the black box of jail diversion; “central eight” risk factors; understanding the black box and fine-tuning a model; and next steps and opportunities.

     Mental Illness: Encountering Mentally Ill People and Potential Liability under the ADA, by Michael J. Oh, Police Chief (Jul. 2014).

    Mental Illness: Mentally Ill Offender Treatment and Crime Reduction Act Fact Sheet. Provides background on legislation that authorizes federal grants to jurisdictions interested in developing collaborative criminal justice/mental health responses to people with mental illnesses.

     Mental Illness: Evidence-Based Enhancement of the Detection, Prevention, and Treatment of Mental Illness in the Correction Systems. NIJ-Sponsored, 8/2005, NCJ 210829. PDF

     Mentally Ill Persons: Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: The Essential Elements of a Specialized Law Enforcement-Based Program A report prepared by the Council of State Governments Justice Center in partnership with the Police Executive Research Forum for Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office of Justice Programs, Justice Center, 26 pgs. .PDF format. (8/18/08).

     Mentally Ill Prisoners: "Assessing the Effectiveness of Jail Diversion Programs for Persons with Serious Mental Illness and Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorders," by Steadman, Henry J.; Naples, Michelle; Source(s): Policy Research Associates (Delmar, NY) Published 2005, 8 pages. Results from an assessment of federally-funded jail diversion programs for offenders with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders are presented. This article is comprised of these sections: abstract; background; methodology; major findings regarding participants; 12-month outcomes; and cost data; and conclusion. Time spent in jail was reduced by an average of two months for diverted participants.

     Mentally Ill Prisoners: Medicaid Benefits and Recidivism of Mentally Ill Persons Released from Jail, NIJ-Sponsored, May 2006, NCJ 214169. PDF

     Mentally Ill Prisoners: Psychiatric Disorders of Youth in Detention, OJJDP, April 2006, NCJ 210331. (16 pages). PDF NCJRS Abstract

     Mentally Ill Prisoners: Report on the Status of Services for Persons with Mental Illness in Maine's Jails 2000-2007: What Has Changed? Source(s) National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) Maine (Augusta, ME) Published 2007. 22 pages. The failure to treat mentally ill offenders in Maine's jails is addressed. Parts of the full report that follows an executive summary are: introduction (2000-2002); more studies (2003-2006); joint action plan; "Corrections at a Crossroads" -- a report to Cumberland County, Maine; summary of local diversion efforts since 2000; December 2006 Jail Survey; conclusions; and a call to action. One of the nine recommendations made is that the state of Maine "must implement a comprehensive strategy for preventing the inappropriate incarceration of seriously mentally ill individuals and for diverting those individuals away from the criminal justice system" as mandated (p. 17).

     Mentally-Ill Prisoners: "Ill-Equipped U.S. Prisons and Offenders with Mental Illness" by Human Rights Watch. (October 2003). According to this report, one in six U.S. prisoners is mentally ill, and many correctional facilities are ill-equipped to handle their medical and other needs. The full 215-page report is available in .PDF format or can be read on the web in .html format in different chapters, or see the Summary press release.

     Mentally Ill Prisoners: "A Corrections Quandary: Mental Illness and Prison Rules," by Jamie Fellner, 41 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review No. 2, pg. 391 (Summer 2006).

     Prisoner Mental Health: Mental Health Screens for Corrections By Julian Ford and Robert L. Trestman; and Fred Osher, Jack E. Scott, Henry J. Steadman, and Pamela Clark Robbins May 2007 (National Institute of Justice, NIJ). Reports on two projects to create and validate mental health screening instruments that corrections staff can use during intake. The researchers created short questionnaires that accurately identify inmates who require mental health interventions. One mental health screen was found to be effective for men and is being adapted for women; the other has effective versions for both men and women. The screening instruments are reproduced in the appendixes. See also prior publications: Providing Services for Jail Inmates With Mental Disorders, Research in Brief NCJ 162207, January 1997, by Terence Dunworth, and Henry J. Steadman, and Americans With Disabilities Act and Criminal Justice: Mental Disabilities and Corrections NCJ 155061, 1995, by Paula N. Rubin and Susan W. McCampbell Summary.

     Proposed Legislation: Mentally Ill Offender Treatment and Crime Reduction Act [PDF], as introduced in U.S. Senate, June 5, 2003 and passed by the Senate on October 29, 2003. Introduced in the Senate by Senator Mike Dewine (R-Ohio), the bipartisan bill was cosponsored by Senators Patrick Leahy (D-VT), Maria Cantwell (D-WA), Pete Domenici (R-NM), Charles Grassley (R-IA), and Orrin Hatch (R-UT). The legislation authorizes federal grants to support collaborations between mental health, criminal justice, juvenile justice, and corrections systems to reduce the number of mentally ill offenders in the criminal justice system, to improve the mental health care received by those who are incarcerated, and to increase the number of transitional and discharge programs to help reduce the rate of recidivism of mentally ill offenders discharged from prison and jail. U.S. Representative Ted Strickland (D-OH) introduced the bill in the House.

     Publication: Screening and Assessing Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Among Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Resource Guide for Practitioners (NCJ 204956) December 2004 Report, 88 pages Grisso, T., Underwood, L. A. Presents information on instruments that can be used to screen and assess youth for mental health- and substance use-related disorders at various stages of the juvenile justice process. The Guide includes profiles of more than 50 instruments, guidelines for selecting instruments, and best practice recommendations for diverse settings and situations. It is intended as a basic tool for juvenile justice professionals working toward the goal of early, accurate identification of youth with mental disorders. Once identified, these youth can receive the services required to improve their lives, reduce recidivism, and promote community safety. Available online only. [PDF] (1.85 MB).

     Statistics: A report from the Council of State Governments and Policy Research Associates indicates that 17% of new jail inmates have serious mental illnesses. The study of more than 20,000 new inmates found that the percentage of women with serious mental illnesses--31--is more than twice that of males, 14.5 percent. The organizations said their count was the most accurate on the subject in more than two decades. The findings, published in the journal Psychiatric Services, indicate that as many as 2 million bookings of people with serious mental illnesses may occur each year.

     Website: American Association for Correctional Psychology. (Free registration required for use).

     Website: Suicide and parasuicide. "This site brings the latest subjects and resources related with the study of the suicidal phenomena. It is specially designed for health care professionals; Psychiatrists, Psychologists, Suicidologists, Sociologists, Therapists and other mental health practitioners and general health care providers."

     Website: Mental Health in Corrections Consortium. This organization holds an annual symposium conference on correctional mental health issues. The 2004 Symposium is entitled "Mental Health Training for the Correctional Environment: Research, Practice, Results," and will be held on April 19 through April 21, 2004 in Kansas City, MO. The website also has a listing of links to organizations of interest to those involved in correctional mental health.

Military Detainees

     Military Detainees: "Another Glance at Vance: Examining the Seventh Circuit's About-Face on Bivens Immunity and the Military," by Eric Michel, 8 Seventh Circuit Rev. 299 (2013).

Miscellaneous

     Congressional Resolution: On March 12, 2003, the U.S. Senate passed Senate Resolution 24, which designated the week of May 4, 2003, as National Correctional Officers and Employees Week. Citing the "vital role played by correctional personnel in protecting the rights of the public to be safeguarded from criminal activity and the demanding circumstances and dangers faced by correctional officers in their daily lives," Senate Resolution 24 recognized the men and women who work in some of the most dangerous places in the United States. According to Corrections Yearbook, 2000, some 16,152 of the 212,454 officers working in the Nation's prisons, in 1999, were assaulted by inmates and 33 were killed in the line of duty. The National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial lists the names of 402 correctional officers killed in the line of duty. National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) has created a website to express gratitude and support for the services provided by correctional officers and employees.

     Prison Review Board: California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has appointed an independent review board to make recommendations for "fundamental reform within California's youth and adult correctional systems." The panel, which is to present findings by the end of June 2004, will be chaired by George Deukmejian, former Governor of California and a former California attorney general. (Click here to read the Governor's March 5, 2004 press release announcing the appointments).

Overcrowding

     Prison Overcrowding: "Justice Reinvestment in Kansas Analyses & Policy Options to Reduce Spending on Corrections & Reinvest in Strategies to Increase Public Safety," by the Justice Center, Council of State Governments (Jan. 2013).

     Prisoin Overcrowding: "Justice Reinvestment in West Virginia Analyses & Policy Options to Reduce Spending on Corrections & Reinvest in Strategies to Increase Public Safety," by the Justice Center, Council of State Governments (Jan. 2013).

     Prison Overcrowding: "Bureau of Prisons: Growing Inmate Crowding Negatively Affects Inmates, Staff, and Infrastructure," U.S. Government Accountability Office (September 2012).

     Overcrowding: Alabama Prison Commissions Task Force Report on Prison Crowding. (2005).

     Overcrowding: "Increasing Public Safety and Generating Savings: Options for Pennsylvania Policymakers." Source(s) Council of State Governments. Justice Center (New York, NY) Sponsor(s) U.S. Bureau of Justice Assistance (Washington, DC) Pew Charitable Trusts (Philadelphia, PA) Details Published 2007. 8 pages. "Causes for the increase in Pennsylvania's state prison population and strategies to reduce growth while increasing public safety are discussed. This policy brief is divided into four parts: background; recent and projected growth of the prison population; factors driving the increase in the prison population; and options for policymakers."

     Overcrowding: Michigan Task Force on Jail and Prison Overcrowding: Final Report Published Date: 2005 File Size: 262.1 KB PDF National Institute of Corrections Strategies for resolving jail and prison overcrowding problems are noted. Sections of this report include: executive summary; introduction; mission statement; guiding principles; problem statement and response; the Task Force process; local criminal justice system infrastructure -- issues, best practices, and strategies (e.g., county jail capacity and emergency release, jail population information system, risk and needs assessment, mentally ill offenders, state and local partnerships, and probation violators); decision points in the criminal justice system -- issues, best practices, and strategies (e.g., arrest decisions, county jail intake and release decisions, charging decision and prosecution, and bail and sentencing decisions); and conclusion.

     Publications: Controlling Inmate Population Size: A Case Study of 20 Years of Success Controlling Inmate Population Size. Author(s) Ford, Marilyn Chandler Source(s) LIS, Inc. (Longmont, CO) National Institute of Corrections Information Center (Aurora, CO) Sponsor(s) National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC) Details Published 2007. 6 pages. "This article explains how Volusia County (FL) keeps its jail population at such a level that no new jail construction has been needed for over 20 years. Topics discussed include: about Volusia County; the solution blueprint -- interacting with the external criminal justice system and data management systems; and sustaining the focus."

     Report:  One in 100: Behind Bars in America, 2008, by The Pew Center on the States, Pew Charitable Trusts. March 2008. A report which covers the growth of prison population and facilities in the U.S., the growth of prison costs, and the length of prison stays, and related issued.

Policies and Rules

     Administrative Directives of the Connecticut Department of Corrections. [PDF].

     "Code of Silence" Memo: The California Department of Corrections has issued a memo to all correctional employees announcing "zero tolerance" towards any "code of silence" concerning misconduct by fellow employees. (February 17, 2004). [PDF].

     Disciplinary Rules and Procedures: Texas Department of Criminal Justice Disciplinary Rules and Procedures for Offenders, Rev. January 2005 (43 pgs.). Rulebook of disciplinary rules and procedures for offenders housed in secure correctional facilities operated by or under contract with the Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Also available in Spanish.

     Policies & Directives: The Vermont Department of Corrections has established a page on its website on which it plans to eventually publish on line all of its essential policies and directives. Selected policies and directives on various subjects appear there now in full text accessible through clickable links.

     Policies and Procedures:  Body Searches of Clothed Female Inmates, Administrative Bulletin, California Department of Corrections, May 26, 2005. [PDF]

    Policies and Procedures: Detention Operations Manual of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. [PDF format, downloadable by Chapter].

     Policies & Procedures: Official policies of the California Department of Corrections are published in the Department Operations Manual. [PDF]. Rules of general applicability adopted by the Department in accordance with the requirements of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) are contained in Division 3 of Title 15 of the California Code of Regulations (CCR), commencing with Section 3000 and ending with Section 3901.35.2. These regulations of the Department of Corrections are commonly referred to as the Director’s Rules. [PDF]

     Policies and Procedures: Employee-Inmate Relations. South Carolina Department of Corrections. (July 1, 2004). See also Staff Sexual Misconduct with Inmates (July 1, 2004).

     Policies and Procedures: Reasonable Accommodations for Inmates with Disabilities. Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. 9 pgs. [PDF]

     Policies and Procedures: Religious Programs and Services [PDF] (525k) Policy Number: 26.01-2 Rhode Island Department of Corrections.

     Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines: Inmate Visiting Guidelines, California Department of Corrections. 7 pgs. [PDF]

     Policies and Procedures: Policies and Procedures of the Alaska state Department of Corrections.

     Policies and Procedures: Religious Service Policy and Procedure. Arkansas Department of Corrections.

     Policies and Regulations: Federal Bureau of Prisons, Program Statement on Health Information Management, No. 6090.02 (October 13, 2008).

     Policies and Regulations: Searching, Detaining, or Arresting Visitors to Bureau Grounds and Facilities. Federal Bureau of Prisons Program Statement P5510.12 (2008).

     Policies and Regulations: Federal Bureau of Prisons, Program Statement on Inmate Work and Performance Pay, No. 5251.06(October 1, 2008).

     Regulations: Administrative Regulations of the Nebraska Department of Correctional Services.

     Sexual Assault: Director's Instruction #241, Sexual Assault Procedures. Arizona Department of Corrections.

     Visitation Rules of the Illinois Department of Corrections. [PDF]

Prison Emergencies

     Publications: A Guide to Preparing for and Responding to Prison Emergencies: Self-Audit Checklists, National Survey Results, Resource Materials, and Case Studies. National Institute of Corrections. 2005. Information regarding prison emergency preparedness is presented. This guide is comprised of the following sections: introduction; conducting an audit; self-audit checklists--emergency preparedness, natural disaster/HAZMAT/fire, and counterterrorism; Report on the National Survey of Emergency Readiness in Prisons; resource materials--leadership issues during crises, prevention of prison emergencies, emergency teams, and prisons and counterterrorism; and case studies. [PDF]

Prison Industries

     Report: Congressional Research Service: Federal Prison Industries (updated 2007).

Prison & Jail Conditions

     Disciplinary Confinement: "Lockdown New York: Disciplinary Confinement in New York State Prisons," a report by the Correctional Association of New York (60 pgs. October 2003). [PDF]. Executive Summary. [PDF].

     Environmental Issues: Working Toward a Sustainable DOC, Washington State Department of Corrections (Olympia, WA 2008). The application of sustainability to correctional operations in Washington State is explained at this website. "Sustainability is the protection and management of our resources to meet current needs without sacrificing the needs of future generations." Points of entry include accountability, OMNI (Offender Management Network Information) System, strategic plan, going green, energy and fuel, water, toxic materials, facilities, waste, commitment and awareness, related links, and Sustainability Progress Report.

     Jail and Prison Conditions: A U.S. Justice Department study of conditions at Orleans Parish jail in New Orleans concludes that they violate inmates' constitutional rights, including through use of excessive force by staff and insufficient protection of prisoners from violence from fellow prisoners. Other problems with medical services, restraint of mentally ill prisoners, and procedures for suicide prevention are also discussed. (Sept.2009).

     Jail and Prison Conditions: Conditions at Cook County Jail in Chicago, Illinois. Letter from the U.S. Dept. of Justice, Civil Rights Division reporting on investigation of the Cook County Jail facility. "Conditions at the Cook County Jail in Chicago, Illinois that violate the constitutional rights of inmates are explained. This findings letter is comprised of the following sections: background, legal standings, findings regarding inadequate protection from harm, inadequate medical care, inadequate mental health care, inadequate fire safety, and inadequate sanitation and environmental conditions, and remedial measures. (August 2008).

     Prison Conditions: State of the Prisons: Conditions of Confinement in 25 New York Correctional Facilities A report by the Prison Visiting Committee of the Correctional Association of New York. (162 pgs. June 2002) [PDF].

     Prison & Jail Conditions: Abandoned & Abused: Orleans Parish Prisoners in the Wake of Hurricane Katrina, a report by the ACLU National Prison Project. Discusses the experiences of prisoners confined at Orleans Parish prison in the days after the storm, and the eventual evacuation process. (142 pgs., .pdf format, 2006).

     Prison Oversight: A special issue of the Pace Law Review, Volume 30, Issue 5 (2010) (Fall 2010), "Opening Up a Closed World: A Sourcebook on Prison Oversight" features a comprehensive look at the oversight of prisons, including 21 articles from leading academics, national and international corrections experts, and prisoners' rights and human rights lawyers.

     Reports: Confronting Confinement, report of the National Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons. (June 8, 2006). The report addresses dangerous conditions of confinement - violence, poor health care, and inappropriate segregation - that can also endanger corrections officers and the public; lack of political support for labor and management; weak oversight of correctional facilities; and serious flaws in the available data about violence and abuse. Among 30 practical reforms, the Commission recommends: A re-investment in programming for prisoners to prevent violence inside facilities and reduce recidivism after release. Changing federal law to extend Medicaid and Medicare reimbursement to correctional facilities and ending prisoner co-pays for medical care, reforms necessary to protect the public health. Reducing the use of high-security segregation, which can actually cause violence, and ending the release of prisoners directly from these units to the streets, which contributes to recidivism. Increased investment at state and local levels to recruit, train, and retain skilled, capable workers at all levels. Expanding the capacity of the National Institute of Corrections to work with states and localities to create a positive institutional culture in corrections facilities. Creating an independent agency in every state to oversee prisons and jails and changing federal law to narrow the scope of the Prison Litigation Reform Act. Developing standardized reporting nationwide on violence and abuse behind bars so that corrections officials, lawmakers, and the public can have reliable measures of violence and monitor efforts to make facilities safer.

     Testimony: On February 8 and 9, 2006, the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons convened in Los Angeles, California, to hear testimony about gang violence from veteran corrections professionals and prison monitors, former prisoners and gang members, and other national experts. Over thirty witnesses testified including: Roderick Hickman, California Corrections Secretary Gwendolyn Chunn, President of the American Correctional Association Harley Lappin, Director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Matthew Cate, California Inspector General Scott Harshbarger, former Massachusetts Attorney General Judge Myron Thompson, U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Alabama and Anne Owers, Chief Inspector of Prisons of the United Kingdom. A transcript of the proceedings, in whole and by witness panel, is available on the Commission's web site, http://www.prisoncommission.org/  The Commission has announced that it will issue its Final Report and Recommendations in May of 2006. The Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons says it is a diverse, 21-member, non-partisan panel co-chaired by former United States Attorney General Nicholas de B. Katzenbach and the Honorable John J. Gibbons, former Chief Judge of the Third Circuit Court of Appeals. The Commission formed in March 2005 to work for one year to explore the most serious problems inside U.S. correctional facilities and their impact on the incarcerated, the men and women who staff facilities, and society at large. The Commission is staffed by and funded through the Vera Institute of Justice.

     Website: National commission to examine U.S. prison conditions. The Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons, at the website, solicits the submission of "accounts from people who have been incarcerated or who have worked in prisons or jails." It also has a registration form enabling persons to receive emailed updates on the work of the Commission and its findings. The Commission's website states that it is "a national effort to clarify the nature and extent of violence, sexual abuse, degradation, and other serious abuses and safety failures in prisons and jails throughout the United States, and also the consequences for prisoners, corrections officers, and the public at large. The Commission formed in February 2005. After a year of inquiry and open hearings, it will offer recommendations for operating safer and more humane correctional institutions." The Commission is co-chaired by former United States Attorney General Nicholas de B. Katzenbach, who was appointed by President Johnson; and the Honorable John J. Gibbons, former Chief Judge of the Third Circuit Court of Appeals, who was appointed by President Nixon.

Prison Litigation Reform Act

     Article: "Civil Right of Prisoners: The Seventh Circuit and Exhaustion of Remedies Under the Prison Litigation Reform Act," by Devin McComb 1 Seventh Circuit Rev. 46 (2006).

Prison Rape and Sexual Misconduct

     AIDS: "Sex, Drugs, Prisons, and HIV," by Susan Okie, M.D., 356 New England Journal of Medicine Number 2 (Jan. 11, 2007) pgs. 105-108

     Article: "Rape and Sexual Misconduct in the Prison System: Analyzing America's Most 'Open' Secret," by Cheryl Bell, et al., 18 Yale L. & Policy Rev. 195 (1999). (.pdf format).

     Article: "The Impact and Recovery of Prison Rape," by Robert W. Dumond, Franklin Pierce College/Consultants for Improved Human Services. (2001) (.pdf format).

     Court Documents: U.S. v. Barnes, et al. Grand jury indictment of guards at a federal detention facility in Florida on claims arising out of purported trading of contraband with female inmates for sexual favors. (U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Florida, June 20, 2006).

     Prison Rape and Sexual Abuse: "PREA Data Collection Activities, 2013," by Allen J. Beck (June 13, 2013 NCJ 242114).

     Prison Rape and Sexual Abuse: Anti-Fraternization Policies and their Utility in Preventing Staff Sexual Abuse in Custody, by Brenda V. Smith and Melissa C. Loomis, Project on Addressing Prison Rape, American University, Washington College of Law (May 1, 2013).

     Prison Rape and Sexual Assault: Letter of Texas Governor Rick Perry to U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder, stating that Texas will not comply with the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) standards, based on rules adopted by the Department of Justice. (March 28, 2014).

   Prison Rape and Sexual Assault: Special Report: Sexual Victimization Reported by Adult Correctional Authorities, 2009-2011, U.S. Department of Justice (January 2014).

     Prison Rape and Sexual Assault: Standards to Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Sexual Abuse and Assault in Confinement Facilities, Final Rule, Department of Homeland Security. 79 FR 13099 (March 7, 2014).

     Prison Rape and Sexual Assault: "Survey of Sexual Violence in Adult Correctional Facilities, 2009-11 - Statistical Tables," by Allen J. Beck and Ramona R. Rantala (January 23, 2014, NCJ 244227).

     Prison Rape and Sexual Misconduct: "Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2011-12," by Allen Beck, Marcus Berzofsky, Rachel Caspar, and Christopher Krebs (NCJ 241399 May 16, 2013).

     Prison Rape: "Sexual Abuse in Custody: A Case Law Survey," by Brenda V. Smith and Melissa C. Loomis (Feb. 2013).

     Prison Rape: PREA Data Collection Activities, 2011, by Allen Beck (May 24, 2011 NCJ 234183). The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA; P.L. 108-79) requires the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) to carry out, for each calendar year, a comprehensive statistical review of the incidence and effects of prison rape in randomly selected federal, state, and county correctional facilities. Every year since 2004, BJS has collected administrative records on allegations and substantiated incidents of sexual victimization in correctional facilities nationwide. BJS also conducted interviews with prison and jail inmates in 2007 and 2008-09 and youth held in juvenile correctional facilities in 2008-09. During 2010, BJS in collaboration with the National Institute of Justice and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a feasibility study using clinical indicators to track sexual violence in prisons and jails. This report provides selected findings and status updates on each of these data collection efforts.

     Prison Rape: "PREA Data Collection Activities, 2010" (NCJ 230448, 4 pp.) provides a comprehensive statistical review and analysis of the incidence and effects of prison rape, as mandated by the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) (P.L. 108-79). (BJS)

     Prison Rape: Prison Rape Elimination Act Data Collection Activities, 2009 The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) (P.L. 108-79) requires the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) to carry out, for each calendar year, a comprehensive statistical review and analysis of the incidence and effects of prison rape. The Act further specifies that the review and analysis shall be based on a random sample, or other scientifically appropriate sample of not less than 10 percent of all Federal, State, and county prisons, and a representative sample of municipal prisons. Nearly 8,700 facilities nationwide are covered by the Act. BJS has developed a multiple-measure, multiple-mode data collection strategy to fully implement requirements under PREA. Results of data collection activities during 2008 and 2009: The Survey on Sexual Violence (SSV) in Correctional Facilities collects data annually on the incidence of sexual violence in adult and juvenile correctional facilities. The National Inmate Survey (NIS) gathers data directly from inmates on the incidence of sexual assault in correctional facilities. In October 2009 BJS expects to release the report entitled Sexual Victimization in State and Federal Prisons as Reported by Inmates, 2008, which will provide prison rankings as required under the Act. Jail rankings are expected to be released by March 2010. The Former Prisoner Survey (FPS) provides national estimates of the incidence of sexual victimization based on reports of former state prison inmates. Results are expected to be released by January 2010. The National Survey of Youth in Custody (NSYC) provides facility-level estimates of youth reporting sexual victimization in juvenile facilities. Facility rankings are expected to be released in a report by December 2009. 07/09 NCJ 227377

    Prison Sexual Abuse: The U.S. Department of Justice has released a proposed rule to prevent and respond to sexual abuse in incarceration facilities pursuant to the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA). The National Standards to Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape will apply to (1) adult prisons and jails; (2) juvenile facilities; (3) community corrections facilities; and (4) lockups (i.e., temporary holding facilities). A 60-day period for public comment will follow the publishing of the rule in the Federal Register. Written comments and electronic comments must be sent on or before 60 days from the date of publication in the Federal Register. A final rule is expected to be published by the end of the year. (January 26, 2011).

     Prison Sexual Abuse: Sexual Victimization Reported by Adult Correctional Authorities, 2007-2008 by Allen J. Beck, Ph.D., and Paul Guerino (January 26, 2011 NCJ 231172). Examines 2007 and 2008 data from the Survey of Sexual Violence (SSV). Conducted since 2004, the SSV is an annual collection of official records on incidents of inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate sexual victimization. This report presents counts of nonconsensual sexual acts, abusive sexual contacts, staff sexual misconduct, and staff sexual harassment reported to correctional authorities in adult prisons, jails, and other adult correctional facilities. Appendix tables include counts of sexual victimization, by type, for the Federal Bureau of Prisons, all state systems, and surveyed jail jurisdictions. An in-depth examination of substantiated incidents is also presented, covering the number and characteristics of victims and perpetrators, location, time of day, nature of the injuries, impact on the victims, and sanctions imposed on the perpetrators. Highlights include the following: Correctional administrators reported 7,444 allegations of sexual victimization in 2008 and 7,374 allegations in 2007. About 54% of substantiated incidents of sexual victimization involved only inmates, while 46% of substantiated incidents involved staff with inmates. Female inmates were disproportionately victimized by both other inmates and staff in federal and state prisons, as well as local jails.

     Prison Rape: "Final Rule to Prevent, Detect and Respond to Prison Rape," U.S. Department of Justice. (May 17, 2012).Press release. Also see the Executive Summary, the Regulatory Impact Assessment, which summarizes the costs and benefits of the rule, and the Presidential Memorandum.

     Prison Rape and Sexual Misconduct: "Report on Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails," Review Panel on Prison Rape (April 2012).

     Prison Rape and Sexual Misconduct: Sexual Victimization in Local Jails Reported by Inmates, 2007. Presents data from the 2007 National Inmate Survey (NIS), conducted in 282 local jails between April and December, with a sample of 40,419 inmates. The report and appendix tables provide a listing of results for sampled local jails, as required under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-79). Facilities are listed alphabetically by state with estimated prevalence rates of sexual victimization as reported by inmates during a personal interview and based on activity in the 6 months prior to the interview or since admission to the facility, if shorter. The report includes national-level and facility-level estimates of nonconsensual sexual acts, abusive sexual contacts, inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate victimization, and level of coercion. It also includes estimates of the standard error for selected measures of sexual victimization and summary characteristics of victims and incidents. Data collected from prison inmates in the National Inmate Survey were reported in Sexual Victimization in State and Federal Prisons Reported by Inmates, 2007, released in December 2007. Highlights include the following: About 1.6% of inmates (12,100, nationwide) reported an incident involving another inmate, and 2.0% (15,200) reported an incident involving staff. Inmate-on-inmate victimization occurred most often in the victim’s cell (56%); staff-on-inmate victimization occurred in a closet, office, or other locked room (47%). An estimated 5.1% of female inmates, compared to 2.9% of male inmates, said they had experienced one or more incidents of sexual victimization. 06/08 NCJ 221946 Press release | Acrobat file (265K) | ASCII file (37K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 47K)

     Prison Rape: Data Collections for the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-79, signed on September 4, 2003), requires the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) to measure the incidence and prevalence of sexual assault within the Nation's correctional facilities. This Status Report includes highlights of the legislation and addresses some of the complexities of collecting sensitive data from various correctional populations. The report also contains descriptions of new data collection efforts that BJS is undertaking in order to meet the requirements of the legislation. 07/04 NCJ 206109 Acrobat file (26K) | ASCII file (651K) Draft survey instruments for the Survey on Sexual Violence: State Prison Systems SSV2 (568K) Local Jail Jurisdictions SSV3 (568K) State Juvenile Systems SSV5 (576K)

     Prison Rape: National Prison Rape Elimination Commission Draft Standards. The National Prison Rape Elimination Commission has released its draft standards for Adult Prisons, Jails, and supplemental standards for Facilities Holding Immigration Detainees. They are now available for public comment for a period of 60 days: May 5, 2008 through July 7, 2008. Another way to access the standards is to visit the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission website at http://www.nprec.us and select “standards and comments” on the left column.

     Prison Rape: "The Prison Rape Elimination Act: Implementation and Unresolved Issues," by Brenda V Smith, Criminal Law Brief American University, Washington College of Law, Washington, DC; 10-18 (Spring 2008)

     Prison Rape: "Prosecuting Sexual Violence in Correctional Settings: Examining Prosecutors’ Perceptions," by Brenda V Smith and Jaime Yarussi, Criminal Law Brief, American University, Washington College of Law, Washington, DC; 19-28 (Spring 2008).

     Prison Rape: "The Violence Against Women Act: Denying Needed Resources Based on Criminal History," by Jaime Yarussi, Criminal Law Brief of American University, Washington College of Law, Washington, DC; 29-36 (Spring 2008).

    Prison Rape and Sexual Assault: Evaluating the Use of Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) Technology to Prevent and Investigate Sexual Assaults in a Correctional Setting, NIJ-Sponsored, October 2009, NCJ 229196. (87 pages). PDF NCJRS Abstract

     Prison Rape and Sexual Misconduct: Anti-Fraternization Policies and Their Utility in Preventing Staff Sexual Abuse in Custody (NCJ 242314), BJA-Sponsored, July 2013.

     Prison Rape and Sexual Misconduct: "Hope for Healing: Information for Survivors of Sexual Assault in Detention," a report by Stop Prisoner Rape. (31 pages, .pdf format, 2006). A publication intended to offer information about the impact of sexual abuse and to assist survivors in efforts to heal from this form of violence.

     Prison Rape and Sexual Misconduct: "In The Shadows: Sexual Violence in U.S. Detention Facilities," a report by Stop Prisoner Rape. (29 pgs., .pdf format, 2006). Reviews application of the Eighth Amendment, the Prison Rape Elimination Act, and U.S. rape and custodial misconduct laws to prison sexual assault, discusses the relationship of overcrowding and inmate classification to prison sexual assaults, and describes particular custodial populations vulnerable to sexual assault, including first-time, non-violent offenders, youth, gay and transgender detainees, and immigration and customs enforcement detainees, and other issues.

     Prison Rape and Sexual Misconduct: Research Report on Sexual Assault in California. In a report submitted to the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, researchers from the Center for Evidence-Based Corrections examine the extent of inmate sexual assault, demographic characteristics of victims, and characteristics of reported incidents. An executive summary is also available. Published Tuesday, June 12, 2007.

     Prison Rape and Sexual Misconduct: Still in Danger: The Ongoing Threat of Sexual Violence Against Transgender Prisoners. Joint publication by Stop Prisoner Rape and the ACLU National Prison Project (14 pgs., .pdf format, 2005).

     Prison Rape and Sexual Misconduct: Texas Update, By Stop Prisoner Rape, "Texas State Prisons Plagued by Sexual Abuse," (8 pgs PDF) (March 2008).

     Prison Sex: Rethinking Prison Sex: Self-Expression and Safety. (Sexuality and the Law) Self-Expression and Safety. (Sexuality and the Law) Author(s) Smith, Brenda V. Details Published 2006. 45 pages. The "complexity of prison sex and the challenges that it raises in the context of recently enacted federal legislation, the Prison Rape Elimination Act ('PREA')" are examined (p. 1). Sections of this article are: abstract; PREA (of 2003) and its precursor; prisoner sex and the birth of U.S. prisons; inmates' interests in sexual expression; legitimate interests for state regulation of prison sex; and conclusion. The author suggests there is a need to balance institutional safety and security with the inmate's wish for consensual sex and individual sexual self-expression. Accession Number: 021523

     Prison Sexual Assault: National Prison Rape Elimination Commission: Report and Recommended Standards (June 2009). Under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, 42 U.S.C. Secs. 15601 et seq., the U.S. Attorney General has until June 23, 2010 to publish a final rule adopting national standards on the issue.

     Prison Sexual Assault: "Improving Prison Oversight to Address Sexual Violence in Detention," by Melissa Rothstein and Lovisa Stannow, American Constitution Society for Law and Policy (July 2009). The authors discuss the need for improved corrections oversight and the specific role that the recently proposed national standards can play. They conclude by urging the Attorney General to ratify the recommended standards, as well as establish a strong, independent mechanism for measuring compliance.

     Proposed Legislation: Proposed Prison Rape Reduction Act of 2002, (S. 7619, H.R. 4943) (.pdf format). The U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee hearing conducted July 31, 2002 is available on-line.

     Reports: Deterring Staff Sexual Abuse of Federal Inmates, by the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General (May 2, 2005). (27 pgs). [PDF] [HTML] A report examining sexual abuse of federal inmates by correctional staff and the current law's impact on deterrence of staff sexual abuse. The report, which examined statistics and cases from the past five years, ending in September of 2004, notes that it is currently illegal for a federal prison employee to have sex with an inmate, whether "consensual" or not, but says that fewer than half of the 163 such instances which investigators found substantiated, and turned over for possible prosecution resulted in actual prosecutions. Federal law, according to the report, considers such sexual conduct a misdemeanor unless force or threats are used by the prison employee, while the majority of states consider such actions felonies even without the use of force or threats. Additionally, the report states that federal laws currently don't apply to instances of sexual abuse of federal prisoners in facilities which are privately run, numbering 15% of such prisoners. The report recommends that the Justice Department should seek passage of legislation amending 18 U.S.C. Sec. 2243(b) to increase the statutory maximum penalty for sexual abuse of a prisoner, even without the use of force or threats, to 5 years' imprisonment and classifying the act as a felony, and increasing the maximum penalty for abusive sexual contact with a prisoner under 18 U.S.C. Sec. 2244(a)(4) and (b) to 2 years' imprisonment from the current 6 months maximum. It also recommends the passage of legislation extending federal criminal jurisdiction to individuals who engage in a sexual act with a federal prisoner housed in a detention facility under contract with the federal government. The text of the proposed changes is contained at the end of the report.

     Report: No Refuge Here: A First Look at Sexual Abuse in Immigration Detention, by Stop Prison Rape. (34 pgs., October 2004, PDF, 3.15 megabytes). A report on alleged sexual assaults in U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention facilities, which house an average of 200,000 people.

     Report: Sexual Misconduct in Prisons: Laws, Remedies, and Incidence, U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections (May 2000). (.pdf format).

     Report: "The Sexual Abuse of Female Inmates in Ohio," by Stop Prison Rape (SPR), 18 pgs, December 2003. [PDF]

     Report: Investigating Allegations of Staff Sexual Misconduct with Inmates, U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections (2000). (downloadable either in sections or the entire document, all in .pdf format).

    Sexual Abuse: The National Council on Crime and Delinquency has published a Special Report examining incidences of reported sexual abuse in juvenile correctional facilities collected from national and selected state and local data. This report also provides recommendations on how to "reduce youth violence and sexual assaults in troubled youth corrections systems." (Jan. 30, 2009).

     Sexual Abuse: Your Role: Responding to Sexual Abuse. National Institute of Corrections. e-Learning Center (Aurora, CO) Details Published 2009. 1 computer disk; CD-ROM. This self-paced course will enable participants to "learn an appropriate initial response to sexual abuse or misconduct in a correctional facility . . . whether the assault was observed or reported directly or indirectly." Lessons comprising this training program are: course introduction; the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA); sexual abuse and the initial responder; the role of the initial responder; effective communication; the responder's role in the investigation; prevention; and course follow up.

     Sexual Abuse and Assault: A 122 page report from the U.S. Justice Department's inspector general's office, "Review of the Department of Justice's Effort to Prevent Staff Sexual Abuse of Federal Inmates, Evaluation and Inspections Report I-2009-004, September 2009" indicates that over 100 federal corrections employees admitted to engaging in unlawful sex acts with prisoners, and that more than two dozen of them smuggled weapons or drugs into prison while attempting to cover up their actions. "Allegations of criminal sexual abuse and noncriminal sexual misconduct more than doubled from 2001 through 2008," the report says. "These allegations increased at a faster rate than either the growth in the prisoner population or the number of Bureau of Prisons staff."

     Sexual Assault: "Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2008-09" (NCJ 231169, 91 pp.) presents data from the National Inmate Survey, 2008-09, conducted in 167 state and federal prisons, 286 local jails, and 10 special correctional facilities between October 2008 and December 2009, with a sample of 81,566 inmates ages 18 or older. (BJS)

     Sexual Assault: Legal Responses to Sexual Violence in Custody: State Criminal Laws Prohibiting Staff Sexual Abuse of Individuals under Custodial Supervision, by Brenda Smith and Jaime M. Yarussi (2009). This publication provides an overview of “criminal laws explicitly prohibiting staff sexual interactions with adults and youth under correctional supervision...and examines trends in their enactment and amendment”. Eight chapters are contained: an introduction to staff sexual misconduct—definitions; state criminal laws coverage of agencies and personnel; state criminal laws—prohibited contact; state criminal laws—defenses to staff sexual misconduct; state criminal laws—criminal penalties; optimal elements of law—criminalizing staff sexual misconduct with offenders; other sanctions and consequences; and conclusion.

     Sexual Assault: Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities Reported by Youth, 2008-09 by Allen J. Beck, Paul Guerino, and Paige M. Harrison, January 7, 2009 NCJ 228416. Presents data from the 2008-09 National Survey of Youth in Custody (NSYC), conducted in 195 juvenile confinement facilities between June 2008 and April 2009, with a sample of over 9,000 adjudicated youth. The report provides national-level and facility-level estimates of sexual victimization by type of activity, including youth-on-youth sexual contact, staff sexual misconduct, and level of coercion. It also includes an analysis of the experience of sexual victimization, characteristics of youth most at risk to victimization, where the incidents occur, time of day, characteristics of perpetrators, and nature of the injuries. Finally, it includes estimates of the sampling error for selected measures of sexual victimization and summary characteristics of victims and incidents. The report and appendix tables provide a listing of results for sampled state and large locally or privately operated facilities, as required under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-79). Facilities are listed alphabetically by state with estimated prevalence rates of sexual victimization as reported by youths during a personal interview and based on activity in the 12 months prior to the interview or since admission to the facility, if shorter. Highlights include the following: This report presents findings from the first National Survey of Youth in Custody (NSYC), representing 26,550 adjudicated youth held nationwide in state operated and large locally or privately operated juvenile facilities. Overall, 91% of youth in these facilities were male; 9% were female. About 12% of youth in state juvenile facilities and large non-state facilities (representing 3,220 youth nationwide) reported experiencing one or more incidents of sexual victimization by another youth or facility staff in the past 12 months or since admission, if less than 12 months. About 2.6% of youth (700 nationwide) reported an incident involving another youth and 10.3% reported an incident involving staff.

     Sexual Assault: Director's Instruction #241, Sexual Assault Procedures. Arizona Department of Corrections.

     Sexual Assault: California has enacted a statute, the Sexual Abuse in Detention Elimination Act, seeking to protect inmates from sexual assault while held in California detention facilities. The statute requires correctional officials to develop guidelines for the provision of resources and counseling from outside organizations to inmates and wards, provide inmates and wards with informational handbooks regarding sexual abuse in detention; adopt specified policies, practices, and protocols related to the housing of inmates, physical and mental health care of survivors, and investigation of sexual abuse; and ensure accurate data collection concerning sexual abuse across all institutions. The bill also establishes an Office of the Sexual Abuse in Detention Elimination Ombudsperson to monitor the prevention of and response to sexual abuse that occurs in California facilities.

     Sexual Assault and Prison Rape: "By the Light of Virtue: Prison Rape and the Corruption of Character," 91 Iowa L. Rev. 561 (2006).

     Sexual Assault and Prison Rape: "The Impact of Prisoner Sexual Violence: Challenges of Implementing Public Law 108-79--The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003," by Robert W. Dumond, 32 J. Legis. 142 (2006).

     Sexual Assault: Kim Shayo Buchanan, Impunity: Sexual Abuse in Women's Prisons, 47 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties L. Rev. 45 (2007).

     Sexual Assault and Prison Rape: "The Prison Litigation Reform Act: A Proposal For Closing the Loophole For Rapists," by Deborah M. Golden, Am. Constitution Soc'y for Law & Policy (June 2006).

     Sexual Assault and Prison Rape: Sexual Violence in the Texas Prison System, NIJ-Sponsored, September 2006, NCJ 215774. (75 pages). PDF NCJRS Abstract

     Sexual Harassment: Federal Bureau of Prisons Program Statement P3713.23 (2005) on Discrimination and Retaliation Complaints Processing. Includes chapter 14 on sexual harassment, including harassment by inmates.

     Statistics: Sexual Violence Reported by Juvenile Correctional Authorities, 2005-06. Presents data from the 2005 and 2006 Survey on Sexual Violence, an administrative records collection of incidents required under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-79) of youth-on-youth and staff-on-youth sexual violence reported to juvenile correctional authorities. The report provides counts of sexual violence, by type, for juvenile correctional facilities. The report also provides an in-depth analysis of substantiated incidents, including where the incidents occur, time of day, number and characteristics of victims and perpetrators, nature of the injuries, impact on the victims and sanctions imposed on the perpetrators. The appendix tables include counts of sexual violence, by type, for all state systems, and all sampled locally or privately operated facilities. Highlights include the following: * Approximately 1 in 5 of reported allegations of juvenile sexual violence were substantiated. * Youth-on-youth incidents were more likely to occur in the victim’s room (37%) or in a common area (32%), compared to staff-on-youth incidents (7% and 13%, respectively). * Victims received physical injuries in 12% of substantiated incidents of youth-on-youth sexual violence; about half received some form of medical follow-up. 07/08 NCJ 215337 Press release | Acrobat file (221K) | ASCII file (31K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 45K)

     Statistics: Sexual Victimization in State and Federal Prisons Reported by Inmates, 2007. Presents data from the National Inmate Survey (NIS), 2007, conducted in 146 State and Federal prisons between April and August 2007, with a sample of 23,398 inmates. The report and appendix tables provide a listing of State and Federal prisons ranked according to the incidence of prison rape, as required under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-79). Facilities are listed by the prevalence and incidence of sexual victimization in each facility, as reported by inmates during a personal interview and based on activity since admission to the facility or in the 12 months prior to the interview. The report includes national-level and facility-level estimates of nonconsensual sexual acts, abusive sexual contacts, inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate victimization, and level of coercion. It also includes estimates of the standard error for selected measures of sexual victimization. Data from jail inmates collected in the National Inmate Survey will be completed in January 2008, with a report ranking facilities expected in April 2008. Highlights include the following: An estimated 60,500 inmates (or 4.5% of all State and Federal inmates) experienced one or more incidents of sexual victimization involving other inmates or staff. Nationwide, about 2.1% of inmates reported an incident involving another inmate and 2.9% reported an incident involving staff. Among the 146 prison facilities in the 2007 NIS, 6 had no reports of sexual victimization from the sampled inmates; 10 had an overall victimization rate of at least 9.3%. Among the 10 facilities with the highest overall prevalence rates, 3 had prevalence rates of staff sexual misconduct that exceeded 10%. 12/07 NCJ 219414 Press release | Acrobat file (419K) | ASCII file (42K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 39K)

     Statistics: Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2005. Presents data from the Survey on Sexual Violence, 2005, an administrative records collection of incidents of inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate sexual violence reported to correctional authorities. The report provides counts of sexual violence, by type, for adult prisons, jails, and other adult correctional facilities. The report provides an in-depth analysis of substantiated incidents, including where the incidents occur, time of day, number and characteristics of victims and perpetrators, nature of the injuries, impact on the victims and sanctions imposed on the perpetrators. The appendix tables include counts of sexual violence, by type, for all State systems, the Federal Bureau of Prisons, and all sampled jail jurisdictions. The report also includes an update on BJS activities related to implementation of the data collections required under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-79). Highlights include the following: Correctional authorities substantiated 885 incidents of sexual violence in 2005, 15% of completed investigations. 38% of allegations involved staff sexual misconduct; 35% inmate-on-inmate nonconsensual sexual acts; 17%, staff sexual harassment; and 10% inmate-on-inmate abusive sexual contact. Half of inmate-on-inmate sexual violence involved physical force or threat of force. 7/06 NCJ 214646 Press release | Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2004. Presents data from the Survey on Sexual Violence, 2004, an administrative records collection of incidents of inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate sexual violence reported to correctional authorities. The report provides counts of sexual violence by type and includes tables on reporting capabilities, how investigations are handled, and characteristics of victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. The appendix tables include counts of sexual violence, by type, for the 2,730 facilities included in the survey. This report also includes an update on BJS activities related to implementation of the data collections required under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-79). Highlights include the following: In 2004, correctional authorities reported 3.15 allegations of sexual violence per 1,000 inmates. Males comprised 90% of victims and perpetrators of inmate-on-inmate nonconsensual acts in prison and jail. In State prisons 69% of victims of staff sexual misconduct were male, while 67% of perpetrators were female. 07/05 NCJ 210333 Press release | Acrobat file (322K) | ASCII file (39K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 40K)


Prison Recycling

     Prison Recycling: "A Review of Federal Prison Industries’ Electronic-Waste Recycling Program," U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General (October 2010).

Prison Riots

     Prison Riots: Ready to Rumble: Mock Prison Riot 2010, by National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center, NCJ 231043, August 2010, TechBeat Article.

Prison Security

     Publications: Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Managing Prison Security Systems [Participant's Manual] Published 2005 File Size: 3.65 MB PDF National Institute of Corrections. The need for a seamless prison security system with fully integrated component parts is addressed by this 36-hour training program. This manual contains the following modules: laying the foundation; shifting paradigms of prison security; introduction to "seamless security"; planning for "seamless security"; identification of individual "security-related" management issues; building "seamless security" management relationships; introduction to action planning; maintaining "seamless security" management; action planning exercise; and preparation and presentation of individual action plans.

Prisoner Assault

     Prisoner Assault: Indictments charge that deputies beat both jail inmates and visitors at a Los Angeles, California county jail without any valid reason, unjustly detained people, and acted together in a conspiracy to obstruct federal investigators.

Prisoner Classification

     Prisoner Classification: "Prisoner Intake Systems: Assessing Needs and Classifying Prisoners" by Johnette Peyton. Examines tasks, assessments, and technology used in prison intake systems. Includes in-depth profiles of systems in four states. National Institute of Corrections (Washington, D.C. 2004). 98 pgs. [PDF]

Prisoner Death

     Prisoner Deaths: Excited Delirium and the Dual Response: Preventing In-Custody Deaths, by Brian Roach, Kelsey Echols, and Aaron Burnett, .FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Jul. 2014).

     Statistics: Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2012 - Statistical Tables, by Scott Ginder and Margaret E. Noonan (October 9, 2014 NCJ 247448).

Prisoner Suicide

    Jail Suicides:  American Indian Suicides in Jail: Can Risk Screening Be Culturally Sensitive? June 2005 [PDF] Do jail inmates' cultural backgrounds affect how they react to authorities' attempts to assess their risk for suicide? A recent National Institute of Justice (NIJ) study found that the screening questionnaire used by a county jail located near Indian lands failed to elicit direct responses about personal matters from American Indian detainees. Findings suggest that tailoring suicide risk assessment protocols to the cultural backgrounds of detainee populations might be more effective.

     Prisoner Suicide: Technical Assistance Report on Suicide Prevention Practices Within the Massachusetts Department of Correction 63 pages, 2007. Author(s) Hayes, Lindsay M. Source(s) National Center on Institutions and Alternatives (Mansfield, MA) Details Published 2007. 63 pages. An assessment of the Massachusetts Department of Corrections' suicide prevention procedures is provided. Four sections comprise this report: introduction; findings and recommendations regarding staff training, identification and screening, communication, housing, levels of supervision, intervention, reporting, and follow-up and mortality review; summary of recommendations; and conclusion.

     Prisoner Suicide: Juvenile Suicide in Confinement, a National Survey, U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (Feb. 2009).

     Statistics: Suicide and Homicide in State Prisons and Local Jails. Describes historical trends in State prison and local jail inmate mortality rates based on inmate death records submitted by local jails (for 2000-2002) and State prisons (for 2001-2002). The report also compares current prison and jail mortality rates by demographic characteristics, offense types, and facility size and jurisdiction and compares the general population mortality rates with mortality rates in correctional facilities. Comparisons are made to both the raw mortality rates for the general population and those standardized to match the demographic makeup of the inmate populations. This report presents the first findings from the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, which implements the Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-297). This new program involves the collection of individual records for every inmate death in the Nation’s local jails and State prisons. The program also includes the collection of death records from State juvenile correctional authorities (begun in 2002) and State and local law enforcement agencies (begun in 2003). For updated data, see Suicide and Homicide in Prisons and Jails in Key Facts at a Glance. Highlights include the following: * In 2002 the suicide rate in local jails (47 per 100,000 inmates) was over 3 times the rate in State prisons (14 per 100,000 inmates). * Homicide rates were similar in local jails (3 per 100,000) and State prisons (4 per 100,000). * Violent offenders in both local jails (92 per 100,000) and State prisons (19 per 100,000) had suicide rates over twice as high as those of nonviolent offenders (31 and 9 per 100,000 respectively). 08/05 NCJ 210036 Press release | Acrobat file (617K) | ASCII file (38K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Website: Suicide and parasuicide. "This site brings the latest subjects and resources related with the study of the suicidal phenomena. It is specially designed for health care professionals; Psychiatrists, Psychologists, Suicidologists, Sociologists, Therapists and other mental health practitioners and general health care providers."

Prisoner Tax Fraud

     Prisoner Tax Fraud: "Further Efforts Are Needed to Ensure the Internal Revenue Service Prisoner File Is Accurate and Complete," by the Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration (December 18, 2012). Prison inmates filed 173,000 fraudulent tax returns last year, claiming $2.5 billion in tax refunds. $1.1 billion of that amount was claimed by just two prisoners.

Private Prisons

     Article: Reforming Prison Contracting: An Examination of Federal Private Prison Contracts By Joseph Summerill. December 2002. (Corrections Today, published by the American Correctional Association)

    Article: Camp, S. D. and Gaes, G. G. (2002). Growth and Quality of U.S. Private Prisons: Evidence from a National Survey, Criminology & Public Policy, Forthcoming. [PDF]

     Article: Camp, S. D., Gaes, G. G., and Saylor, W. G. (2002). Quality of Prison Operations in the Federal Sector: A Comparison with a Private Prison. Punishment & Society, 4: 1: 27-53. [PDF]

     Private Prisons: "Cost Analysis of Public and Contractor-Operated Prisons," by Dr. Simon Hakim and Dr. Erwin A, Blackstone, Temple University Center for Competitive Government (April 29, 2013).

     Private Prisons: "Prison Bed Profiteers: How Corporations Are Reshaping Criminal Justice in the United States," by Christopher Hartney and Caroline Glesmann, National Council on Crime & Delinquency (May 2012).

     Private Prisons: "Private Prisons: The Public's Problem. A Quality Assessment of Arizona's Private Prisons," American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) (February, 2012).

     Private Prisons: "Too Good to be True: Private Prisons in America," by Cody Mason, The Sentencing Project (January 2012).

     Private Prisons: "Banking on Bondage: Private Prisons and Mass Incarceration," ACLU report (November 2011).

     Private Prisons: "Gaming the System: How the Political Strategies of Private Prison Companies Promote Ineffective Incarceration Policies," by Paul Ashton, Justice Policy Institute (June 22, 2011). The report indicates that the inmate population of private facilities has increased 353 percent in 15 years, compared with a nearly 50 percent growth in prison population overall.

     Private Prisons: FY 2010 Operating Per Capita Cost Report. Cost Identification and Comparison of State and Private Contract Beds. Arizona Dept. of Corrections (April 13, 2011).

     Private Prisons: "Prisons For Profit: A Look at Prison Privatization," ACLU of Ohio (April 2011).

     Private Prisons and Entities: Contracting for Imprisonment in the Federal Prison System: Cost and Performance of the Privately Operated Taft Correctional Institution, NIJ-Sponsored, 11/2005, NCJ 211990. (173 pages). Abstract Full Document

     Publication: "Governments' Management of Private Prisons," by Douglas McDonald and Carl Patten. (139 pgs., 1/2004) Prepared for the National Institute of Justice. Examines state and federal governments' practices of contracting with private firms to manage prisons, including prisons owned by state and federal governments and those owned by private firms. Its focus is on contracting for imprisonment services in secure facilities, rather than for low-security or non-secure community-based facilities. The focus is also limited to facilities for convicted adult offenders, rather than facilities that serve as local jails or immigrant detention facilities. NCJ 203968. [PDF]

     Publication: "Weighing the Watchmen: Evaluating the Costs and Benefits of Outsourcing Correctional Services, Part 1: Employing a Best-Value Approach to Procurement," by Geoffrey F. Segal and Adrian Moore. Reason Public Policy Institute, January 2002. (29 pgs. PDF). "Part 2: Reviewing the Literature on Cost and Quality Comparisons" by Geoffrey F. Segal and Adrian Moore. Reason Public Policy Institute, January 2002 (29 pgs. PDF).

Probation, Parole and Prisoner Reentry Issues

     Article: "Prisoner Reentry: A Public Safety Opportunity," by John Larivee, chief executive officer of the Community Resources for Justice, Boston, Massachusetts. Remarks made by Mr. Larivee before the National District Attorneys' Association (NDAA) Crime Control Committee meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana, March 20, 2003. Vol. 37 The Prosecutor #3 pgs. 43-45 (May/June 2003). A discussion of the importance of programs to ensure that prisoners being released are encouraged to be "civil and productive members" of the community. Includes statistical information from a Massachusetts study and discusses the experience of the "Boston Reentry Initiative" carried out by a partnership of the Boston Police Department, the Suffolk County Sheriff's Department, the Suffolk County district attorney, probation, parole, local churches, social service agencies, and community groups.

     Book: When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry (Studies in Crime and Public Policy) by Professor Joan Petersilia of the University of California at Irvine ($29.95, 288 pages, New York: Oxford University Press 2003).

     Community Corrections: Article: "Community Corrections and Community Policing," by David Leitenberger, Pete Semenyna, and Jeffrey B. Spelman, 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 11, pgs. 20-23. [PDF] "A partnership between corrections and police officers can greatly enhance community supervision efforts."

    Community Supervision: Implementing the Family Support Approach for Community Supervision, by Tracy G. Mullins, American Probation and Parole Association, and Christine Toner, Family Justice. (2008).

     Conference Papers: “From Prison to Home” conference papers now available. Eleven papers from the conference “From Prison to Home: The Effect of Incarceration and Reentry on Children, Families, and Communities” are now available online. The conference, held January 30–31, 2002, at the National Institutes of Health, was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The purpose of the conference was to bring together the research, policy, and practice communities to share promising strategies, develop a research agenda, and inform federal policy development for children and families affected by the incarceration of a parent. The conference papers, written by leading academics, examine the dynamics of incarceration and reentry as seen through the prism of individual, family, and community perspectives. Abstracts and full text of the papers are available on the Urban Institute Web site.

     Parole: "Special Report: California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation's Implementation of the Non-Revocable Parole Program," California Office of the Inspector General (May 2011). The report concludes that computer errors, among other things, caused the mistaken release of approximately 450 California inmates with "a high risk for violence" into a program of unsupervised parole fashioned for the purpose of controlling prison overcrowding.

     Parole: Characteristics of State Parole Supervising Agencies, 2006. Presents information for 52 state parole supervising agencies at midyear 2006, including the California Youth Authority and the District of Columbia. This report describes, by state, where these agencies were located in each state's administrative structure, the number of adult parolees, and probationers, if any, under supervision, and the number of separate offices the parole agency operated. National estimates are presented for the number and type of staff employed by parole supervising agencies and of parole supervision caseloads. Use of drug abuse testing, various treatment programs, and the availability of housing and employment assistance programs are documented. Highlights include the following: * Five state agencies accounted for about half of the adults under parole supervision on June 30, 2006: Departments of Corrections in California (125,067 adults on parole); Texas (101,175); and Illinois (33,354); and two independent agencies, New York (53,215) and Pennsylvania (24,956, excluding adults supervised by county parole offices). * Half of parole supervising agencies had a role in releasing prisoners to parole, setting the conditions of supervision, or conducting revocation hearings. * Up to 16% of at-risk parolees in some agencies were re-incarcerated for a failed drug test. 08/08 NCJ 222180. Press release | Acrobat file (133K) | ASCII file (19K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 19K).

     Prisoner Recidivism: "Prisoner Recidivism Analysis Tool," (BJS, February 3, 2011). This analysis tool allows users to calculate recidivism rates for persons released from state prisons. Recidivism rates may be generated for the entire sample of released prisoners or for released prisoners with specific demographic, criminal history, and sentence attributes. The tool uses data collected by BJS on a sample of persons released from state prisons in 1994 and followed for a 3-year period. These are the most recent recidivism data available until a new BJS study on the recidivism of state prisoners released in 2005 is published in 2012.

     Prisoner Reentry: Integrated Reentry and Employment Strategies: Reducing Recidivism and Promoting Job Readiness (NCJ 243628), BJA-Sponsored, 2013.

     Prisoner Reentry: "The National Institute of Justice's Evaluation of Second Chance Act Adult Reentry Courts: Program Characteristics and Preliminary Themes from Year 1," by Christine Lindquist, Jennifer Hardison Walters, Michael Rempel, and Shannon M. Carey. Document No.: 241400 (March 2013).

     Prisoner Reentry: "Exploring the Role of the Police in Prisoner Reentry," by Jeremy Travis, Ronald Davis and Sarah Lawrence, National Institute of Justice (2012).

     Prisoner Reentry: The National Reentry Resource Center: What Works in Reentry Clearinghouse, a joint project of the Urban Institute, the Council of State Governments, and the John Jay College of Criminal Justice Prisoner Reentry Institute.

     Prisoner Reentry:  EEOC "Enforcement Guidance on the Consideration of Arrest and Conviction Records in Employment Decisions."

     Prisoner Reentry: "A Signaling Perspective on Employment-Based Reentry," Special issue of Criminology & Public Policy (February 2012).

     Prisoner Reentry: "Unlocking Employment Opportunity for Previously Incarcerated Persons in the District of Columbia," a report by the Council for Court Excellence (Nov. 2011).

     Prisoner Reentry: "Reentry Myth Busters," Federal Interagency Reentry Council (2011).

    Prisoner Reentry: The Public Health Implications of Prisoner Reentry in California. A new publication from the Rand Corporation looks at how behavioral and physical health care affects a former prisoner’s successful reintegration into society, and what role public health services can play in this transfer. According to the report, the prison population is “disproportionately sicker on average than the U.S. population in general, with substantially higher rates of infectious diseases (such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and hepatitis B and C), serious mental illness, and substance abuse disorders.”

     Prisoner Reentry: Legal Barriers to Prisoner Reentry in New Jersey: Employment. New Jersey Institute for Social Justice (NJISJ) (Newark, NJ). Laws and regulations governing the employment of ex-offenders are explained. Information regarding the statute or regulation, conviction or offense, consequences, and remedies are given for employment barriers. Issues and legislation regarding occupational licensing, expungement, and protection from discrimination are also reviewed.

     Prisoner Reentry Programs: Reentry Partnerships: A Guide for States & Faith-Based and Community Organizations, by Yoon, Jamie, and Jessica Nickel, New York: Council of State Governments Justice Center, 2008.

     Prisoner Reentry: The Jail Administrator's Toolkit for Reentry (NCJ 222041), Urban Institute, May 2008 (PDF). Provides practitioner-oriented guidelines and principles, accompanied by examples from jails and criminal justice officials across the country, to assist in developing strategies for preparing inmates to transition from jail to the community, including prerelease planning, discharge planning, transition planning, continuity of care, community-oriented corrections, and transitional care. This toolkit is a companion piece to Life after Lockup: Improving Reentry from Jail to the Community, summarized below. (NCJ 220095).

     Prisoner Reentry: Life After Lockup: Improving Reentry from Jail to the Community (NCJ 220095), Urban Institute, May 2008 (PDF). Presents an overview of U.S. jails and the people who cycle through them, examines various ways that jurisdictions can address reentry from jail, profiles numerous and diverse reentry efforts from around the country, and explores the role of probation in reentry from jail. This monograph is a companion piece to The Jail Administrator's Toolkit for Reentry, summarized above. (NCJ 222041).

     Prisoner Reentry: "Putting Them Away and Helping Them Out: The Prosecutor's Role in Offender Reentry," by Patricia L. Fanflik & David R. Troutman, 41 The Prosecutor No. 2, pg. 26-29, & 48 (March/April 2007). "NDAA study explores the role of prosecutors in comprehensive reentry initiates, activities, and programs."

     Prisoner Reentry: "Major Study Examines Prisoners and Their Reentry Needs," by Christy A. Visher, Ph.D., and Pamela K. Lattimore, Ph.D., NIJ Journal No. 258 (October 2007).

     Prisoner Reentry Issues:  One Year Out: Experiences of Prisoners Returning to Cleveland Author(s) Visher, Christy A. Courtney, Shannon M.E. Source(s) Urban Institute. Justice Policy Center (Washington, DC) Sponsor(s) George Gund Foundation (Cleveland, OH) Health Foundation of Greater Cincinnati (Cincinnati, OH) Cleveland Foundation (Cleveland, OH) Smith Richardson Foundation (Westport, CT) Annie E. Casey Foundation (Baltimore, MD) Ohio. Office of Criminal Justice Services (Columbus, OH) Ohio Dept. of Rehabilitation and Correction (Columbus, OH) Details Published 2007. 15 pages. This research brief is intended to serve as a foundation for policy discussions about how released prisoners can successfully reintegrate into their communities, whether in Cleveland or in similar cities around the country" (p. 1). Sections of this report include: key findings, housing and community residence; employment and financial circumstances; family and peers; program participation and post-release attitudes; physical and mental health; profile of study participants; substance use; post-release supervision; criminal involvement; understanding reentry success and failure; and summary and policy implications. Accession Number: 022266 Related Documents

     Probation: "A Ten-Step Guide to Transforming Probation Departments to Reduce Recidivism," BJA and the Council of State Governments Justice Center, (August 2011). This guide provides probation leaders with a roadmap to overhaul the operations of their agencies so they can increase public safety in their communities and improve rates of compliance among people they are supervising.

     Probation: Desktop Guide for Tribal Probation Personnel: The Screening and Assessment Process (PDF), BJA and the American Probation & Parole Association, (May 2011). This guide is intended to provide tribal probation personnel with information on how the screening and assessment process can facilitate and promote offender accountability and long-term behavior change.

     Publication: Implementation and Outcome Evaluation of the Intensive Aftercare Program: Final Report (NCJ 206177) March 2005 Report, 110 pages Le, T.N., McNulty, B., Wagner, D., Wang, Y., Wiebush, R.G. Presents the findings from a 5-year, multi-site evaluation of the implementation and outcomes of OJJDP’s (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention) Intensive Aftercare Program (IAP). The goal of the IAP model is to reduce recidivism among high-risk parolees. The model postulates that effective intervention requires not only intensive supervision and services after institutional release, but also a focus on reintegration during incarceration and a highly structured and gradual transition between institutionalization and aftercare. Available online only. PDF(807 KB)

     Publication: "Probation and Parole in the United States, 2002" Reports the number of persons on probation and parole, by State, at yearend 2002 and compares the totals with year end 1995 and 2000. It lists the States with the largest and smallest parole and probation populations and the largest and smallest rates of community supervision, and identifies the States with the largest increases. This report also describes the race and gender of these populations and reports the percentages of parolees and probationers completing community supervision successfully, or failing because of a rule violation or a new offense. Highlights include the following: The adult probation population grew 1.6% in 2002, an increase of 63,434 probationers, about half the average annual growth of 3.1% since 1995. Overall, the Nation's parole population grew by 20,808 in 2002, or 2.8%, almost double the average annual growth of 1.5% since 1995. 08/03 NCJ 201135 Press release | Acrobat file (335K) [PDF]| ASCII file (17K) Spreadsheets (zip format 26K).

     Publications: Implementation and Outcome Evaluation of the Intensive Aftercare Program: Final Report (NCJ 206177) March 2005 Report, 110 pages Le, T.N., McNulty, B., Wagner, D., Wang, Y., Wiebush, R.G. Presents the findings from a 5-year, multi-site evaluation of the implementation and outcomes of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP) Intensive Aftercare Program (IAP). The goal of the IAP model is to reduce recidivism among high-risk parolees. The model postulates that effective intervention requires not only intensive supervision and services after institutional release, but also a focus on reintegration during incarceration and a highly structured and gradual transition between institutionalization and aftercare. Available online only. [PDF] (807 KB)

     Publication: Interstate Compact for Adult Offender Supervision. (May 2003). Summary: More than 40 states have now enacted legislation to amend the 1937 interstate compact for supervision of adults on parole or probation The compact governs the travel, movement, and supervision of adult probationers or parolees from a sending state, where they have been convicted of crimes, to a receiving state. This on-line publication (.html format) contains links to useful documents and resources concerning the existing Interstate Compact and amendments to it, as well as a sourcebook for states on compact issues with "tips" for compliance with compact requirements, prepared by the National Institute of Corrections and the Council of State Governments in 2002.

     Reentry Programs: The National Institute of Corrections and project partner the Urban Institute launched the Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) initiative in 2007. TJC efforts prepare and support jail inmates for a successful return to their communities. The TJC Implementation Toolkit is now online. This web-based learning resource guides local criminal justice agencies and community-based organizations through implementation of the TJC model, in whole or in part. Users of the toolkit can navigate through the nine modules at their own pace. Click here to view the toolkit. Learn more about NIC's Reentry/Transition models for prisons and jails. (May 7, 2010).

     Reentry Programs: A publication by the National Association of Counties (NACo), Reentry for Safer Communities Effective County Practices in Jail to Community Transition Planning for Offenders with Mental Health and Substance Abuse Disorders, highlights six county sites with effective programs for this population. "The Reentry Focus Group identified and defined five major characteristics of promising practices in local transition planning" as: Collaboration, Access to Benefits, Sustainability, Cultural/Gender Components, and Community Linkages. The six model county programs are then viewed according to these characteristics. The benefits of reentry and long term cost savings are demonstrated.

     Search and Seizure: "Hooking the Crook: The Seventh Circuit Justifies the Suspicionless Search of a Probationer," by Meira Greenberg. 2 Seventh Circuit Rev. 203 (2006)

     Search & Seizure: Probationers and Parolees: "Probationers, Parolees, and the Fourth Amendment," by Thomas D. Colbridge, 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 7, pgs. 11-22 (July 2003)."Probationers and parolees have limited Fourth Amendment protection because of their unique status." Also available in .html format.

     Statistics: "Probation and Parole in the United States, 2011," by Laura M. Maruschak and Erika Parks (November 29, 2012 NCJ 239686).

     Statistics: Characteristics of State Parole Supervising Agencies, 2006. Presents information for 52 state parole supervising agencies at midyear 2006, including the California Youth Authority and the District of Columbia. This report describes, by state, where these agencies were located in each state's administrative structure, the number of adult parolees, and probationers, if any, under supervision, and the number of separate offices the parole agency operated. National estimates are presented for the number and type of staff employed by parole supervising agencies and of parole supervision caseloads. Use of drug abuse testing, various treatment programs, and the availability of housing and employment assistance programs are documented. Highlights include the following: * Five state agencies accounted for about half of the adults under parole supervision on June 30, 2006: Departments of Corrections in California (125,067 adults on parole); Texas (101,175); and Illinois (33,354); and two independent agencies, New York (53,215) and Pennsylvania (24,956, excluding adults supervised by county parole offices). * Half of parole supervising agencies had a role in releasing prisoners to parole, setting the conditions of supervision, or conducting revocation hearings. * Up to 16% of at-risk parolees in some agencies were re-incarcerated for a failed drug test. 08/08 NCJ 222180 Press release | Acrobat file (133K) | ASCII file (19K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 19K)

     Statistics: Probation and Parole in the United States, 2003 Reports the number of persons on probation and parole, by State, at year end 2003 and compares the totals with year end 1995 and 2002. It lists the States with the largest and smallest parole and probation populations and the largest and smallest rates of community supervision, and identifies the States with the largest increases. The Bulletin also describes the race and gender of these populations and reports the percentages of parolees and probationers completing community supervision successfully, or failing because of a rule violation or a new offense. Highlights include the following: The adult probation population grew 1.2% in 2003, an increase of 49,920 probationers, less than half the average annual growth of 2.9% since 1995. Overall, the Nation's parole population grew by 23,654 in 2003, or 3.1%, almost double the average annual growth of 1.7% since 1995. 49% of all probationers had been convicted of a felony, 49% of a misdemeanor, and 2% of other infractions. The total Federal, State, and local adult correctional population -- incarcerated or in the community -- grew by 130,700 during 2003 to reach a new high of nearly 6.9 million. 07/25/04 NCJ 205336 Press release | Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Video: Community-Supervision: Using a Strength-Based, Family-Focused Approach [Satellite/Internet Broadcast] "This 3-hour program, originally broadcast March 16, 2005, will help professionals identify the strengths and resources inherent in the family as a fundamental support system for individuals upon their release from prison or jail. It is designed to stimulate new ways of thinking about the family as a resource to enhance offender reentry and supervision and to increase public safety. Family, broadly defined, includes individuals' blood relatives and friends who play a significant role in a person's life. Family members are essential resources who may ease the transition from confinement to the community or positively enhance the community supervision process. Unfortunately, the family is too often viewed as presenting challenges rather than as a source of shared history and untapped resources. The goal of this broadcast is to encourage participants to think about: enhancing the reentry and supervision processes through contextual thinking about the family; tapping the strengths of families and communities as means of good government to enhance public safety; utilizing family and community resources after government intervention has ended; and addressing the challenge of negotiating multiple services that may be used by the family to enhance positive outcomes." To view this Internet streaming broadcast, you must have a compatible viewer installed on your computer. If you have a high-speed Internet connection use Windows Media Player®. If you have a low-speed connection or are using Windows NT, use Real Player One®. To download a video player click here: Windows Media Player® Real Player One®.

Racial Discrimination

     Study: A new analysis by The Sentencing Project provides a regional examination of the racial and ethnic dynamics of incarceration in the U.S., and finds broad variations in racial disparity among the 50 states. The report, Uneven Justice: State Rates of Incarceration by Race and Ethnicity (July 2007), finds that African Americans are incarcerated at nearly six (5.6) times the rate of whites and Hispanics nearly double (1.8) the rate.

Religion

     Religion: "Report on the Tenth Anniversary of the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act," U.S. Department of Justice Department (Sept. 22, 2010),

     Religion: "A Review of the Bureau of Prisons' Selection of Muslim Religious Services Providers, April 2004," a report by the Inspector General's Office of the U.S. Department of Justice. [PDF]. It is also available in .html format.

     Religion: Department Order 904, Inmate Religious Activities/Marriage Requests, Arizona Department of Corrections. Topics covered include pastoral services, religious preferences, religious activities, religious accommodations, religious visitation, the religious advisory committee, and marriage.

Research Studies

     Article: "Inmate Litigation," by Schlanger, Margo, Assistant Prof. of Law, Harvard Law School, 116 Harvard Law Review No. 6, pgs. 1555-1706 (April 2003). An examination of the "large portion of the federal district court civil docket brought by inmates, before and after the Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA) dramatically altered the litigation landscape in 1996." There are many statistical charts and tables, including statistics on jury awards and settlements. In the introduction, Prof. Schlanger notes that 2001 filings by inmates were down 43% since their peak in 1995, notwithstanding a simultaneous twenty-three percent increase in the number of people incarcerated nationwide, and she attributes most of this to the impact of the PLRA. An on-line synopsis of the article is available in .PDF format.

     Ex-Inmate Employment: "Reaching a Higher Ground: Increasing Employment Opportunities for People with Prior Convictions," The Berkeley Center for Criminal Justice (Nov. 2010).

     Publication: "Corrections and Law Enforcement Family Support" by Renee Edel. 147 pgs., 1/2004, NCJ 203979. A research study submitted to the National Institute of Justice concerning the nature of stress experienced by juvenile correctional officers and juvenile probation officers in Cuyahoga County Ohio, and reporting on the development of a comprehensive wellness program for Juvenile Probation and Detention Officers in an Urban Juvenile Court. [PDF].

     Research: Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction, Ohio Corrections Research Compendium. (April 2004, 274 pgs.). [PDF]

     Report: "Ethical considerations for research involving prisoners," Institute of Medicine (IOM). (July 12, 2006). This panel report recommends that government restrictions on the use of prisoners in pharmaceutical research be loosened. Prior to the passage of new regulations in 1978, approximately 90% of all pharmaceutical products were tested on prisoners. Following allegations of past abuses, regulations now bar the use of prisoners in federally funded studies of drugs unless those studies pose no more than "minimal risks" to the prisoner. The report proposes changing this to allow prisoners to participate in experiments with larger risks if the research has the potential to benefit prisoners. The study was requested by a U.S. Department of Health and Human Services committee.

     Conference Papers: “From Prison to Home” conference papers now available. Eleven papers from the conference “From Prison to Home: The Effect of Incarceration and Reentry on Children, Families, and Communities” are now available online. The conference, held January 30–31, 2002, at the National Institutes of Health, was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The purpose of the conference was to bring together the research, policy, and practice communities to share promising strategies, develop a research agenda, and inform federal policy development for children and families affected by the incarceration of a parent. The conference papers, written by leading academics, examine the dynamics of incarceration and reentry as seen through the prism of individual, family, and community perspectives. Abstracts and full text of the papers are available on the Urban Institute Web site.

     Publication: Research in Review, Vol. 6, No. 4 (December 2003). The most recent of a series describing research carried out by the agency or its research partners. This issue includes a long-term outcome evaluation of the Department's alcohol and drug therapeutic communities, and a summary of the process evaluation of the Department's educational and vocation programs. Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. 17 pgs. [PDF]

     Research Studies: An annotated list of research studies prepared by the New York State Department of Correctional Services during 2002. Topics include "Shock Incarceration Program," "Earned Eligibility Program," "Merit Time Program," "Research on Comprehensive Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment," "Research on Psychological Screening Program for Correction Officer Candidates," "Recidivism Research," "Statistical Reports on Inmate Population," "Characteristics of Inmates Discharged," "Unusual Incident Report, January-December 2001," "Inmate Mortality Report 1997-2000," "Inmate Escape Incidents 1997-2001," "Criminal Justice Statistics," "Parole Board Dispositions at DOCS Facilities 2001," "Research on Extent of Substance Abuse in Inmate Population," "Research on the Foreign-Born Inmate Population," "Video Teleconferencing for Deportation Hearings," "The State Criminal Alien Assistance Program," Female Inmates," and "New York State's Victim Notification Program." Also available on the website is a selected listing of earlier research reports prepared during the last decade.

     Research Reports: "Annotated Listing of Research Studies And Legislative Reports" (Year 2003). New York State Department of Correctional Services. (Includes a link to a request form to obtain full copies of individual studies and reports). A total of 35 such studies and reports are briefly summarized, including documents on such subjects as a "shock incarceration program," "merit time program," "comprehensive alcohol and substance abuse treatment," "psychological screening program for correction officer candidates," "recidivism research," statistical reports on inmate population, inmate suicide, "the impact of foreign-born inmates on the New York State Department of Correctional Services," female inmates and offenders, and inmate grievance programs.

     Publication: Correctional Boot Camps: Lessons Learned From a Decade of Research by Dale J. Parent (National Institute of Justice - NIJ) (July 2003) (Text or PDF) This NIJ Research for Practice presents findings from 10 years of data analyzing whether boot camps are successful in reducing recidivism, prison populations, and operating costs. The report found that although boot camps generally had positive effects on the attitudes and behaviors of inmates during confinement, these changes did not translate into reduced recidivism. Programs were often too brief to exert a lasting effect on inmates released to the community and they lacked, as well, a strong treatment model or sufficient preparation for reentry into the community. Boot camps' efforts to achieve multiple goals contributed to conflicting results. For example, lengthening camps so that more treatment programs could be included, which reduced recidivism, also shortened the discount in time served and undercut lower prison bed costs.

     Publication: Research in Review, Volume 6, No. 3. [PDF] A publication of the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. (12 pgs. September 30, 2003). This issue focuses upon the process evaluation of the Department's Community Orientation Reintegration program, concerning preparing inmates for reintegration into the community, and reports on a study of the program by a team of researchers from the Washington, D.C.-based Urban Institute.

     Report: "Lessons Learned From Early Corrections and Law Enforcement Family Support (CLEFS) Programs," by Robert P. Delprino Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Buffalo State College, S.U.N.Y. 51 pgs. (Feb. 2002). [PDF format] This report summarizes lessons learned from the experience of 32 grants awarded by the National Institute of Justice since 1996 to address the negative effects of stress experienced by law enforcement and correctional officers and their families under the Corrections and Law Enforcement Family Support (CLEFS) Program developed in response to Section 2301 of the 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Assistance Act.

     Report: "Work and Family Support Services for Correctional Officers and Their Family Members: A National Survey," by Robert P. Delprino, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Buffalo State College, S.U.N.Y. (Feb. 2002). 80 pgs. [PDF format]. This report summarizes the results of a national survey of correctional agencies which attempted to identify the extent and nature of organizational support programs for correctional officers and their family members. Participants included the primary adult and juvenile correctional agencies in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Federal Bureau of Prisons, and U.S. territories, with a response rate of 63.3%, representing 76 agencies from the 120 agencies contacted.

     Terrorism: Terrorist Recruitment in American Correctional Institutions: An Exploratory Study of Non-Traditional Faith Groups Final Report, NIJ-Sponsored, December 2007, NCJ 220957. (128 pages). [PDF]

Safety and Security

     Publication: Duress Systems in Corrections Facilities. National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, September 2004. A duress system helps corrections facilities respond quickly and effectively to assaults on staff and other emergencies. Find out how to identify, select, and deploy the system that best suits your facility's needs.[PDF]

     Publication: New Approaches to Staff Safety. [PDF]. Second Edition. by Robert L. Thornton, National Institute of Corrections, January 2003. Assists community corrections practitioners in evaluating their officer safety training needs by presenting current concepts and standards. Allows agencies to determine their respective needs, evaluate the most current information in various safety training areas, and explore a variety of information and resources on officer safety training. 145 pp. Accession no. NIC-011356.

     Safety and Security: Prison Emergencies: Self-Audit Checklists, National Survey Results, Resource Materials, and Case Studies. Information regarding prison emergency preparedness is presented. This guide is comprised of the following sections: introduction; conducting an audit; self-audit checklists--emergency preparedness, natural disaster/HAZMAT/fire, and counterterrorism; Report on the National Survey of Emergency Readiness in Prisons; resource materials--leadership issues during crises, prevention of prison emergencies, emergency teams, and prisons and counterterrorism; and case studies. National Institute of Corrections, (318 pgs. 2005).

     Standard: NIJ Standard, Walk-Through Metal Detectors for Use in Concealed Weapon and Contraband Detection: NIJ Standard–0601.02, January 2003. This NIJ Standard describes performance requirements and testing methods for active walk-through metal detectors used to find metal weapons and metal concealed contraband carried on a person and/or concealed by a nonmetal object. The report can be used by purchasing agents and procurement officials in determining whether an owned or prospective product meets the requirements of the standard and can serve as the basis for tests conducted by qualified testing laboratories and as a reference in procurement documents. It also contains definitions to help readers use and understand the information and provides field-testing procedures for and mechanical drawings of several potentially dangerous test objects. This Standard supersedes NIJ Standard–0601.01 published in 2000. (.pdf format)

     Testimony: Statement of Glenn A. Fine, Inspector General, U.S. Department of Justice, before the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America’s Prisons, April 19, 2005 [PDF] [HTML].

Search and Seizure

     Policies and Regulations: Searching, Detaining, or Arresting Visitors to Bureau Grounds and Facilities. Federal Bureau of Prisons Program Statement P5510.12 (2008).

     Prison Searches: "Cross-gender Searches: A Case Law Survey," by Brenda V. Smith and Melissa C. Loomis (Feb. 2013).

     Search and Seizure: "Hooking the Crook: The Seventh Circuit Justifies the Suspicionless Search of a Probationer," by Meira Greenberg. 2 Seventh Circuit Rev. 203 (2006)

     Search & Seizure: Probationers and Parolees: "Probationers, Parolees, and the Fourth Amendment," by Thomas D. Colbridge, 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 7, pgs. 11-22 (July 2003)."Probationers and parolees have limited Fourth Amendment protection because of their unique status." Also available in .html format.

Sentence Computation

     Sentence Computation: "Interaction of Federal and State Sentences When the Federal Defendant is under State Primary Jurisdiction," by Henry J. Sadowski, Regional Counsel, Northeast Region, Federal Bureau of Prisons. (November 25, 2005). This memo details how the Federal Bureau of Prisons computes federal sentences imposed when a defendant is under the primary custodial jurisdiction of state authorities.

     Sentencing Issues: "Time Served: The High Cost, Low Return of Longer Prison Terms," by the Pew Center on the States (June 2012).

     Sentencing: "Report to Congress: Mandatory Minimum Penalties in the Federal Criminal Justice System," U.S. Sentencing Commission (Oct. 2011).

Sex Offenders

     Publication: "An Analysis of Risk Factors Contributing to the Recidivism of Sex Offenders on Probation", by John R. Hepburn and Marie L. Griffin. Prepared for the National Institute of Justice and the Maricopa County Arizona Adult Probation Department. (125 pgs., 1/2004) NCJ 203905. [PDF]

     Sex Offenders: "Supervising Low-Level Sex Offenders in the Community: An Integrated Model" (ACCN 024623) is a curriculum that uses an interactive format to help staff working with sex offenders increase their knowledge of supervising low-level sex offenders, determining sex offender risk and seriousness, identifying principles and barriers to collaboration, and discerning the difference between risk assessments and classification instruments. (NIC).

     Sex Offenders: Criminal Justice Resources: Sex Offender Residency Restrictions by Ken Strutin (2008). This article collects recent court decisions, research papers and reports that have addressed the efficacy of exclusionary zoning laws and the impact of these restrictions on sex offenders reentering their communities.

     Sex Offenders: Risk Assessment Instruments to Predict Recidivism of Sex Offenders: Practices in Washington State, by Tali Klima and Roxanne Lieb, Washington State Institute for Public Policy (Olympia, WA). (2008). The use of risk assessment instruments for sex offender recidivism in Washington State is examined. Sections following a summary are: introduction; the Department of Corrections; sex offender risk assessment -- decision points, party conducting assessment, and instruments employed; Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS) -- civil commitment; DSHS' Juvenile Rehabilitation Administration; local law enforcement agencies; private sex offender treatment providers; concerns about the WSSORLCT (Washington State Sex Offender Risk Level Classification Tool); and conclusion.

     Sex Offenders: National Sex Offender Public Registry. The U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Administration (BJA) has recently embarked on a National Sex Offender Public Registry (NSOPR). On May 20, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales announced NSOPR in his “First 100 Days” speech and directed the Office of Justice Programs’ BJA to have at least 20 state public sex offender registries connected and available for use in 60 days. Via web services and the U.S. Department of Justice’s (DOJ) Global Justice XML which allows systems to “speak” to each other, this national web site will provide parents and concerned citizens with a free-of-charge, reliable national portal to access already existing public state and territory sex offender registries. NSOPR will not collect or retain any control over sex offender data, and there will be no cost to the state or territory to link to the national site. For details on this public safety initiative, contact David Lewis, BJA Senior Policy Advisor for Information Sharing, at 202-616-7829. Press Release. Fact Sheet. [PDF] Major Points.[PDF] FAQ.[PDF]

     Sexual Offenders: Evaluating and Improving Risk Assessment Schemes for Sexual Recidivism: A Long-Term Follow-Up of Convicted Sexual Offenders Author(s) Knight, Raymond A. Thornton, David Sponsor(s) National Institute of Justice (Washington, DC) Published 2007. 155 pages. The validity of seven instruments for predicting recidivism of sexual offenders is investigated. Sections following an executive summary are: abstract; introduction; method; results according to reliability and predictive potency of actuarials, meaningful differences among modern risk assessment instruments, cohesive and meaningful predictive dimensions identified in the extant risk assessment instruments, predictive contribution of the SRA (Structured Risk Assessment) Need framework, relation between age and sexual recidivism, and determining differential predictors for rapists and child molesters; and discussion. Based on this research, a new actuarial tool is being developed. Accession Number: 022261

     Sexual Offenders: Resources for Enhancing Sex Offender Management Strategies, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance.

     Sexual Offenders: Evaluating and Improving Risk Assessment Schemes for Sexual Recidivism: A Long-Term Follow-Up of Convicted Sexual Offenders, NIJ-Sponsored, 2007, NCJ 217618. (155 pages). PDF NCJRS Abstract

     Statistics: "Recidivism of Sex Offenders Released from Prison in 1994." Bureau of Justice Statistics. Presents, for the first time, data on the re-arrest, reconviction, and re-imprisonment of 9,691 male sex offenders, including 4,295 child molesters, who were tracked for 3 years after their release from prisons in 15 States in 1994. The 9,691 are two-thirds of all the male sex offenders released from prisons in the United States in 1994. The study represents the largest follow-up ever conducted of convicted sex offenders following discharge from prison and provides the most comprehensive assessment of their behavior after release. Highlights include the following: Within 3 years following their release, 5.3% of sex offenders (men who had committed rape or sexual assault) were re-arrested for another sex crime. On average the 9,691 sex offenders served 3 1/2 years of their 8-year sentence. Compared to non-sex offenders released from State prisons, released sex offenders were 4 times more likely to be re-arrested for a sex crime. The 9,691 released sex offenders included 4,295 men who were in prison for child molesting.11/03 NCJ 198281 Press release | Acrobat file (521K) | ASCII file (107K) Spreadsheets (zip format 76K)

     Sexual Offenders: Sex Offender Management Programming in Massachusetts, by Allison Hallett, Corrections Today, published by the American Correctional Association. (December 2006). Discusses treatment programs utilized by the Massachusetts Department of Corrections to attempt to reduce recidivism of sex offenders.

Smoking

     Article: Hempel, A.G., Kownacki, R., Malin, D.H., Ozone, S.J., Cormack, T.S., Sandoval, B.G., & Leinbach, A.E., "Effect of a total smoking ban in a maximum security psychiatric hospital," Behavioral Sciences and the Law 20, pgs. 507-522. The article discusses a study of the impact of the imposition of a smoking ban on 140 prisoners in a maximum-security psychiatric hospital and planning and preparing for implementation of such a policy.

Standards & Policies

     Proposed Rule: The Bureau of Prisons (BOP) of the U.S. Department of Justice has published proposed rules for the procedures it will follow for imposing prisoner fees for some health services, as required under the Federal Prisoner Health Care Co-payment Act of 2000. The proposed rules were published in the Federal Register, Oct. 10, 2002, pp. 63059-63060. Once finally enacted, the rules will add subpart F to the BOP's regulations in 28 CFR part 549 on medical services. The proposal is that a prisoner must pay $2.00 for medical services in connection with a visit to health care providers that they requested (with some exceptions) or, if they injure a prisoner who requests medical services as a result of the injury. Staff referred health care visits, staff-approved follow-up care for chronic conditions, preventative health care services, emergency services, prenatal medical care, mental health care, substance abuse treatment or treatment of chronic infectious diseases will not be subject to the imposition of fees under the proposed rule. An appeals procedure will be available through the BOP's Administrative Remedy Program if the prisoner disagrees with the imposition of a fee. No fees may be charged to indigent inmates who are unable to pay.

     Proposed Standards: Abridged Draft of the 4th Edition Performance Based American Correctional Association’s Standards for Adult Local Detention Facilities. [PDF format]. The American Jail Association (AJA), National Sheriffs’ Association (NSA), and the American Correctional Association (ACA) have been working over the past three years to revise the 3rd Edition Standards for Adult Local Detention Facilities (ALDF). More than 50 jail practitioners throughout the country participated in this project and it is now on the web to give others the opportunity to review the draft and make any final suggestions or recommendations on the standards. Comments are solicited to be sent directly to Bob Verdeyen, Director, Standards and Accreditation, American Correctional Association, bobv@aca.org, or mail a hard copy of the standards with your comments to Mr. Verdeyen at the American Correctional Association, 4380 Forbes Boulevard, Lanham, MD 20706-4322. Any comments are requested by May 1, 2003.

     Regulations & Policies: California State Department of Corrections Regulations & Policies. Also available: Department Operations Manual.[PDF format].

     Regulations & Policies: Texas Department of Criminal Justice Offender Rules and Regulations for Visitation (November 2002).[PDF format]

     Standards Manual: Standards Manual published by the Maryland Commission on Correctional Standards (MCCS). [PDF format].

     Standard: NIJ Standard, Walk-Through Metal Detectors for Use in Concealed Weapon and Contraband Detection: NIJ Standard–0601.02, January 2003. This NIJ Standard describes performance requirements and testing methods for active walk-through metal detectors used to find metal weapons and metal concealed contraband carried on a person and/or concealed by a nonmetal object. The report can be used by purchasing agents and procurement officials in determining whether an owned or prospective product meets the requirements of the standard and can serve as the basis for tests conducted by qualified testing laboratories and as a reference in procurement documents. It also contains definitions to help readers use and understand the information and provides field-testing procedures for and mechanical drawings of several potentially dangerous test objects. This Standard supersedes NIJ Standard–0601.01 published in 2000. (.pdf format)

     Administrative Directives of the Connecticut Department of Corrections. [PDF].

     Visitation Rules of the Illinois Department of Corrections. [PDF]

Stress

     Sress: Addressing Correctional Officer Stress: Programs and Strategies, National Institute of Justice, NCJ-183474 (2000).

     Stress: Stress Among Probation and Parole Officers and What Can Be Done About It. June 2005 [PDF] Probation and parole officers experience a great deal of job-related stress. A recent study investigated the nature and scope of the problem at nine sites around the country. Researchers identified the major sources of stress (heavy caseloads, paperwork, deadlines) and what officers do to cope. This Research for Practice summarizes key findings and provides case studies of promising stress reduction programs.

"Supermax" Prisons

     Supermax Facilities: "The Devil is in the Details: Examining Conditions of Confinement in Studies of Supermax Facilities," by Ann Marie Rocheleau (NIC June 21, 2011).

     "Supermax" Prisons: 2005 Annual Report, State of Wisconsin Department of Corrections Wisconsin Secure Program Facility. 25 pgs.

Technology

     Electronic Weapons: Conducted Energy Devices: Use in a Custodial Setting. Bureau of Justice Assistance, Police Executive Research Forum, and National Sheriffs' Association, August 2009. The report discusses the survey results to determine the extent to which sheriffs' offices are using the devices and have developed policies on CEDs and also provides general guidelines for the use of CEDs and other electronic devices in custodial settings.

     Technology: Using Technology to Make Prisons and Jails Safer, by Phillip Bulman, NIJ Journal Issue 262 (National Institute of Justice, March 2009). 

     Telephone Use and Issues: "Technical Issues in Checking Contraband Cell Phone Use in Jails and Prisons." This article highlights the pros and cons of jamming the use of cell phones by inmates. Topics discussed include: the effectiveness of jamming; the jamming of homes and businesses close to the correctional facility; the negation of useful intelligence; radio frequency (RF) utilization; and specially trained dogs for detecting contraband cell phones.

Telephone Use and Issues

     Telephone Access and Usage: "Cell Phones as Prison Contraband," by Todd W. Burke, Ph.D., and Stephen S. Owen, Ph.D., 79 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 7 (July 2010).  "Cell phone use by inmates can pose significant dangers."

     Telephone Use and Issues: "Technical Issues in Checking Contraband Cell Phone Use in Jails and Prisons." This article highlights the pros and cons of jamming the use of cell phones by inmates. Topics discussed include: the effectiveness of jamming; the jamming of homes and businesses close to the correctional facility; the negation of useful intelligence; radio frequency (RF) utilization; and specially trained dogs for detecting contraband cell phones.

Terrorism, Home Security, and National Security Issues

     Military Detainee Interrogations: Inquiry into the Treatment of Detainees in U.S. Custody (U.S. Senate Armed Servs. Committee, Apr. 22, 2009). The Senate Armed Services Committee released a report from last November revealing opposition by a number of military lawyers and commanders to the Bush administration's efforts to redefine the limits of military interrogation practices used by the U.S. military in Iraq and Afghanistan.

     Military Detainee Interrogations: The Obama administration has released Bush era legal memoranda relating to techniques that may be used in the interrogation of high-value al Qaeda detainees.

     Homeland security website: The Justice Dept. has created a National Security Resources website for the criminal justice community, at: www.nationalsecurityresources.gov/

     Legal Memorandum: "Memorandum for James B. Comey, Deputy Attorney General, Re: Legal Standards Applicable Under 18 U.S.C. Secs. 2340-2340A" Concerns interpretation of federal criminal prohibitions against the use of torture in the context of recent controversies concerning the treatment of prisoners at U.S. military prisons in other countries. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Legal Counsel, December 30, 2004. [PDF]

     Military Detainees: In a declaration filed in federal district court in the District of Columbia, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder stated a new legal standard for the authority to hold detainees at the Guantanamo Bay Detention Facility in Cuba. The definition does not rely on the President's authority as Commander-in-Chief independent of Congress's specific authorization, but instead relies on the international laws of war and statutory authority granted by Congress. It further states that persons who supported al Qaeda or the Taliban may be detained only if the support was "substantial." It also fails to use the term "enemy combatant."

     Military Prisoners: New military detainee and terror suspect treatment guidelines are issued by the U.S. Department of Defense. (September 5, 2006).

     Religion: "A Review of the Bureau of Prisons' Selection of Muslim Religious Services Providers, April 2004," a report by the Inspector General's Office of the U.S. Department of Justice. [PDF]. It is also available in .html format.

     Report: "The September 11 Detainees: A Review of the Treatment of Aliens Held on Immigration Charges in Connection with the Investigation of the September 11 Attacks," (June 2, 2003) Report from the U.S. Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General on alleged problems in the way detainees confined after the September 11, 2001 events were handled at the Brooklyn, New York and Paterson, New Jersey detention facilities. [PDF] (13.2 MB)

     "Situation of detainees at Guantánamo Bay, " U.N. Commission on Human Rights (Feb. 2006).

     Report: The Federal Bureau of Prisons' Monitoring of Mail for High-Risk Inmates, Evaluations and Inspections Report I-2006-009, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General. September 2006.

     Terrorism: Illusion of Justice Human Rights Abuses in U.S. Terrorism Prosecutions, Human Rights Watch (July 21, 2014). The 214-page report examines 27 federal terrorism cases from initiation of the investigations to sentencing and post-conviction conditions of confinement. It documents the significant human cost of certain counterterrorism practices, such as overly aggressive sting operations and unnecessarily restrictive conditions of confinement.

     Terrorism: Radicalization of U.S. prisoners by Bert Useem, Obie Clayton, August 2009 issue of Criminology and Public Policy, pgs. 561-92. "Concern has been expressed that prisoner radicalization poses a high probability threat to the safety of the United States. Although the threat of terrorist acts planned in prison is known to be above zero because of a nearly executed terrorist plot hatched in a state prison, the central finding of this research is that the actual probability is modest. The reasons for a modest probability are fourfold: Order and stability in U.S. prisons were achieved during the buildup period, prison officials successfully implemented efforts to counter the 'importation' of radicalism, correctional leadership infused antiradicalization into their agencies, and inmates' low levels of education decreased the appeals of terrorism."

     Terrorism: Terrorist Recruitment in American Correctional Institutions: An Exploratory Study of Non-Traditional Faith Groups Final Report, NIJ-Sponsored, December 2007, NCJ 220957. (128 pages). [PDF]

     Terrorism and Homeland Security: Federal Bureau of Prisons proposes new regulations to limit communications by prisoners suspected of involvement in terrorist activity. 71 Federal Register No. 63, pgs. 16520–16525 [E6–4766]  (April 3, 2006). [TEXT] [PDF]

     Terrorism: "Supplemental Report on September 11 Detainees' Allegations of Abuse at the Metropolitan Detention Center in Brooklyn, New York, December 2003" issued by the U.S. Department of Justice's Inspector General on Dec. 18, 2003. [HTML format] [PDF]

     Terrorism: "Analysis of the Second Response by the Department of Justice to Recommendations in the Office of the Inspector General's June 2003 Report on the Treatment of September 11 Detainees" (January 2004) [HTML format] [PDF]

     Terrorism, Military Prisoners, and National Security Issues: Guantanamo Bay Inquiry 244 pages. The FBI on January 2, 2007 released documents related to an internal inquiry in 2004 of FBI personnel who had served at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba since September 11, 2001 and had observed any aggressive interview techniques, interrogations, or mistreatment of detainees by representatives of law enforcement, the military, or the FBI. There were no documented incidents involving FBI personnel. These documents include summaries of what FBI personnel observed. Part 1 Part 2

     U.S. Military Prisons Overseas: Documents and correspondence in the legal debate on the interrogation of prisoners in U.S. Custody. Newly released documents from the U.S. Department of Justice and Department of Defense on the legality and use of certain interrogation techniques on prisoners and detainees in U.S. custody. (Both PDF and .html files).

Training

     Federal Prisons: Federal Bureau of Prisons Operations Memorandum 002-2009 (Jan. 24, 2009) Bureau Mandatory Training Standards.

     Jail Inspection: Jail Inspection Basics: An Introductory Self-Study Course for Jail Inspectors. 2nd ed. Author(s) Rosazza, Thomas A. Source(s) National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC) Sponsor(s) National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC) Published 2007. 136 pages. This self-paced, self-instruction course explains the role and responsibilities of a jail inspector. Questions are asked at the end of each chapter which lead to answers from and discussion with their supervisors. Chapters cover: legal issues; standards; the inspection process; facility design; communication; government structures and processes; and resources. Also see: Jail Inspection Basics: An Introductory Self-Study Course for Jail Inspectors, Supervisor's Guide.

     Juvenile Corrections Officers: Juvenile Corrections Officer Core Course Physical Tasks Training Manual, by Montgomery, Shelley; Parker, Daryl S.; California Board of Corrections. Standards and Training for Corrections Program (Sacramento, CA) Published 2007, 129 pages. This manual sets forth "the core curriculum and design specifications for the portions of the Juvenile Corrections Officer Core Course that pertain to the performance of physically demanding tasks" (p. 1) Sections comprising this manual include: introduction; testing procedures; research findings; instructional guidelines; instructional objectives; charts and diagrams; and explanation of plyometric exercises.

     Publication: Correctional Leadership Competencies for the 21st Century: Executive and Senior Levels. National Institute of Corrections. Published Date: 2005. Characteristics that result in the best performance of executive and senior level leaders are identified along with the key skills, knowledge, and attributes of effective and successful leaders which are then linked to a set of specific behaviors. Following an executive summary, this manual provides an exploration of: managerial profiles; self awareness; ethics and values; vision and mission; strategic thinking; managing the external environment; power and influence; strategic planning and performance measurement; collaboration; and team building. [PDF]

     Training: "Technical Assistance, Information, and Training for Adult Corrections," U.S. Dept. of Justice, National Institute of Corrections (NIC). Presents the training programs, technical assistance opportunities, and information services that NIC will provide for correctional executives and practitioners working in all corrections disciplines in federal, state, and local adult correctional agencies during fiscal year 2010, which begins on October 1, 2009.

     Training: Prison Staffing Analysis: A Training Manual With Staffing Considerations for Special Populations, National Institute of Corrections. (2009).

     Training Document: Managing Youthful Offenders in Adult Institutions. (National Institute of Corrections 1999). (includes lesson plans and participant guides in PDF format).

     Training Materials: Training resources from the U.S. Department of Justice National Institute of Corrections (NIC) are available on line on a number of topics, and these titles may include facilitator and participant manuals, lesson plans, handouts, exercises, and/or overheads. Items available in full text on-line include Offender Management and Programs on: Changing Offender Behavior to Promote Public Safety, Promoting Public Safety Using Effective Interventions with Offenders, Sex Offender Treatment Skills for Corrections Professionals, Thinking for a Change: Integrated Cognitive Behavior Change Program, Pensar en un Cambio ("Thinking for a Change, Spanish edition), and Training for Trainers: Managing Youthful Offenders in Adult Institutions. Staff Specialty Training Topics include: Designing Learner Centered Instruction, Investigating Allegations of Staff Sexual Misconduct with Inmates, Offender Employment Specialist Training, Restorative Justice: Principles, Practices, and Implementation, Sentencing Women Offenders: A Training Curriculum for Judges, and Offender Job Retention for Corrections Professionals.

     Training: Correctional Leadership Resources: FY 2007. National Institute of Corrections. A collection of training material for corrections administrators is provided on CD-ROM. A copy may be requested by clicking on the link.

     Training: NIC To Present Videoconference on Youthful Offenders in Adult Correctional Facilities. The National Institute of Corrections (NIC) will present a live distance learning training program called "Youthful Offenders in Adult Corrections: A Systemic Approach Using Effective Interventions." This 32-hour training program, which will be held on September 8–12, 2003, will feature a research-based, practical curriculum that teaches principles and implementation of effective interventions ("what works") within the context of managing youthful offenders in an adult correctional environment. For more information, visit the NIC Web site.

     Videotape: "Beyond the Myths: The Jail in Your Community" National Institute of Corrections, 2003. This videotape provides a foundation for the efforts of sheriffs and jail administrators to inform the public about jails generally, their jails specifically, and the need for community interest in and discussion about their own local jail. It can also be used to educate prospective jail employees about local detention. In developing this resource, NIC focused on providing information that accurately represents local jail operations across the country. Because of the diversity among jails, however, there may be a few instances where the information in the video differs from the situation in a particular jail. For example, the program states that misdemeanants are sentenced to local jails, while in some jurisdictions certain types of felons as well as misdemeanants may be sentenced to serve a jail term. Jail officials should clarify such points with the groups to whom they show the videotape. "Beyond the Myths: The Jail in Your Community" is available on VHS tape (23 min.) from the NIC Information Center at asknicic@nicic.org; telephone (800) 877-1461 or (303) 682-0213; fax (303) 682-0558. Request title no. NIC-018696

     Videoconferences: Past National Institute of Corrections videoconferences can be viewed online via video streaming (in some instances) or requested on videotape from the NIC Information Center. Program materials may be available only on a loan basis. Contact the NIC Information Center for details online or at (800) 877-1461. Titles currently available include: "Transition from Prison to the Community," February 12, 2003 108642 (Two-tape set; videostream available for online viewing), "Addressing Staff Sexual Misconduct" December 12, 2001 017503 (Two-tape set; videostream available for online viewing), "Building Futures: Offender Job Retention" (Distance Learning program) October 7-11, 2002 Program tapes pending. (Videostream available for online viewing). "A Collaborative Approach to Staff Recruitment and Retention" Aug. 28, 2002 018310 (One tape), "Jail Inmates with Mental Illness: A Community Problem" April 17, 2002 017693 (Two-tape set; videostream available for online viewing), "Meeting the Challenge in Correctional Mental Health: The Prison Experience" June 19, 2002 017901 (Two-tape set; videostream available for online viewing), "Understanding Managed Behavior Health Care in Community Corrections" July 17, 2002 017907 (Two-tape set; videostream available for online viewing), "Systemic Approaches to Emergency Preparedness Affecting Correctional Communities" (Videoconference) July 31, 2002 017908 (Two-tape set; videostream available for online viewing). See the link above for a listing of earlier titles back to 1991 and their current availability.

Transgender Prisoners

     Homosexual, Bisexual, and Transgender Prisoners: The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, or Intersex Inmate Population: "A 21st Century Dilemma!" by Adam E. Hopkins and Margaret A. Dickson. National Jail Exchange, National Institute of Corrections (2014).

     Prison Rape and Sexual Misconduct: Still in Danger: The Ongoing Threat of Sexual Violence Against Transgender Prisoners. Joint publication by Stop Prisoner Rape and the ACLU National Prison Project (14 pgs., .pdf format, 2005).

     Publications: Managing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex Inmates: Is Your Jail Ready? Author(s) Leach, Donald L., II Source(s) LIS, Inc. (Longmont, CO) National Institute of Corrections Information Center (Aurora, CO) Sponsor(s) National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC) Details Published 2007. 6 pages. "The management of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex inmates (LGBTI) in a jail setting is addressed. Sections contained in this article are: a terminology lesson; the sexual being -- physiognomy, gender identity, and sexual orientation; and responses in the jail regarding medical care, data systems, security, housing, and clothing."

     Transsexual Prisoners: "Dual Prongs for the Doubly Imprisoned: Transsexual Inmates & the Eighth Amendment Right to Treatment," Matthew Stoloff, Syracuse University College of Law (August 2007) http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1012980

U.S. Military Prisons Overseas

     The Taguba Report on allegations of abuse at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. (Pentagon's investigation of the U.S. 800th Military Police Brigade).

     Brigadier General Janis L. Karpinski's rebuttal to the Taguba Report investigating alleged prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. (Gen. Karpinski is the one-star general who was in charge of the prison). (April 1, 2004)

     Class action racketeering lawsuit filed against two U.S. defense contractors accusing them of conspiring with federal officials to torture and abuse prisoners in Iraq, and doing so in order to increase the number or amount of federal contracts they would receive. (March 9, 2004). Al Rawi v. Titan Corp., #04-CV-1143, U.S. Dist. Ct.,  S.D. Cal. San Diego, Cal. [PDF]

     Charges filed against four U.S. soldiers accusing them of abusing prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq: Cpl. Charles Graner, Staff Sgt. Ivan L. Frederick, II,Sgt. Javal S. Davis, Spc. Jeremy C. Sivits.

     Military Detainees: In a declaration filed in federal district court in the District of Columbia, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder stated a new legal standard for the authority to hold detainees at the Guantanamo Bay Detention Facility in Cuba. The definition does not rely on the President's authority as Commander-in-Chief independent of Congress's specific authorization, but instead relies on the international laws of war and statutory authority granted by Congress. It further states that persons who supported al Qaeda or the Taliban may be detained only if the support was "substantial." It also fails to use the term "enemy combatant."

     Military Prisoners: New military detainee and terror suspect treatment guidelines are issued by the U.S. Department of Defense. (September 5, 2006).

     Report: Final Report of the Independent Panel to Review Department of Defense Detention Operations. [PDF] (August 24, 2004) Report of a panel appointed by U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld to investigate alleged abuse of prisoners at Department of Defense Detention facilities overseas.

     Report: Investigation of U.S. Military Intelligence Activities at Abu Ghraib. (August 25, 2004). [PDF] A U.S. Army investigation into the conduct of members of the 205th Military Intelligence Brigade at Abu Ghraib Prison in Iraq which found that 27 Brigade members allegedly requested, encouraged, condoned, or solicited military police to abuse detainees, participated in the abuse of detainees or violated established interrogation procedures, laws, and regulations during interrogation operations.

     Terrorism, Military Prisoners, and National Security Issues: Guantanamo Bay Inquiry 244 pages. The FBI on January 2, 2007 released documents related to an internal inquiry in 2004 of FBI personnel who had served at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba since September 11, 2001 and had observed any aggressive interview techniques, interrogations, or mistreatment of detainees by representatives of law enforcement, the military, or the FBI. There were no documented incidents involving FBI personnel. These documents include summaries of what FBI personnel observed. Part 1 Part 2

     U.S. v. David F. Passaro (June 17, 2004) Indictment by a federal grand jury of a North Carolina CIA contractor for assault on and subsequent death of a prisoner held by the U.S. military in Afghanistan.

    Working Group Report on Detainee Interrogations in the Global War on Terrorism (March 6, 2003). Excerpts from a memo by a group of Pentagon, Justice Department and civilian lawyers submitted to the U.S. government suggesting that international and U.S. legal prohibitions against torture might not apply to interrogations of detainees suspected of terrorist activity.

     U.S. Military Prisoners: Army Inspector General Inspection Report on Detainee Operations. An assessment of detainee operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. 2.2 Megabyte file. (July 22, 2004). [PDF]

     U.S. Military Prisoners: Jose Padilla v. Commander C.T. Hanft, USN (July 2, 2004). [PDF] Alleged "dirty" bomb suspect Jose Padilla, a U.S. citizen detained in military custody as an "enemy combatant," has refiled his petition for writ of habeas corpus in the proper jurisdiction and against the proper respondent, following express instructions given by the U.S. Supreme Court in the recent case of Rumsfeld v. Padilla, No. 03-1027, 2004 U.S. Lexis 4759.

     U.S. Military Prisoners: Documents and correspondence in the legal debate on the interrogation of prisoners in U.S. custody. Newly released documents from the U.S. Department of Justice and Department of Defense on the legality and use of certain interrogation techniques on prisoners and detainees in U.S. custody.

     Other related links of interest:

         Military Lawyers
         Uniform Code of Military Justice
         The Law of War    

Use of Force

     Article: "Blunt and penetrating injuries caused by rubber bullets during the Israeli-Arab conflict in October, 2000: a retrospective study," The Lancet, 25 May 2002. The article is online, but free registration is required at http://www.thelancet.com/ -- then access the article at: http://pdf.thelancet.com/pdfdownload?uid=llan.359.9320.original

Visitation

      Inmate Visiting Guidelines, California Department of Corrections. 7 pgs. [PDF]

     Policies and Regulations: Searching, Detaining, or Arresting Visitors to Bureau Grounds and Facilities. Federal Bureau of Prisons Program Statement P5510.12 (2008).

     Visitation Rules of the Illinois Department of Corrections. [PDF]

Voting

     Voting: "Felony Disenfranchisement: A Primer," by Jean Chung (The Sentencing Project, June 2013).

     Voting: "State-Level Estimates of Felon Disenfranchisement in the United States, 2010," by Christopher Uggen and Sarah Shannon, University of Minnesota, The Sentencing Project (July 2012).

     Voting: "Expanding the Vote. State Felony Disenfranchisement Reform, 1997-2010," by Nicole D. Porter (Sentencing Project, Oct. 2010). According to the report, 23 states have amended felony disenfranchisement policies since 1997, restoring voting rights to approximately 800,000 felons. Nine states either repealed or amended lifetime disenfranchisement laws; three states expanded voting rights to persons under community supervision, and eight states eased the restoration process for persons seeking to have their voting rights restored.

     Voting: A state-by-state summary on different approaches being taken to felon voting restrictions and the restoration of voting rights.

Websites & Information Resources

     Homeland security website: The Justice Dept. has created a National Security Resources website for the criminal justice community, at: www.nationalsecurityresources.gov/

     Library Catalog: The Federal Bureau of Prisons Library has an on-line searchable catalog. The BOP Library has nearly 5,000 books, Government documents, statistical and organizational publications covering all areas of corrections and other criminal justice topics. You may quickly search for books by author, title, or subject on the Library's automated public access catalog, Library * Solutions. More than 70 periodicals, including journals, magazines, newsletters, and major newspapers, are found in the collection. The periodicals are primarily criminal justice and sociological. A complete listing of all the periodical titles is provided on the BOP web page.

     Publications: Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News Summary, published on-line weekly by the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC), a program of the National Institute of Justice.

     Publications: DOCS Today, monthly publication of the New York State Department of Correctional Services, Vol. 13, No. 4, 16 pgs. (April 2004) [PDF]. This month's cover story is "Inmates paid $37M in '95-'03 fees, fines." According to the article, from their earnings, which average one dollar a day, inmates in the state have been assessed more than $4 million a year in fees and fines since 1995 that go to the state's general fund, courts, or crime victims. One of the sources is fees assessed when inmates are found guilty at disciplinary hearings. The publication asserts that inmate misconduct drops in the face of fines. A chart on inmate rule violations from 1992-2003 states that the infraction rate per 1,000 inmates was 1,721 in 1992, and has been reduced to a low of 1,307 in 2003. 1992 was the first year that the New York department first announced fines for inmate misconduct. Another article in the publication of possible interest is "Rapid HIV test gives inmate status quicker, allows earlier treatment," concerning a new way of testing inmates for HIV infection for which test results are available on-site within a half hour, compared with older testing methods which required an outside lab test that provided results in approximately two weeks. The more rapid test is now, according to the article, available in half the state's prisons, and is expected to be expanded to all 71 facilities by the end of 2004. For more information on rapid HIV testing by the Centers for Disease Control, click here.

     Statistics: Website with links to online facts and statistics about prisons and inmates.

    Statistics: The U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics has launched a new Web site. It can be found at http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov

     Websites: National Association of Female Correctional Officers.

     Websites: The Pace Law Library’s Guide to Prisoners’ Rights has been recently completely revamped.

     Websites: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Federal Detention Trustee. This office was established in September 2001 by directive of Congress in Pub. L. 106-553, Sec. 166, 114 Stat. 2762, in response to growing concerns regarding federal detention. It is intended to provide for the safe, secure, and humane confinement of persons in federal custody awaiting trial or immigration proceedings, by ensuring the appropriate operations and cost effectiveness of secure non-federal detention facilities utilized by federal law enforcement agencies. On March 1, 2004, the Office of the Federal Detention Trustee launched the National Repository for Detention Space Availability, an Internet-based tool to assist the U.S. Marshals Service, the federal Bureau of Prisons, and the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement with locating non-federal detention space available for federal use. For a chart showing "Compliance with Department of Justice Core Detention Standards: A review of 40 non-federal detention facilities," click here.

     Websites: New York Correction Historical Society. Website contains historical information about individual facilities and the history of corrections in general in New York State and New York City.

     Websites: International Centre for Prison Studies. A website maintained by the School of Law at King's College of the University of London. Provides access to statistics on prison systems and incarceration rates in over 200 countries, as well as a variety of other materials available either online or in print format.

     Websites: Boot Camps is a site dedicated to help troubled teens, and provide information to parents with troubled teens on juvenile boot camps for troubled teens, and juvenile boot camp alternatives. Provides information, state by state, on existing state and privately run juvenile boot camps, as well as military schools.

     Websites: Disabilities: 1). Commonly Asked Questions About the ADA and Law Enforcement http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/q&a_law.htm 2). US Dept of Justice ADA homepage http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adahom1.htm  3). Commonly Asked Questions About Title II of the ADA for state and local govts - http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/pubs/t2qa.txt

     Website: American Association for Correctional Psychology. (Free registration required for use).

     Website: International Prisoner Transfer Program. The International Prisoner Transfer Program began in 1977 when the U.S. government negotiated the first in a series of treaties to permit the transfer of prisoners from countries in which they had been convicted of crimes to their home countries. The program is designed to relieve some of the special hardships that fall upon offenders incarcerated far from home, and to facilitate the rehabilitation of these offenders. Prisoners may be transferred to and from those countries with which the United States has a treaty. (Participating countries are listed on the site). While all prisoner transfer treaties are negotiated principally by the United States Department of State, the program itself is administered by the United States Department of Justice.

     Website: North American Association of Wardens and Superintendents.

     Website: National Association of Probation Executives.

     Website: National commission to examine U.S. prison conditions. The Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons, at the website, solicits the submission of "accounts from people who have been incarcerated or who have worked in prisons or jails." It also has a registration form enabling persons to receive emailed updates on the work of the Commission and its findings. The Commission's website states that it is "a national effort to clarify the nature and extent of violence, sexual abuse, degradation, and other serious abuses and safety failures in prisons and jails throughout the United States, and also the consequences for prisoners, corrections officers, and the public at large. The Commission formed in February 2005. After a year of inquiry and open hearings, it will offer recommendations for operating safer and more humane correctional institutions." The Commission is co-chaired by former United States Attorney General Nicholas de B. Katzenbach, who was appointed by President Johnson; and the Honorable John J. Gibbons, former Chief Judge of the Third Circuit Court of Appeals, who was appointed by President Nixon.

     Website: Suicide and parasuicide. "This site brings the latest subjects and resources related with the study of the suicidal phenomena. It is specially designed for health care professionals; Psychiatrists, Psychologists, Suicidologists, Sociologists, Therapists and other mental health practitioners and general health care providers."

     Websites: State departments of corrections. A directory of links.

     Website: www.regulations.gov/  "Regulations.gov is the U.S. Government web site that makes it easier for you to participate in Federal rulemaking - an essential part of the American democratic process. On this site, you can find, review, and submit comments on Federal documents that are open for comment and published in the Federal Register, the Government's legal newspaper."

     Website: U.S. Department of Education Office of Correctional Education. This website has links to federal resources for correctional educators, as well as other links. While much of the material is older and is archived material, some of it will still be useful in evaluating and managing correctional educational programs.

     Website: American Correctional Food Service Association. The website of a national non-profit organization dedicated to the professional growth of the nation's correctional foodservice employees, formed in 1969.

     Website: The Corrections Connection Health Care Network. Contains information and links to information and publications on correctional health care, and runs e-mail discussion lists and bulletin boards on correctional health care issues, including general health and medical issues and special concerns about elderly prisoners, substance abuse, and care of terminally ill prisoners.

     Website: American Correctional Chaplains Association.

     Website: Correctional Education Association. The Correctional Education Association (CEA), founded in 1946, is a non-profit, professional association serving educators and administrators who provide services to students in correctional settings.

     Website: Corrections Technology Management. Includes articles from the current issue of Corrections Technology Management magazine, as well as an archive of articles from past issues from 1998 to the present.

     Website: National Prison Hospice Association. Addresses issues concerning the care of dying prisoners, and includes on-line resources and links to helpful information, and a selected bibliography.

     Website: Mental Health in Corrections Consortium. This organization holds an annual symposium conference on correctional mental health issues. The 2004 Symposium is entitled "Mental Health Training for the Correctional Environment: Research, Practice, Results," and will be held on April 19 through April 21, 2004 in Kansas City, MO. The website also has a listing of links to organizations of interest to those involved in correctional mental health.

     Website: Pennsylvania Prison Wardens Association. Provides senior administrators in the field of adult corrections and associated disciplines a means to improve the correctional system at the state and local level. The website recognizes significant contributions of its members through posting of awards to its members, provides information on news, training opportunities, jobs, and upcoming events to the public, and provides email, bulletin boards, policies & procedures and other information to members of the organization. The website currently has an on-line nine page article in .pdf format entitled "Performance Measures and Strategic Planning for Corrections" by Harry Wilson and Kathleen Gnall. Mr. Wilson is the Superintendent of the Pennsylvania State Correctional Institution at Cresson, and Kathleen Gnall is Chief of the Planning, Research and Statistics Division for the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections.

    Publication: Correction News, Alabama Department of Corrections. Official newsletter of the Department, issued quarterly. 16 pages. (December 2003). [PDF]

     Websites: Women in Policing Institute, National Institute for Women in Trades, Technology & Science. www.womenpolice.com

     Websites: United States Marshals Service. This website was restructured on June 7, 2004, with additional features, including expanded information on the major duties and services provided by the Marshals Service, more information on fugitive investigations, a list of local U.S. Marshal district office contacts and information, and a new section on the story of the U.S. Marshals Service. Other features include information on prisoner health care (including the U.S. Marshals Service Prisoner Health Standards), court productions, and a public defender handbook, as well as a U.S. Marshals for Kids page with a variety of information and activities.

Work Programs

     Policies and Regulations: Federal Bureau of Prisons, Program Statement on Inmate Work and Performance Pay, No. 5251.06(October 1, 2008).

     Prison Industry: "Prison Industry Enhancement Certification Program" (NCJ 203483), Bureau of Justice Assistance, March 2004. PDF or HTML Describes a program that exempts certified state and local departments of corrections from normal restrictions on the sale of inmate-made goods in interstate commerce. A total of 50 jurisdictions may be certified under this program by demonstrating to BJA that they meet statutory and guideline requirements..

    Prison Job Training Programs: Saylor, W. G. and Gaes, G. G. (2006). Commentary About the Scientific Merit of the Post Release Employment Project (PREP). Federal Bureau of Prisons, Washington, DC. (15 pgs., pdf format).

     Publication: "Factories with Fences: A history of the Federal Prison Industries," Federal Bureau of Prisons, 49 pgs. [PDF]

Youthful Prisoners, Juvenile Corrections Officers, & Children of Prisoners

     Children of Prisoners: More than 1.7 million American children have an incarcerated parent, according to "Children on the Outside: Voicing the Pain and Human Costs of Parental Incarceration," a January 12, 2011 report by Justice Strategies, a nonprofit research group. The estimated risk of parental imprisonment for white children by the age of 14 is one in 25, while for black children it is one in four by the same age.

     Children of Prisoners: "Children of Incarcerated Parents: A Handbook for Researchers and Practitioners," edited by Julie Poehlmann and J. Mark Eddy (Urban Institute 2010).

     Children of Prisoners: Children of Incarcerated Parents: An Action Plan for Federal Policymakers (2009), a report by the Council of State Governments (CSG) Justice Center. The plan outlines promising practices and 70-plus recommendations for improving outcomes for the more than 1.7 million children of incarcerated parents.

     Juvenile Offenders: "In Focus: Disproportionate Minority Contact," Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Dept. of Justice (Nov. 2012).

     Juvenile Offenders: "Addressing the Unmet Educational Needs of Children and Youth in the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems," by Peter Leone and Lois Weinberg, Center for Juvenile Justice Reform, Georgetown University (74 pgs., May 2010).

     Juvenile Offenders: Planning Community-Based Facilities for Violent Juvenile Offenders as Part of a System of Graduated Sanctions (NCJ 209326) August 2005 OJJDP Juvenile Justice Practices Series, Bulletin, 39 pages Zavlek, S. Presents basic information relevant to planning smaller, community-based or regional facilities to provide secure confinement for serious, violent, and/or chronic juvenile offenders. The Bulletin discusses the advantages of these facilities and outlines a process for developing them within a comprehensive juvenile justice system master plan. It also describes three sample programs and lists related resources. Available online only. PDF (697 KB).

     Juvenile Prisoners: "Growing Up Locked Down: Youth in Solitary Confinement in Jails and Prisons Across the United States," by Human Rights Watch and ACLU (October 2012).

     Juvenile Corrections Officers: Juvenile Corrections Officer Core Course Physical Tasks Training Manual, by Montgomery, Shelley; Parker, Daryl S.; California Board of Corrections. Standards and Training for Corrections Program (Sacramento, CA) Published 2007, 129 pages. This manual sets forth "the core curriculum and design specifications for the portions of the Juvenile Corrections Officer Core Course that pertain to the performance of physically demanding tasks" (p. 1) Sections comprising this manual include: introduction; testing procedures; research findings; instructional guidelines; instructional objectives; charts and diagrams; and explanation of plyometric exercises.

     Juvenile Prisoners: "The Keeper and the Kept," a W. Haywood Burns Institute report on "systemic problems" involving juvenile justice systems, examines racial and ethnic disparities in youth detention and provides recommendations for addressing them.

     Juvenile Prisoners: Until They Die a Natural Death, by The Children's Law Center of Massachusetts (Sept. 2009). A study of life sentences without parole for juvenile prisoners convicted of murder in Massachusetts.

     Juvenile Prisoners: Illinois became the 40th state to create a separate correctional department for juvenile offenders on November 17, 2005 when Gov. Rod R. Blagojevich signed into law Senate Bill 92 as Public Act Public Act 094-0696, which creates a new Illinois Department of Juvenile Justice as of July 1, 2006. Chicago Daily Law Bulletin, p. 3 (November 18, 2005). Click here to read the Governor's press release on the new law.

     Litigation Documents: Amended Settlement Agreement Between the United States of America and the State of Maryland Regarding Conditions at Three Juvenile Justice Facilities. Source(s) U.S. District Court. District of Maryland (Baltimore, MD) Details Published May 17, 2007. 41 pages. "The denial of particular constitutional rights of youth confined at the Cheltenham Youth Facility, Charles H. Hickey, Jr. School, and Baltimore City Juvenile Justice Center (all located in Maryland) is rectified by this amended agreement. Sections of this document are: introduction; definitions; substantive remedial measures - in general, protection from harm, suicide prevention, mental health, medical care, special education, and fire safety; compliance and quality assurance; monitoring and enforcement; reporting requirements and right of access; and implementation and termination. A copy of the original agreement is also included."

     Publication: Screening and Assessing Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Among Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Resource Guide for Practitioners (NCJ 204956) December 2004 Report, 88 pages Grisso, T., Underwood, L. A. Presents information on instruments that can be used to screen and assess youth for mental health- and substance use-related disorders at various stages of the juvenile justice process. The Guide includes profiles of more than 50 instruments, guidelines for selecting instruments, and best practice recommendations for diverse settings and situations. It is intended as a basic tool for juvenile justice professionals working toward the goal of early, accurate identification of youth with mental disorders. Once identified, these youth can receive the services required to improve their lives, reduce recidivism, and promote community safety. Available online only. [PDF] (1.85 MB).

     Publications: Implementation and Outcome Evaluation of the Intensive Aftercare Program: Final Report (NCJ 206177) March 2005 Report, 110 pages Le, T.N., McNulty, B., Wagner, D., Wang, Y., Wiebush, R.G. Presents the findings from a 5-year, multi-site evaluation of the implementation and outcomes of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP) Intensive Aftercare Program (IAP). The goal of the IAP model is to reduce recidivism among high-risk parolees. The model postulates that effective intervention requires not only intensive supervision and services after institutional release, but also a focus on reintegration during incarceration and a highly structured and gradual transition between institutionalization and aftercare. Available online only. [PDF] (807 KB)

     Reports: Treated Like Trash: Juvenile Detention in New Orleans Before, During, and After Hurricane Katrina, report of the Juvenile Justice Project of Louisiana. (May 2006). A report on conditions in New Orleans Louisiana juvenile detention facilities.

     Report: When “Free” Means Losing Your Mother The Collision of Child Welfare and the Incarceration of Women in New York State, (73 pgs., February 2006), a report by the Correctional Association of New York. "This report examines the damaging, far-reaching and often overlooked consequences of maternal incarceration on children and families. It includes interviews with caregivers, foster care caseworkers, formerly incarcerated mothers and young people with mothers in prison, and offers practical recommendations for reforms that would help rebuild families affected by incarceration, reduce recidivism and interrupt the intergenerational cycle of crime and prison."   

     Statistics: Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children. Presents data from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities about inmates who were parents and their minor children. This report compares estimates of the number of incarcerated parents and their children under the age of 18, by gender, age, race, and Hispanic origin in state and federal prisons in 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, and 2007. It presents the total number of children who were minors at some time during their parent’s incarceration. The report describes selected background characteristics of parents in prisons, including marital status, citizenship, education, offense type, criminal history, employment, prior experiences of homelessness, drug and alcohol involvement, mental health, and physical and sexual abuse. It provides family background of inmate parents including household makeup, public assistance received by household, drug and alcohol use, and incarceration of family members. It includes information on the children’s daily care, financial support, current caregivers, and frequency and type of contact with incarcerated parents. Highlights include the following: * The nation’s prisons held approximately 744,200 fathers and 65,600 mothers at midyear 2007. * Parents held in the nation’s prisons—52% of state inmates and 63% of federal inmates—reported having an estimated 1,706,600 minor children, accounting for 2.3% of the U.S. resident population under age 18. * Growth in the number of parents held in state and federal prisons was outpaced by the growth in the nation’s prison population between 1991 and midyear 2007. 08/08 NCJ 222984 Press release | Acrobat file (175K) | ASCII file (38K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 22K)

     Statistics: Sexual Violence Reported by Juvenile Correctional Authorities, 2005-06. Presents data from the 2005 and 2006 Survey on Sexual Violence, an administrative records collection of incidents required under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-79) of youth-on-youth and staff-on-youth sexual violence reported to juvenile correctional authorities. The report provides counts of sexual violence, by type, for juvenile correctional facilities. The report also provides an in-depth analysis of substantiated incidents, including where the incidents occur, time of day, number and characteristics of victims and perpetrators, nature of the injuries, impact on the victims and sanctions imposed on the perpetrators. The appendix tables include counts of sexual violence, by type, for all state systems, and all sampled locally or privately operated facilities. Highlights include the following: * Approximately 1 in 5 of reported allegations of juvenile sexual violence were substantiated. * Youth-on-youth incidents were more likely to occur in the victim’s room (37%) or in a common area (32%), compared to staff-on-youth incidents (7% and 13%, respectively). * Victims received physical injuries in 12% of substantiated incidents of youth-on-youth sexual violence; about half received some form of medical follow-up. 07/08 NCJ 215337 Press release | Acrobat file (221K) | ASCII file (31K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 45K)

     Youthful Prisoners: "2011 Annual Report," Juvenile Justice Monitoring Unit, Office of the Attorney General, Maryland (January 2012). Indicates an increase in both youth violence and staff use of force at juvenile facilities last year. Includes a response by the Maryland Department of Juvenile Services.

     Youthful Prisoners: "Investigation of the Walnut Grove Youth Correctional Facility, Walnut Grove, Mississippi" U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division Findings Letter (March 20, 2012). The letter says investigators found reasonable cause to believe that conditions at the facility include deliberate indifference to staff sexual misconduct and inappropriate behavior with youth, use of excessive force by staff on youth, inadequate protection of youth from youth-on-youth violence, deliberate indifference to youth at risk of self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, and deliberate indifference to the medical needs of youth.

     Youthful Prisoners: Settlement Agreement of United States v. State of Indiana, the Logansport Intake/Diagnostic Facility and the South Bend Juvenile Correctional Facility. (PDF) (02/08/06)

     Youthful Prisoners: Settlement Agreement in United States v. State of Hawai'i, the Hawai'i Youth Correctional Facility (Memorandum of Agreement) (PDF)(02/07/06)

     Youthful Prisoners: The South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice: Raising the Voices of Girls, by Susan Alford, Corrections Today, published by the American Correctional Association. (December 2006). Discusses recent strides towards improved conditions for female juvenile prisoners in South Carolina juvenile justice system.

     Videotape: Youthful Offenders in Adult Corrections: Effective Interventions Program Description: The 32-hour program in September 2003 will present a research-based, practical curriculum that teaches principles and implementation of effective interventions ("what works") within the context of managing youthful offenders in an adult correctional environment. This highly interactive approach to training both security and treatment staff uses modeled behaviors and guided practice for developing skills needed to work with this unique offender population. The training program combines all of the elements of effective interventions to help agencies build programs that effect offender behavior change and reduce recidivism. Contact the NIC Information Center at (800) 877-1461 to request the taped program.

     Videotape: Children of Prisoners: Children of Promise Summary: This 3-hour videoconference, broadcast on June 18, 2003, was intended to identify the problems and greatest needs of incarcerated parents and caretakers with regard to their children, identify the problems and issues that children of prisoners or former prisoners face that put them at risk, identify and describe evidence-based and promising approaches to support these children and build on their strengths, and describe the benefits of the criminal justice system becoming more family-friendly. Web links are pending for viewing the recorded program online. A videotape of the program will be available through the NIC Information Center. Call Toll-free 1 (800) 877-1461. (June 2003).

     Youthful Prisoners: The Impact of Incarceration on Young Offenders. NCJ 227403, 179 pgs., April 2009, Grant Report, by Kristy N. Matsuda.

     Youthful Prisoners: The NIC website has an online Syllabus of Supportive Literature for the video program  Youthful Offenders in Adult Corrections: Effective Interventions (September 2003), complete with downloadable .pdf files of many items listed. National Institute of Corrections, U.S. Department of Justice.

     Youthful Prisoners: Report of findings of U.S. Justice Department civil rights division investigation into conditions at Mississippi's two state-run institutions for minors deemed juvenile delinquents, the Oakley and Columbia Training Schools in Raymond and Columbia, Mississippi. (June 19, 2003). [48 pages, PDF]

     Youthful Prisoners: Report of findings of U.S. Justice Department civil rights division investigation into conditions at Los Angeles County, California Juvenile Halls. (April 9, 2003).


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