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Civil Liability Law Resources



Airport/Airline Security

     Airport/Airline Security: "Intelligence and Airports," by Robert T. Raffel, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 4, pgs 1-7 (April 2007). "Airport security practitioners have several avenues to receive and use information and intelligence."

Alcohol Abuse

     Alcohol Abuse: "Intoxicated Offenders and Suicide Threats: Is There a Connection?," by Tony Salvatore, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (August 2013).

Arrest & Impisonment

     Arrest: Probable Cause to Arrest, Point of View, Alameda County District Attorney's Office (Winter 2014).

     Arrests: The Alameda County District Attorney's Office has prepared a 22-page article on the law of arrests, including the rules for making warrantless arrests, obtaining arrest warrants, and various procedural and post-arrest requirements.

     Arrest and Imprisonment: "Detentions Based on 911 Calls," 12 pgs., Point of View, published by the Alameda County, California, District Attorney's Office (Spring 2005).

Arson

     Article: "Juvenile Arson," by Paul Zipper and David K. Wilcox, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 4, pgs. 1-9 (April 2005). "Law enforcement agencies serve an important role in the coordinated approach required to effectively address juvenile firesetting." [PDF] [HTML]

Asset Forfeiture

     Asset Forfeiture: Asset Seizure and Forfeiture: Ethical Issues, by Colin May, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (September 2016),

Batons

     Batons: "A Pilot Study of Kinetic Energy Transfer Based Upon Police Baton Designs," by K. Collie, B. Wargo, C. Berry, and C. Mesloh, 9 (1) Law Enforcement Executive Forum 121-128 (2009). "Although the smaller batons may be easier to handle, these lighter batons simply cannot generate the force of larger, heavier batons. Consequently, this practice actually works against the smaller officers by reducing the force that they are capable of delivering. A baton that is too light or too small may cause an officer to strike a subject repeatedly to effectively control a suspect, which is perceived badly by both the media and the public. While a heavier baton is more likely to cause injury, this risk is reduced when strikes are properly delivered to an approved target area on the body and is more likely to be effective in a single strike. The most practical, less-than-lethal force option is one that incapacitates with the least number of applications."

Body Armor

     Article: "Your Vest Won't Stop This Bullet: A Guide to Safer Traffic Stops," by Richard J. Ashton, Grant/Technical Management Manager, IACP. The Police Chief Magazine, Vol. 72, No. 7 (July 2005).

     Body Armor: Body Armor for Law Enforcement Officers, by Nathan James (Congressional Research Service, May 2014).

     Body Armor: "Bulletproof Vest Partnership Initiative," BJA, Updated June 2011. This fact sheet describes the Bulletproof Vest Partnership (BVP) Program, a U.S. Department of Justice initiative designed to provide critical resources to state, local, and tribal jurisdictions for the sole purpose of purchasing bullet-resistant body armor for sworn law enforcement officers.

      Body Armor: "Bulletproof Vest Partnership Initiative" presents information on the Bulletproof Vest Partnership Program. This program is designed to provide critical resources to state, local, and tribal jurisdictions for the sole purpose of purchasing bullet-resistant body armor for sworn law enforcement officers. (BJA)

     Body Armor: A survey of 782 agencies nationwide, conducted by the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) and the Justice Department's Bureau of Justice Assistance indicates that, while nearly all law enforcement agencies (99%) provide body armor for officers, only 59% require it to be worn at some time, and of those, only half had a written policy concerning its use.

    Body Armor: Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor, NIJ Standard-0101.06 (July 2008).

      Body Armor: Updated Body Armor pages. "More than 3,000 police officers' lives have been saved by body armor since the mid-1970s when NIJ began testing and developing body armor and performance standards for ballistic and stab resistance. Recognition and acceptance of the NIJ standard has grown worldwide, making it the performance benchmark for ballistic-resistant body armor. NIJ's Body Armor Web pages discuss the Body Armor Safety Initiative; explains the results of body armor research and explores future research; provides information on standards and testing; and offers links to resources that help agencies select and fund body armor purchases." (August 30, 2007).

  Body Armor: The Department of Justice (DOJ), as part of its ongoing Body Armor Safety Initiative testing, announced on August 24, 2005 that test results indicate that used Zylon-containing body armor vests may not provide the intended level of ballistic resistance. As a result, DOJ will adopt new interim requirements for its body armor compliance testing program, and will add an additional $10 million to the $23.6 million already available to law enforcement through DOJ's Bulletproof Vest Partnership (BVP) program to assist in the replacement of Zylon-based body armor vests. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research, development, and evaluation arm of DOJ, conducted extensive testing on used Zylon-based body armor. The testing was carried out as part of the Attorney General's Body Armor Safety Initiative, which began in November 2003. The latest report, NIJ's Third Status Report to the Attorney General on Body Armor Safety Initiative Testing and Activities, is available at https://vests.ojp.gov. NIJ performed ballistic testing on 103 Zylon-containing used armor vests from law enforcement agencies across the United States. Of these vests, 60 (58 percent) were penetrated by at least one round during a six-shot test series. Of those that passed penetration testing, 91 percent showed excessive "backface deformation," an indicator of the potential blunt trauma experienced by an officer wearing the armor. Only four used armor vests tested met all performance criteria under NIJ's body armor standard for new body armor. In the tests, age and appearance of used Zylon-based vests were ineffective predictors of potential ballistic performance. NIJ's research also showed that ballistic-resistant material, including Zylon, can degrade as a result of exposure to environmental conditions, such as moisture and light. It is likely that the ballistic performance degradation in Zylon-containing armor is closely related to the chemical changes found in what is known as the oxazole ring. Breakage of the oxazole ring correlates with degradation of the mechanical properties of Zylon fibers.

     The Department is issuing a Body Armor Standard Advisory Notice to alert law enforcement to the potential risks associated with the use of Zylon in body armor, and will adopt new interim requirements for its body armor compliance testing program. As a result, body armor models that contain Zylon will not be compliant, unless their manufacturers provide satisfactory evidence to NIJ that the models will maintain their ballistic performance over their declared warranty period. Also, until the new requirements become effective, Zylon-containing armor vests will not be eligible for purchase with federal funds through the BVP program. Documents issued include:

     Body Armor: Status Report to the Attorney General on Body Armor Safety Initiative Testing and Activities, March 2004. [PDF] (558 KB)

     Body Armor: Announcement by Second Chance Body Armor calling on law enforcement agencies to immediately replace body armor manufactured with Zylon. (June 22, 2005, PDF). IACP President Joseph Estey's Response to Announcement by Second Chance Body Armor. (June 22, 2005).

    Publication: National Institute of Justice, NIJ Journal Issue No. 254 Posted July 7, 2006 When a Zylon-based body armor that had passed NIJ standards failed to fully protect an officer in 2003, NIJ began investigating why. The newest NIJ Journal features an article about the findings of the investigation as well as interim changes to the standards and testing program. Another article summarizes findings from an NIJ-sponsored conference about suicide terrorism. The conference brought together experts in the field to discuss findings and share views on suicide terrorism, what compels individuals to join terrorist organizations, and the utility of a central database of research on the topic. Additional stories feature: Biometric-based identification used by a school in New Jersey to keep its students safer. A method for minimizing the costs and risks of conducting evaluations. Ways to better investigate electronic crimes. Methamphetamine use and production. Increased reports of rape involving people who know each other. Full Text HTML

Body Cameras

     Body Cameras: ACLU - Illinois: Suggested Guidelines on Use of Body Cameras by Police (Sep. 2014).

     Body Cameras: Are You Recording This?: Enforcement of Police Videotaping, by Martina Kitzmueller, 47 (1) Conn. L. Rev. 167-196 (Nov. 2014).

     Body Cameras: AELE has a new webpage on police body-cam information, which will be periodically updated.

     Body Cameras: "Police Body-Mounted Cameras: With Right Policies in Place, a Win For All," by Jay Stanley, ACLU Senior Policy Analyst (October 2013).

     Body-Worn Cameras: Special Report: Body-Worn Cameras, Police Magazine (Jul. 2015).

     Body Worn Cameras: Body-Worn Video Cameras for Law Enforcement Assessment Report, U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate, prepared by the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center (April 2015).

     Body Worn Cameras: Civil Rights Principles on Body Worn Cameras, signed by a coalition of privacy advocates (May 2015).

     Body Worn Cameras: Efficacy of Police Body Cameras for Evidentiary Purposes: Fact or Fallacy? The Police Chief (May 2015).

     Body Worn Cameras:  Office of Justice Programs Comprehensive Body-Worn Camera Program (NCJ 248833), Bureau of Justice Assistance (May 2015).

     Body-Worn Cameras: Development in the Law Policing - Chapter Four: Considering Police Body Cameras, 128 Harv. L. Rev. 1794 (Apr. 2015).

     Body-Worn Cameras: Guidance for the Use of Body-Worn Cameras by Canadian Law Enforcement Authorities, The Privacy Commissioner of Canada (Feb. 2015).

Campus Crime & School Security

     Article: "School Resource Officer Programs." by Peter Finn, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 8, pgs. 1-7 (Aug. 2006). "Many law enforcement agencies have found that operating and contributing to the cost of a school resource officer program repays them in significant ways." [HTML] [PDF]

     Campus Security: Campus Safety CD-ROM. This CD-ROM contains more than 50 publications and resource links related to drugs, alcohol, and violence on campus. It also contains a video, Because Things Happen Every Day: Responding to Teenage Victims of Crime, produced by the National Center from Victims of Crime and sponsored by the COPS Office (Office of Community Oriented Policing Services). View contents on-line. Order a copy.

     College and School Crime: "Education Under Arrest: The Case Against Police in Schools," Justice Policy Institute (Nov. 15, 2011).

     College and School Crime: "Policing in Public Schools: Beyond the Active Shooter," by Gary D. Rudick, F.B.I. Law Enforcement Bulletin, p. 16 (Nov. 2011).

     School Bullying: "Bullying in Schools: An Overview," by Ken Seeley, Martin L. Tombari, Laurie J. Bennett, and Jason B. Dunkle (NCJ 234205) (December 2011).

     School Safety: As part of a project funded by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) has published a guide to digital imaging titled Digital Imaging for Safe Schools: A Public Safety Response to Critical Incidents. The IACP partnered with Arlington and Fairfax counties in Virginia in a project to employ digital images taken in schools as the foundation for constructing virtual classrooms to be used during a critical incident. With the photos compiled from each school, first responders arriving on scene have access to school maps and floor plans through either the Internet or a CD-ROM. They can then use the 360-degree images to quickly ascertain trouble spots and develop a tactical plan even before entering the building. The result of this partnership is a how-to resource guide for public safety practitioners and school administrators to use in developing their own response plans. More information and a version of the guide are available at http://www.theiacp.org/research/RCDTechCuttingEdge.html.

      School Security: Redefining School Resource Officers’ Roles, by Sergeant Christopher Boyd and Chief Tomas Sanchez, Hollywood, Florida, Police Department, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Dec. 2016).

     School Security: Resources on School Violence. Compiled by the FBI and contains a number of useful links to various resources and information. (April 2007).

     School Violence: "Campus Attacks: Targeted Violence Affecting Institutions of Higher Education," a report b the U.S. Secret Service, U.S. Dept. of Education, and FBI. (April 2010). Analyzes 272 cases of violence on college campuses in the U.S.

    School Violence: The Office of Justice Programs' Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), in coordination with the International Association of Chiefs of Police, has published a new edition of its "Guide for Preventing and Responding to School Violence." Designed to assist local communities, the guide describes the roles of the school, community, families, law enforcement, and justice system in working together to take effective action to address school violence.

     Sexual Assault: Sexual Assault on Campus: What Colleges and Universities Are Doing About It. NCJ 205521, December 2005, Research for Practice, National Institute of Justice, by Heather M. Karjane, Bonnie S. Fisher, and Francis T. Cullen. Summary Full Report.

    Statistics: Campus Law Enforcement, by Brian Reaves, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (January 20, 2015 NCJ 248028).

     Statistics: "Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2012," by Thomas Snyder and Jennifer Truman (June 26, 2013 NCJ 241446).

     Statistics: "Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2010," by Simone Robers (NCES), Jennifer Truman (BJS), Jijun Zhang (NCES), November 22, 2010 NCJ 230812. Presents data on crime and safety at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, and principals. A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), this annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It also provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools and school environments and responses to violence and crime at school. Data are drawn from several federally funded collections, including the National Crime Victimization Survey, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, School Survey on Crime and Safety, and the Schools and Staffing Survey. Highlights include the following: * In 2008, among students ages 12 -18, there were about 1.2 million victims of nonfatal crimes at school, including 619,000 thefts and 743,100 violent crimes (simple assault and serious violent crime). * During the school year 2007 - 08, there were 1,701 homicides among school-age youth ages 5 - 18. * In 2009, 31 percent of students in grades 9 - 12 reported they had been in a physical fight at least one time during the previous 12 months anywhere, and 11 percent said they had been in a fight on school property during the previous 12 months.

     Statistics: Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2006. Presents data on crime and safety at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general public. A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics, this annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It also provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools, school environments, and responses to violence and crime at school. Data are drawn from several federally funded collections including the National Crime Victimization Survey, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, School Survey on Crime and Safety, and School and Staffing Survey. Information was gathered from an array of sources including: - National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2004) - School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (1995, 1999, 2001, 2003, and 2005) - Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, and 2005) - School Survey on Crime and Safety (1999-2000 and 2003-04) - School and Staffing Survey (1993-94, 1999-2000, and 2003-04). Highlights include the following: * From July 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005, there were 21 homicides of school-age youth (ages 5 to 18) at school. * In 2003-04 teachers' reports of being threatened or attacked by students during the previous 12 months varied according to their school level. * The percentage of public schools experiencing one or more violent incidents increased between the 1999-2000 and 2003-04 school years, from 71 to 81 percent. 12/06 NCJ 214262 Press release | Acrobat file (1.6K) | ASCII file (199K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 158K)

Chemical Weapons

     Chemical Weapons: "Deaths in Police Confrontations When Oleoresin Capsicum is Used" by Charles S. Petty, M.D., 2/2004, NCJ 204029. 52 pgs. A study of 63 incidents. [PDF].

     Pepper Spray: Task Force Report, University of California Police (Davis campus) pepper spray incident in Nov. 2011. (190 pp. PDF 2012).

     Report: "The Effectiveness and Safety of Pepper Spray" (April 2003). National Institute of Justice (NIJ). "Though generally assumed to be safe and effective, the consequences of the use of pepper spray, as with any use of force, can never be predicted with certainty. To expand the scope of knowledge on such a complex subject, this Research for Practice examines two unpublished NIJ-funded studies on the use of pepper spray in real-life arrests and compares them with previous studies. While the research does not and cannot prove that pepper spray will never be a contributing factor in the death of a subject resisting arrest, it seems to confirm that pepper spray is a reasonably safe and effective tool for law enforcement officers to use when confronting uncooperative or combative subjects." Full text of the Report: ASCII Text File Adobe Acrobat File.

Child Abuse, Injury, and Safety

     Abuse and Harassment: "Teen Dating Abuse and Harassment in the Digital World Implications for Prevention and Intervention," by Janine M. Zweig, and Meredith Dank (Urban Institute Feb. 19, 2013).

     Article: "Sudden, Unexplained Infant Death Investigations," by Ernst H. Weyand, 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 3, pgs. 10-15 (March 2004). [PDF] "Law enforcement officers can better handle SUID cases after gaining an understanding of their role in these investigations." Also available in .html format.

     Child Abuse: Interdiction for the Protection of Children, by Michael L. Yoder and Wayne R. Koka, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (February 2015).

     Child Abuse: "State Secrecy and Child Deaths in the U.S.," Children's Advocacy Institute of the University of San Diego School of Law (2nd Edition, 2012).

     Child Abuse: "Abuse, Neglect, Adoption & Foster Care Research National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-4), 2004-2009," U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. (March 2010). A federal study indicates a decrease in serious child abuse, especially sexual abuse. An estimated 553,000 children suffered physical, sexual or emotional abuse in 2005- 06, down 26 percent from the estimated 743,200 abuse victims in 1993, according to the report. The number of sexually abused children decreased from 217,700 in 1993 to 135,300 in 2005-2006, a 38 percent drop, the study shows. The number of children who experienced physical abuse fell by 15 percent and the number of emotionally abused children dropped by 27 percent.

    Child Abuse: A task force created by 49 state attorneys general to find a solution to the problem of sexual solicitation of children online has concluded that there really is not a significant problem. The Internet Safety Technical Task Force was charged with examining the extent of the threats children face on social networks like MySpace and Facebook, amid widespread fears that older adults were using these popular sites to deceive and prey on children. The 278-page report was the result of a year of meetings between dozens of academics, experts in childhood safety and executives of 30 companies, including Yahoo, AOL, MySpace and Facebook. The task force, led by the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University, looked at scientific data on online sexual predators and found that children and teenagers were unlikely to be propositioned by adults online. In the cases that do exist, the report said, teenagers are typically willing participants and are already at risk because of poor home environments, substance abuse or other problems.

    Child Abuse: Investigating Child Fatalities. This Guide, the latest in the U.S. Justice Department Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Portable Guides to Investigating Child Abuse series, provides concise, practical information to assist law enforcement officers in investigating child fatalities in which investigators believe abuse or neglect caused or contributed to the fatal injury. The guide explains how child fatalities differ from other types of homicide cases and offers specific guidelines for conducting the investigation, documenting the case, interrogating suspects, and testifying in court. (NCJ 209764) Full text of the report: PDF

     Child Abuse: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention “Recognizing When a Child’s Injury or Illness Is Caused by Abuse” http://www.ncjrs.org/html/ojjdp/portable_guides/abuse_02/key.html#sids

    Child Abuse and Welfare:"Domestic Custodial-Motivated Child Abductions," By Ashli-Jade Douglas, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (August 2013).

    Child Abuse and Welfare: America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2013,”The Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics (2013).

     Crimes Against Children: The Office of Community Oriented Policing (COPS) presents Child Pornography on the Internet. This guide describes the problem and reviews the factors that increase the risks of Internet child pornography. It then identifies a series of questions that may assist in the analysis of the problem and reviews responses based on evaluative research and police practice.

      Child Protection: "Child Abductions," by David M. Allender, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 7, pg. 1 (July 2007). "Child abductions pose one of the most critical offenses that law enforcement officers handle."

     Child Protection: "Child Pornography Web Sites," by Wade Luders, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 7, pg. 17 (July 2007). . "Awareness of techniques that online child pornographers use will assist investigators in combating this growing threat."

     Children: The Crime of Family Abduction: A Child's and Parent's Perspective. (NCJRS, 2010).

     Children: Effects of Federal Legislation on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children. (NCJRS, 2010).

     Children: When Your Child Is Missing: A Family Survival Guide. (NCJRS, 2010).

     Crimes Against Children: Parental Kidnapping: Using Social Media to Assist in Apprehending Suspects and Recovering Victims, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2015).

     Dating Violence: The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) offers Teen Dating Violence Special Feature, an online compilation of publications and resources on the topic.

     Guidelines: Interagency Panel on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome “Guidelines for Death Scene Investigation of Sudden, Unexplained Infant Deaths” http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00042657.htm

     Homosexual Youth: "Criminal Justice and School Sanctions Against Nonheterosexual Youth: A National Longitudinal Study," by Kathryn W. Himmelstein and Hannah Bruckner, Pediatrics (Jan. 2011). The article states that lesbian, bisexual and gay youth are singled out more than their heterosexual counterparts for punishment from authorities, including police and school officials, according to a new study. It found that lesbian, gay and bisexual adolescents are about 40% more likely to be expelled from school, arrested by police and convicted by courts than their peers.

     Publication: AMBER Alert Best Practices Guide for Public Information Officers. This Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention guide describes the public information officer's (PIO's) job responsibilities and provides tips to maximize the PIO's effectiveness before, during, and after an AMBER Alert activation. It offers recommendations for helping law enforcement agencies achieve a smooth, rapid public warning activation program. (NCJ 212703)

     Publication: Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: What Do We Know and What Do We Do About It? NCJ 215733, December 2007, NIJ Report, by Jay Albanese Summary | PDF

     Publication: Project ChildSafe (NCJ 204959), Bureau of Justice Assistance, June 2004. PDF or HTML Describes Project ChildSafe, a nationwide program that distributes free gun locks and teaches firearm owners how to safely handle and store their firearms. The project also helps local law enforcement agencies schedule firearm safety events in their communities. As of March 2004, Project ChildSafe had distributed more than 9 million safety kits in nearly 12,000 communities in 46 states.

     "Sexting": "Sexting: Risky Actions and Overreactions." By Art Bowker, M.A., and Michael Sullivan, J.D. 79 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 7 (July 2010). "These disturbing cases require sound judgment by officers and prosecutors."

     Statistics: "Prevalence of Violent Crime among Households with Children, 1993-2010," by Erica L. Smith, Jennifer L. Truman, Ph.D. Bureau of Justice Statistics (September 19, 2012 NCJ 238799).

     Websites: Project Safe Childhood. U.S. Department of Justice. Project Safe Childhood aims to combat the proliferation of technology-facilitated sexual exploitation crimes against children. Among other resources, the website contains a guide available on-line, and a list of on-line publications.

     Websites: National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse. A website of a National Center, established in 1985 by the National District Attorneys' Association as a program of the American Prosecutors Research Institute (APRI), which provides training, technical assistance and publications to prosecutors, investigators and allied criminal justice professionals on all aspects of criminal child abuse and exploitation.

Church, Synagogue, and Mosque Security

     Article: Advising Houses of Worship on a Comprehensive and Balanced Security Plan, Police Chief Magazine. "Houses of worship should be the safest places on Earth; sadly, they are not. Read how the local police can secure the houses of worship."

Citizen Complants & Public Relations

     Community Relations: Building Trust Between the Police and the Citizens They Serve: An Internal Affairs Promising Practices Guide for Local Law Enforcement, November 10, 2009. This guide is for law enforcement executives who strive to prevent misconduct within their departments, properly address misconduct, should it occur, and build and maintain community trust and confidence. The Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (the COPS Office), U.S. Department of Justice and the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) partnered to create the publication.

     Publication: Mediation Programs Mediating Citizen Complaints Against Police Officers: A Guide for Police and Community Leaders addresses the implementation, expectations, and evaluation of mediation programs. The mediation process focuses on solving problems by understanding the conflict and the stakeholders involved, not on placing blame. Mediation programs have been successful in settling disputes, but implementing them can be difficult. This Office of Community Oriented Policing Services guide by Samuel Walker, Carol Archbold, and Leigh Herbst examines how to deal with implementation obstacles and how to overcome police and citizen resistance to a mediation program. It also reviews a successful mediation process for communities considering developing a mediation program. Key issues, such as eligibility, cultural barriers, and creating a level playing field between the police and those involved in the conflict, are discussed. For availability and ordering information, contact the U.S. Department of Justice Response Center at 800-421-6770 or access the guide electronically. [PDF]

     Publication: "Research for Practice, Factors That Influence Public Opinion of the Police," by Cheryl Maxson, Karen Hennigan, and David C. Sloane, National Institute of Justice, June 2003 (ASCII Text File) (PDF File).

Civil Liability and Criminal Prosecution for Police Misconduct

     Article: "Civil Liability and Criminal Prosecution in Federal Court for Police Misconduct," by Richard G. Schott, 77 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pg. 23-32 (May 2008). "Law enforcement officers should be aware of the legal basis for being the subject of federal civil actions and federal criminal prosecutions." [PDF]

Community Corrections & Policing

     Article: "Community Policing, Exploring the Philosophy" by David M. Allender, 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 3, pgs. 18-27 (March 2004). [PDF] "Understanding the concept of community policing can help law enforcement agencies design and implement successful programs." Also available in .html format.

     Community Corrections: Article: "Community Corrections and Community Policing," by David Leitenberger, Pete Semenyna, and Jeffrey B. Spelman, 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 11, pgs. 20-23. [PDF] "A partnership between corrections and police officers can greatly enhance community supervision efforts."

     Community Policing: "Community Policing to Prevent Violent Extremism," by Dan Silk, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (October 2012).

     Community Relations: Building Trust Between the Police and the Citizens They Serve: An Internal Affairs Promising Practices Guide for Local Law Enforcement, November 10, 2009. This guide is for law enforcement executives who strive to prevent misconduct within their departments, properly address misconduct, should it occur, and build and maintain community trust and confidence. The Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (the COPS Office), U.S. Department of Justice and the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) partnered to create the publication.

     Community Safety: "Neighborhood Watch Manual" (NCJ 231132, 37 pp.) is designed for citizen organizers and law enforcement officers who work with community members. It explains how to start, manage, and expand a neighborhood watch group. (BJA)

     Publication: Community Policing Beyond the Big Cities. National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice. [PDF] (November 2004). Can police and sheriffs in small cities and rural areas conduct community policing? This NIJ Research for Policy (NCJ 205946) discusses a study of eight law enforcement agencies in small cities and rural areas that have implemented a wide variety of problem-solving initiatives. Researchers identified five progressive stages of community policing. Community policing was most successful when officers worked closely with residents and other local partners to develop innovative approaches to solving local problems.

     Publication: COPS POP Guide: Crimes Against Tourists by Ronald W. Glensor and Kenneth J. Peak (54 pgs. August 2004) [PDF] NCJ 206408 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). This guide describes the problem of tourist crime and reviews the factors that contribute to it. It identifies a series of questions to help readers analyze their local problem and a number of measures that can be taken to address the problem.

Court Testimony

     Article: "On the Spot," by Laurence Miller. 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin Number 10, pg. 1 (October 2006). "With careful preparation, law enforcement officers may find that testifying in court does not have to be such a stressful consequence of their job." [PDF]

Crime Victim Services

     Conference: The National Center for Victims of Crime 1st National Conference, entitled "Forging Alliances - Building Leadership," will be held June 20-22, 2005 at the Omni Shoreham Hotel in Washington, D.C. According to its sponsors, it will feature more than 130 leading experts, 65 skill-building workshops, and opportunities to "forge alliances and build leadership." Topics will include human trafficking, victim confidentiality, high-tech stalking, criminal profiling, youth leadership to help crime victims, mass violence and community resilience, repeat rapes by undetected offenders, and the "neurobiology of trauma." For a detailed agenda, click here.

    Crime Victims: "What You Can Do If You Are a Victim of Crime" explains the rights of victims of crime and the compensation and assistance resources available to them. The recently revised brochure also includes a list of national organizations that help victims find information or obtain referrals. (Office for Victims of Crime).

     Crime Victims: The Office for Victims of Crime has released the 2008 Resource Guide for National Crime Victims' Rights Week, April 13-19, 2008. Developed to help communities promote awareness of victim services, the online guide includes camera-ready art files, public awareness posters, the 2008 theme DVD and screensaver, and more. The 2008 theme is "Justice for Victims, Justice for All." (NCJ 220102).

     Crime Victim Resources: The 2011 National Crime Victims' Rights Week (NCVRW) Resource Guide is available online. The guide was developed to help communities promote awareness of crime victim issues; it includes camera-ready art files, public awareness posters, the 2011 theme DVD, and much more. NCVRW will be observed April 10-16, 2011.

     Crime Victim Services: Created and successfully field-tested by eleven law enforcement agencies around the country, and offered by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), www.responsetovictims.org features 21st century approaches and effective strategies in the areas of leadership, partnering, training, and performance monitoring that place victims at the center of public safety efforts and response to crime. The site hosts four volumes of the Enhancing Law Enforcement Response to Victims Strategy and a great number of victim-related publications and materials that will assist any law enforcement agency in making significant strides towards serving this important constituency in a more comprehensive way with minimum investment. On-site and off-site technical assistance is available to agencies interested in strategy implementation.

     Crime Victim Services: "Learning About Victims of Crime: A Training Model for Victim Service Providers and Allied Professionals" (September 2003) This bulletin summarizes training initiatives at the Denver Victim Services 2000 project site, including training programs for allied professionals in faith communities, law enforcement settings, and judicial and other legal settings. For the full document in .PDF format, click here.

     Crime Victim Services:  A new online Directory of Crime Victim Services is searchable by location, type of victimization, agency type, or available services.

    Crime Victims: Critical Response Vol. 4: Services to Hispanic Victims, New Products and Services. Critical Response, a newsletter created to assist law enforcement agencies in meeting the needs of crime victims, is a product of a grant funded by the Office for Victims of Crime, Office of Justice Programs, US Dept. of Justice. [PDF]

     Crime Victims: The Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) has published What You Can Do If You Are a Victim of Crime. This brochure highlights victims’ rights, includes compensation and assistance programs, and lists national organizations that can help them find information or obtain referrals. The resource also can be customized with local contact information, including nearby victim resources, and printed on standard 8 ½- by 11-inch paper. This brochure is available online at http://www.ovc.gov/publications/factshts/whatyoucando/fs000301.pdf or by contacting the National Criminal Justice Reference Service at 800-851-3420.

     Dating Violence: The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) offers Teen Dating Violence Special Feature, an online compilation of publications and resources on the topic.

     Publications: Critical Response Newsletter Electronic version of the Fall 2006 issue of the Critical Response newsletter focusing on a wide range of victim-related issues, resources and training opportunities is available at http://www.theiacp.org/research/RCDCriticalResponse.htm.

     Publication: Picking Up The Pieces: Your Rights and Responsibilities as a Crime Victim. Jim Petro, Attorney General, State of Ohio. 61 pgs. [PDF]

     Publication: Resource Guide: 2004 National Crime Victims' Week: April 18-24, 2004. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime. Full guide also available in .PDF format (1.3 Megabyte file). Contents include victimization statistics, sample Public Service Announcements (PSAs) and speeches, special event ideas, contest guidelines, National Crime Victim Rights Week highlights on DVD, and camera-ready art files. To obtain the DVD and a CD with the camera-ready art, use the NCJRS Online Ordering System. Ask for NCJ 202045. (Free, but shipping may apply).

     Publication: State Legislative Approaches to Funding for Victims' Services. (December 2003) [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime. Discusses alternatives such as offender-based funding, funding through fees, state-facilitated funding by private citizens, and miscellaneous approaches including specialized taxes, special license plates, and sale of inmate arts and crafts.

     Statistics: National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Victimization Analysis Tool (April 2012).

     Statistics: National Crime Victimization Survey, Bureau of Justice Statistics, September 2005 Presents estimates of national levels and rates of personal and property victimization for the year 2004. Rates and levels are provided for personal and property victimization by victim characteristics, type of crime, victim-offender relationship, use of weapons, and reporting to police. A special section is devoted to trends in victimization from 1993 to 2004. Estimates are from data collected using the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), an ongoing survey of households that interviews about 76,000 persons in 42,000 households twice annually. Violent crimes included in the report are rape/sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault and simple assault (from the NCVS), and homicide (from the FBI's UCR program). Property crimes examined are burglary, motor vehicle theft, and property theft. Highlights include the following: The rate of violent crime dropped 9% from the period 2001-02 to the period 2003-04. During 2004, 22% of all violent crime incidents were committed by an armed offender; 6% by an offender with a firearm. Between 2001-02 and 2003-04 violent crime decreased 17% in the West, from 31 to 26 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older. 9/05 NCJ 210674 (9/28/05) [PDF].

Criminal Justice Statistics & Information

    Article: "Implementing a Cold Case Homicide Unit," by Vivian B. Lord, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 2, pgs. 1-6. (February 2005). [PDF] [HTML] "Cold case homicides present unique challenges to the investigators attempting to solve them."

     Article: "Spirituality: An Invisible Weapon for Wounded Warriors," by Samuel L. Feemster, 78 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 1, pgs. 1-12 (Jan. 2009). "The cultivation of spirituality in law enforcement, at both the individual and organizational levels, can operate as an invisible weapon for officers."

     Article: "In Harm's Way: Duty of Care for Child Exploitation and Pornography Investigators," by Meredith Krause, 78 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 1, pgs. 20- 29 (Jan. 2009). "Those law enforcement personnel involved in child exploitation and pornography investigations have numerous personal and professional risks."

     Chart: Revised U.S. Department of Justice Organization Chart, last updated 04/29/03. Includes links to on-line websites for major components.

     Crimes: Laser Attacks Against Aircraft: A Threat to Citizens and Law Enforcement Personnel. by Gregory McMahon, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (April 2014).

     Crime Reduction: "The Effect of Police on Crime: New Evidence from U.S. Cities, 1960-2010," by Aaron Chalfin and Justin McCrary. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association of Public Policy Analysis and Management, Baltimore, Md. (Nov. 8, 2012).

     Criminal Investigation: No-Body Homicide Cases: A Practical Approach, by Michael L. Yoder, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (November 2016).

     Criminal Investigation: "False Allegations of Adult Crimes," by James McNamara and Jennifer Lawrence, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (September 2012).

     Criminal Justice Information: War Comes Home: The Excessive Militarization of American Police - Report, by the ACLU (June 23, 2014).

     Criminal Justice Information: The Truth About Lying: What Investigators Need to Know, by Brian D. Fitch, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (June 2014).

     Justice Department Reports: Department of Justice report on the Ferguson, Mo. Police Department, U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division (March 4, 2015).

    Police Corruption: "Crime, Corruption and Cover-ups in the Chicago Police Department," Anti-Corruption Report Number 7, by multiple authors, University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Political Science (January 17, 2013).

     Presidential Task Force Reports: Interim Report of the President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing (March 1, 2015).

     Societal Trends: Societal Trends Facing Law Enforcement, by C. Sidney Heal, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (November 2015).

     Statistics: Criminal Victimization, 2015, by Jennifer L. Truman and Rachel E. Morgan, Bureau of Justice Statistics (October 20, 2016 NCJ 250180).

     Statistics: Police Use of Nonfatal Force, 2002–11, by Elizabeth Davis, Shelley Hyland, and Lynn Langton, Bureau of Justice Statistics (November 14, 2015 NCJ 249216).

     Statistics: Assessment of Coverage in the Arrest-Related Deaths Program, by Duren Banks, Lance Couzens, and Michael Planty, Bureau of Justice Statistics (October 8, 2015 NCJ 249099).

     Statistics: Victims of Identity Theft, 2014, by Erika Harrell, Bureau of Justice Statistics (September 27, 2015 NCJ 248991).

     Statistics: NYPD Inspector General Report: Using Data from Lawsuits and Legal Claims Involving NYPD to Improve Policing (April 2015).

     Statistics: Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009–2013 - Statistical Tables, by Erika Harrell, Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 21, 2015 NCJ 248676.

     Statistics: Local Police Departments, 2013: Personnel, Policies, and Practices, by Brian A. Reaves, Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 14, 2015 NCJ 248677.

    Statistics: Campus Law Enforcement, by Brian Reaves, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (January 20, 2015 NCJ 248028).

     Statistics: Background Checks for Firearm Transfers, 2012 - Statistical Tables, by Joseph M. Durso, Ronald J. Frandsen, Jennifer C. Karberg, and Alina D. Lee, Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 9, 2014 NCJ 247815.

     Statistics: Household Poverty and Nonfatal Violent Victimization, 2008–2012, by Marcus Berzofsky, Lance Couzens, Erika Harrell, Lynn Langton, and Hope Smiley-McDonald, Bureau of Justice Statistics, November 18, 2014 NCJ 248384.

     Statistics: Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2013, Bureau of Justice Statistics (June 10, 2014).

     Statistics: Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2012 - Statistical Tables, by Erika Harrell. Bureau of Justice Statistics (February 25, 2014) NCJ 244525.

     Statistics: "Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2011 - Statistical Tables," by Erika Harrell (NCJ 240299, Dec. 19, 2012).

     Statistics: "Hate Crime Statistics 2011," FBI (Dec. 2012).

     Statistics: "Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2011," by Simone Robers (NCES), Jennifer Truman (BJS), and Jijun Zhang (NCES). (February 22, 2012 NCJ). 236021. Presents data on crime and safety at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, and principals. A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics, this annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It also provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools and school environments; and responses to violence and crime at school. Of the 33 student, staff, and nonstudent school-associated violent deaths occurring between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2010, 25 were homicides, 5 were suicides, and 3 were legal interventions. From July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010, there were 17 homicides and 1 suicide of school-age youth (ages 5-18) at school. In 2010, students ages 12-18 were victims of about 828,000 nonfatal victimizations at school, including 470,000 thefts and 359,000 violent victimizations, 91,400 of which were serious violent victimizations. In 2009, about 31 percent of students in grades 9-12 reported they had been in a physical fight at least one time during the previous 12 months anywhere, and 11 percent said they had been in a fight on school property during the previous 12 months. PDF (2.35M) ASCII file (132K) Spreadsheets (Zip format 337K).

     Statistics: Crime Against People with Disabilities, 2007. Presents the first findings about non-fatal violent and property crime experienced by persons with disabilities, based on the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The report includes data on non-fatal violent victimization (rape/sexual assault, robbery, aggravated and simple assault) and property crime (burglary, motor vehicle theft, theft) against persons with disabilities in 2007. It compares the victimization experience of persons with and without disabilities, using population estimates based on the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS). Data are presented on victim and crime characteristics of persons with and without disabilities, including age, race and gender distribution; offender weapon use; victim injuries; and reporting to the police. Highlights include the following: Persons with disabilities were victims of about 47,000 rapes, 79,000 robberies, 114,000 aggravated assaults, and 476,000 simple assaults. Age-adjusted rate of nonfatal violent crime against persons with disabilities was 1.5 times higher than the rate for persons without disabilities. Females with a disability had a higher victimization rate than males with a disability; males had a higher rate than females among those without a disability. 10/09 NCJ 227814.

     Executive Privilege: "Too Big a Canon in the President's Arsenal: Another Look at United States v. Nixon," by Eric Lane, F.A.O. Schwarz, Jr., and Emily Berman, 17 (3) George Mason Law Review 737-788 (Spring 2010).

     Geography and Public Safety: The June 2010 issue of "Geography and Public Safety" (NCJ 231108, 20 pp.) discusses the initial results of a new operational initiative that uses modern statistical analysis and geographic software to help law enforcement executives deploy resources effectively and efficiently. Other articles discuss results of the Data-Driven Approaches to Crime and Traffic Safety initiatives in various locations. (NIJ).

     Police Injuries: Pattern of law-enforcement related injuries in the United States, by DC Chang, M Williams, NF Sangji, LD Britt, and SO Rogers Jr., J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016 Feb. 16 (abstract).

     Red-Light Cameras: "Research paper: Effects of red light camera enforcement on fatal crashes in large U.S. cities," by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (March 2011). The report states that the use of red-light cameras saved 159 lives in 14 cities during a five-year period. It also says they reduced the rate of fatal red-light running by 24% from 2004 to 2008, and that, had the cameras been installed in all U.S. cities with populations above 200,000, 815 deaths would have been prevented.

     Report: "Is the Economic Downturn Fundamentally Changing How We Police?" Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) (Dec. 2010).

     Statistics: Socio-emotional Impact of Violent Crime, by Lynn Langton and Jennifer Truman, Bureau of Justice Statistics (Sept. 23, 2014).

     Statistics: "When Men Murder Women: An Analysis of 2011 Homicide Data," Violence Policy Center (September 2013).

     Statistics: "Household Burglary, 1994-2011," by Marcus Berzofsky, Jennifer Hardison Walters, Lynn Langton, and Andrew Moore (June 20, 2013 NCJ 241754).

     Statistics: "Female Victims of Sexual Violence, 1994-2010," by Marcus Berzofsky, Dr. P.H., RTI, Christopher Krebs, Ph.D., RTI, Lynn Langton, Ph.D., BJS, Michael Planty, Ph.D., BJS, Hope Smiley-McDonald, Ph.D., RTI, March 7, 2013 NCJ 240655.

     Statistics: "Firearm Violence, 1993-2011," by Michael Planty, Ph.D., Jennifer L. Truman, Ph.D., May 7, 2013 NCJ 241730.

     Statistics: "Hate Crime Victimization, 2003-2011," by Lynn Langton, Ph.D., Michael Planty, Ph.D., Nathan Sandholtz, BJS Intern, March 21, 2013 NCJ 241291.

     Statistics: "Prevalence of Violent Crime among Households with Children, 1993-2010," by Erica L. Smith, Jennifer L. Truman, Ph.D. Bureau of Justice Statistics (September 19, 2012 NCJ 238799).

     Statistics: "Arrest in the United States, 1980-2009," by Howard N. Snyder, Ph.D. (September 22, 2011 NCJ 234319). Presents new annual estimates of arrests in the United States covering the 30-year period from 1980 through 2009. Based on data collected by the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting Program, this bulletin expands the FBI's set of published arrest estimates to include offense-specific arrest estimates for various demographic subgroups. The detailed breakdown of arrests and arrest trends describes the flow of individuals into the criminal justice system over a long time period. The estimates by type of offense reveal similarities and differences among demographic subgroups that may provide policymakers, researchers, the media, and the public a greater understanding of the underlying causes for the observed arrest trends. BJS has developed the Arrest Data Analysis Tool that enables users to generate tables and graphs of national trends in arrests and arrest rates for a large set of offenses and population subgroups. Highlights include the following: The U.S. murder arrest rate in 2009 was about half of what it was in the early 1980's. Over the 30-year period ending in 2009, the adult arrest rate for murder fell 57%, while the juvenile arrest rate fell 44%. From 1980 to 2009, the black forcible rape arrest rate declined 70%, while the white arrest rate fell 31%. Between 1980 and 2009, while the adult arrest rate for drug possession or use grew 138%, the juvenile arrest rate increased 33%. Similarly, from 1980 to 2009, the increase in the arrest rate for drug sale or manufacture was greater for adults (77%) than for juveniles (31%). Press Release PDF (2.5M) ASCII file (46K) Spreadsheets (Zip format 37K).

     Statistics: "Criminal Victimization, 2010," by Jennifer L. Truman, Ph.D. (September 15, 2011 NCJ 235508). Presents 2010 estimates of rates and levels of criminal victimization in the U.S., including violent victimization (rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault), property victimization (burglary, motor vehicle theft, and property theft), and personal theft (pocket picking and purse snatching). It describes the annual change from 2009 and analyzes long-term trends from 1993 through 2010. The bulletin includes estimates of series victimizations (six or more similar incidents that the victim is unable to recall individually or describe in detail), injury in violent victimization, violence perpetrated by strangers, and the use of firearms and other weapons in violent victimization. It also describes the characteristics of victims. The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) collects information on nonfatal crimes, reported and not reported to the police, against persons age 12 or older from a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. During 2010, 40,974 households and 73,283 individuals were interviewed twice for the NCVS. Highlights include the following: The rate of total violent crime victimizations declined by 13% in 2010, which was about three times the average annual decrease observed from 2001 through 2009 (4%). The decline in the rate of simple assault accounted for about 82% of the total decrease in the rate of violent victimization in 2010. In 2010 the property victimization rate declined by 6%, compared to the average annual decrease of 3% observed from 2001 through 2009. Strangers perpetrated 39% of violent victimizations in 2010, down from 44% in 2001. About 50% of all violent victimizations and nearly 40% of property crimes were reported to the police in 2010. These percentages have remained stable over the past 10 years. Part of the Criminal Victimization in the United States Series. Press Release PDF (1.9M) ASCII file (32K) Spreadsheet (Zip format 26K).

     Statistics: "Use of Victim Service Agencies by Victims of Serious Violent Crime, 1993-2009" by Lynn Langton (August 4, 2011 NCJ 234212). Presents data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) on trends in the percentage of serious violent crime victims who received help or advice from a victim service agency from 1993 to 2009. This special report examines the relationship between a victim receiving assistance and criminal justice system actions pertaining to the crime, such as reporting the crime to the police, the police making an arrest, or a judge or prosecutor contacting the victim. It also examines the percentage of serious violent crime victims who received assistance by the characteristics of the victim and the victimization, including the victim's age, gender, race, the type of crime, the extent of the victim's injury, and victim-offender relationships. Highlights include the following: About 9% of serious violent crime victims received direct assistance from a victim service agency from 1993 to 2009. From 2000 to 2009, 14% of violent crime victims who reported the crime to the police received direct assistance from a victim service agency, compared to 4% when the crime was not reported. Victims who received direct assistance from a victim service agency were more likely to see an arrest made in the case and have contact with a non-law enforcement criminal justice official, such as a judge or prosecutor, than victims who did not receive direct assistance. Press Release PDF (1.6M) ASCII file (19K) Spreadsheet (Zip format 20K).

     Statistics: Preliminary Annual Uniform Crime Report 2010 (FBI, May 23, 2011).

    Statistics: The U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics has launched a new Web site. It can be found at http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov

     Statistics: 2008 Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program (ADAM II), Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), (May 2009). The federal report, which surveys drug use among booked male arrestees in 10 major metropolitan areas across the country, shows the majority of arrestees in each city test positive for illicit drug use, with as many as 87 percent of arrestees testing positive for an illegal drug. According to the ADAM II report, drug use among the arrestee population is much higher than in the general U.S. population. The percentage of booked arrestees testing positive for at least one illicit drug ranged from 49 percent in Washington, D.C. to 87 percent in Chicago. The most common substances present during tests, in descending order, are marijuana, cocaine, opiates, and methamphetamine. Additionally, many arrestees tested positive for more than one illegal drug at the time of arrest; from 15 percent in Atlanta to 40 percent in Chicago. Data on drug use, drug markets, treatment utilization, and criminal offenses were collected among booked arrestees in jails within 48 hours of their booking and in the following counties and cities: Fulton County and City of Atlanta; Mecklenburg County (Charlotte, NC); Cook County (Chicago, IL); Denver County (Denver, CO); Marion County (Indianapolis, IN); Hennepin County (Minneapolis, MN); Manhattan (New York, NY), Multnomah County (Portland, OR); Sacramento County (Sacramento, CA) and Washington, D.C. (District of Columbia).

    Statistics: Law-enforcement officer deaths in the line of duty this year totaled 140, compared with 181 in 2007. The figures were announced by the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund and Concerns of Police Survivors.

     Statistics: FBI Releases 2007 Crime Statistics. (Sept. 15, 2008).

     Statistics: Cybercrime against Businesses, 2005. Presents the nature and prevalence of computer security incidents among 7,818 businesses in 2005. This is the first report to provide data on monetary loss and system downtime resulting from cyber incidents. It examines details on types of offenders, reporting of incidents to law enforcement, reasons for not reporting incidents, types of systems affected, and the most common security vulnerabilities. The report also compares in-house security to outsourced security in terms of prevalence of cyber attacks. Appendix tables include industry-level findings. Highlights include the following: * Computer virus infections were the most prevalent cybercrime among businesses in 2005. * The 3,247 businesses that incurred monetary loss from cybercrime lost a total of $867 million. * Most businesses did not report cyber attacks to law enforcement authorities. 09/08 NCJ 221943 Press release | Acrobat file (445K) | ASCII file (39K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 26K)

     Statistics: Federal Justice Statistics, 2005. Presents federal criminal case statistics on suspects and defendants processed in the federal criminal justice system. The report provides data on the number of persons arrested, investigated, convicted, and sentenced for a violation of federal law. It includes the number of offenders under federal correctional supervision at the pre-trial and post-conviction stages. It also describes case outcomes, including percent prosecuted, convicted, and sentenced by type of sanction. Data were collected from federal law enforcement, courts, and corrections agencies as a part of the Bureau of Justice Statistics Federal Justice Statistics Program. Additional data are available in the web component Federal Justice Statistics, 2005 - Statistical Tables. Highlights include the following: * Material witness, immigration, and weapons were the fastest growing arrest offenses during the period between 1995 and 2005. * In 2005, immigration (27%) was the most prevalent arrest offense followed by drug (24%) and supervision violations (17%). * Five federal judicial districts along the U.S.-Mexico border accounted for 40% of all suspects arrested and booked by the U.S. Marshals Service in 2005. 09/08 NCJ 220383 Press release | Acrobat file (116K) | ASCII file (23K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 12K)

     Statistics: Crime Data Preliminary Crime Statistics for January-June 2007. According to the FBI’s Preliminary Semiannual Uniform Crime Report, the nation experienced a 1.8 percent decrease in violent crime and a 2.6 percent decline in property crime during the first 6 months of 2007 compared with the same period in 2006. The report is based on information from law enforcement organizations that contributed 3 to 6 comparable months of data to the FBI during January through June of both 2006 and 2007. A total of 11,673 agencies met the criteria for inclusion in the current report.

    Domestic Violence: Intimate Partner Violence. "NIJ researchers have examined the nature and effects of this crime, and whether the most common law-enforcement, court-ordered, and correctional interventions work. These web pages summarize key research findings, and links to other sources of information and assistance. " (September 25, 2007).

     Native Americans: Census of Tribal Justice Agencies in Indian Country, 2002 Presents detailed information gathered on tribal law enforcement agencies, tribal courts and services, and criminal record systems from the 2002 Census of Tribal Justice Agencies in American Indian Jurisdictions. This project represents one of several components of BJS' on-going program to improve justice statistics and criminal history record information systems in Indian country. The report includes data on the number of law enforcement agencies and officers; characteristics of tribal courts and their caseloads; types of available criminal sanctions; and criminal justice statistics data collection and sharing capacity. The census collected data from nearly 350 tribes in the continental U.S. and is the first comprehensive effort to identify the range of justice agencies operating in tribal jurisdictions, the services those agencies provide, and the types of information systems maintained. Highlights include the following: 165 of the 314 responding tribes employed 1 or more full-time sworn officers with general arrest powers. An estimated 59% (188) of the 314 tribes had some form of judicial system. About 23% (71) of the responding tribes provided their own detention function. About two-thirds relied on local or county agencies to provide a jail or detention facility. 12/05 NCJ 205332. Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Report: U.S. Department of Justice Report on Investigation of the Easton, Pennsylvania Police Department pursuant to the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, 42 U.S.C. Sec. 14141. (November 26, 2007).

     Reports: The texts of eleven annual reports concerning shootings by New York police officers, along with a document entitled "The NYPD's Command Structure Report" may be accessed at http://www.nyclu.org/node/1756 along with an analysis of the reports by the New York branch of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).

     Report: Accomplishments of the U.S. Department of Justice, 2001-2009, U.S. Dept. of Justice [PDF. 173 pages. Jan. 16, 2009].

     Statistics: National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Victimization Analysis Tool (April 2012).

     Statistics: "Workplace Violence, 1993-2009," by Erika Harrell, Ph.D., BJS Statistician, March 29, 2011 NCJ 233231. Presents information on violence in the workplace against employed persons based on the Bureau of Justice Statistics' National Crime Victimization Survey and the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. This report includes both nonfatal and fatal forms of violence. Comparisons are made with violence against unemployed persons and violence against employed persons outside of the workplace. Information on type of workplace violence is included. Also discussed is violence by occupation as well as information on victim and crime characteristics such as gender and race distribution, offender weapon use, police notification, and victim injury. Highlights include the following: From 2002 to 2009, the rate of nonfatal workplace violence has declined by 35%, following a 62% decline in the rate from 1993 to 2002. Between 2005 and 2009, law enforcement officers, security guards, and bartenders had the highest rates of nonfatal workplace violence. Among workplace homicides that occurred between 2005 and 2009, about 28% involved victims in sales and related occupations and about 17% involved victims in protective service occupations.

     Statistics: "Background Checks for Firearm Transfers, 2009 - Statistical Tables" (NCJ 231679) provides the number of firearm transaction applications checked by state points of contact and local agencies, the number of applications denied and the reasons for denial, and estimates of applications and denials conducted by each type of approval system. (BJS).

    Statistics: "Crime Against People with Disabilities, 2008," by Erika Harrell, Ph.D., Michael Rand, December 9, 2010 NCJ 231328. Presents findings about nonfatal violent and property crime experienced in 2008 by persons with disabilities, based on the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The report presents estimates of nonfatal violent victimization (rape/sexual assault, robbery, aggravated and simple assault) and property crime (burglary, motor vehicle theft, and theft) against persons with disabilities in 2008. It compares the victimization experience of persons with and without disabilities, using population estimates based on the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS). Data are presented on victim and crime characteristics of persons with and without disabilities, including age, race and gender distribution; offender weapon use; victim injuries; and reporting to the police. Highlights include the following: * Adjusting for the varied age distributions of persons with and without disabilities, the violent crime rate against persons with disabilities was 40 violent crimes per 1,000 persons age 12 or older, which was double the violent crime rate for persons without disabilities (20 per 1,000). * Among the types of disabilities measured in 2008, persons with cognitive disabilities had the highest risk of violent victimization. * Household burglary made up a higher percentage of all property crime against households with persons with a disability (25%) than against households without persons with disabilities (19%).

     Statistics: F.B.I. Releases 2009 Statistics on Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted. Forty-eight law enforcers were killed in the line of duty in 2009, seven more than in 2008. Forty-seven other officers were killed in accidents while performing their duties, and more than 57,000 officers were assaulted on the job. About a quarter of those were injured.

     Statistics: "Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2010," by Simone Robers (NCES), Jennifer Truman (BJS), Jijun Zhang (NCES), November 22, 2010 NCJ 230812. Presents data on crime and safety at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, and principals. A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), this annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It also provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools and school environments and responses to violence and crime at school. Data are drawn from several federally funded collections, including the National Crime Victimization Survey, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, School Survey on Crime and Safety, and the Schools and Staffing Survey. Highlights include the following: * In 2008, among students ages 12 -18, there were about 1.2 million victims of nonfatal crimes at school, including 619,000 thefts and 743,100 violent crimes (simple assault and serious violent crime). * During the school year 2007 - 08, there were 1,701 homicides among school-age youth ages 5 - 18. * In 2009, 31 percent of students in grades 9 - 12 reported they had been in a physical fight at least one time during the previous 12 months anywhere, and 11 percent said they had been in a fight on school property during the previous 12 months.

     Statistics: Law Enforcement Officer Deaths 2008. Last year, 41 U.S. law enforcement officers were feloniously killed in the line of duty, 17 fewer than the previous year, the FBI reports; 68 officers died in accidents while performing their duties; and 58,792 officers were assaulted while on duty, down from 59,201. The 41 felonious line-of-duty deaths took place during 38 incidents in 19 states. Of the 68 law enforcement officers killed in accidents while performing their duties in 2008, 39 deaths were the result of automobile accidents. The number of accidental line-of-duty deaths was down 15 from 2007. Three more officers were accidentally killed in 2008 than in 1999, when 65 officers died in accidents. Of the officers assaulted last year, 26.1 percent were injured. The largest percentage of victim officers (32.0) were assaulted while responding to disturbance calls (family quarrels, bar fights, etc.). Assailants used personal weapons (hands, fists, feet, etc.) in 80.7 percent of the incidents, firearms in 3.8 percent of incidents, and knives or other cutting instruments in 1.6 percent of the incidents.

     Statistics: Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2008. Presents data on crime and safety at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population. A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics, this annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It also provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools, school environments, and responses to violence and crime at school. Data are drawn from several federally funded collections including the National Crime Victimization Survey, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, School Survey on Crime and Safety, and School and Staffing Survey. Information was gathered from an array of sources including: - National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) (1992-2006) - School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (1995, 1991, 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007) - Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007) - School Survey on Crime and Safety (1999-2000, 2003-04, and 2005-06) - School and Staffing Survey (1993-94, 1999-2000, and 2003-04). Highlights include the following: In 2006, among students ages 12–18, there were about 1.7 million victims of nonfatal crimes at school, including 909,500 thefts and 767,000 violent crimes (simple assault and serious violent crime). In 2007, 8 percent of students in grades 9–12 reported being threatened or injured with a weapon in the previous 12 months, and 22 percent reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property. During the 2005–06 school year, 86 percent of public schools reported that at least one violent crime, theft, or other crime occurred at their school. 04/09 NCJ 226343. Acrobat file (1.85M) | ASCII file (217K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 87K).

     Statistics: Characteristics of Suspected Human Trafficking Incidents, 2007-08 Presents findings from the Human Trafficking Reporting System (HTRS). The HTRS was developed in 2007 to collect data on alleged human trafficking incidents from state and local law enforcement agencies. As of September 30, 2008, it had collected information on incident, suspect, and victim characteristics from 38 human trafficking task forces, funded by the Department of Justice. Incident data include the number of suspects and victims, number of agencies involved in the incident, confirmation of incident as human trafficking, and type of lead agency. Victim data include demographic characteristics such as age, race, gender, and citizenship status. In addition to demographic characteristics, suspect data include available arrest, adjudication, and sentencing information. This report covers incidents reported by task forces from January 1, 2007, to September 30, 2008. Highlights include the following: 1,229 alleged incidents of human trafficking were reported to the task forces from January 1, 2007 to September 30, 2008. Most (83%) of the reported incidents involved allegations of sex trafficking. Labor trafficking accounted for 12% of incidents, and other or unknown forms of human trafficking made up 5%. Information on the number of suspects was available for 475 alleged human trafficking incidents. Among these, task forces reported 871 known suspects and arrest data on 216 suspects. 1/09 NCJ 224526  Press release | Acrobat file (189K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 14K)

     Statistics: Stalking Victimization in the United States. Presents findings on nonfatal stalking victimization in the U.S., based on the largest data collection of such behavior to date. Data were collected in a supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and sponsored by the Office on Violence Against Women (OVW). Topics covered in the report are stalking and harassment prevalence rates by demographic characteristics, offender characteristics, victim-offender relationship, duration of stalking, cyberstalking, protection measures, and emotional impact. The report also includes data on whether victim sought help from others, involvement of a weapon, injuries, other crimes perpetrated by the stalker, and response by the criminal justice system. Highlights include the following: About half (46%) of stalking victims experienced at least one unwanted contact per week, and 11% of victims said they had been stalked for 5 years or more. Approximately 1 in 4 stalking victims reported some form of cyberstalking such as e-mail (83%) or instant messaging (35%). Women were at greater risk than men for stalking victimization; however, women and men were equally likely to experience harassment. 1/09 NCJ 224527 Press release | Acrobat file (148K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 26K)     

     Statistics: Criminal Victimization, 2007. Presents estimates of rates and levels of personal and property victimization for 2007 and describes the substantial fluctuations in the survey measures of the crime rates from 2005 through 2007. These changes do not appear to be due to changes in the rate of criminal activity during this period, but rather to changes in the sample design and implementation of the survey. BJS and the Census Bureau are continuing to research the impact of the changes, and readers should focus on the comparisons of the 2005 and 2007 rates until these issues are resolved. A technical report discussing these issues is expected later in the year. The estimates are drawn from the NCVS, an ongoing survey of households that interviewed about 73,600 persons in 41,500 households, two times in 2007. The report includes data on violent crimes (rape/sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault and simple assault), property crimes (burglary, motor vehicle theft and property theft), and personal theft (pocket picking and purse snatching), and the characteristics of victims of these crimes. Highlights include the following: Violent crime rates in 2007 (20.7 per 1,000 persons age 12 or older) were not significantly different from those in 2005 (21.1 per 1,000 persons). U.S. residents age 12 and older experienced an estimated 23 million crimes of violence and theft. The violent crime rate was 20.7 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older; for property crimes it was 146.5 per 1,000 households. 12/08 NCJ 224390  Press release | Acrobat file (266K) | ASCII file (31K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 15K)

     Statistics: Civil Rights Complaints in U.S. District Courts, 1990 - 2006. Examines civil rights claims based on race, age, sex, or national origin involving employment, welfare, housing, voting, or other civil rights discrimination issues. It covers civil rights claims litigated in federal district courts from 1990 to 2006. Information is presented on trends in types of civil rights cases filed in federal district courts, the basis of federal court jurisdiction, case processing time, disposition of civil rights cases, and the types of trials that occur in the federal courts. In addition, this report examines who wins in civil rights trials and the estimated median monetary amount awarded to litigants. Highlights include the following: * Civil rights filings doubled in U.S. district courts from 1990 (18,922 filings) to 1997 (43,278 filings) and subsequently stabilized until 2003. From 2003 through 2006, the number of civil rights cases filed in U.S. district courts declined by 20%. * During the period from 1990 through 2006, the percentage of civil rights cases concluded by trial declined from 8% to 3%. * From 2000 to 2006 plaintiffs won just under a third of civil rights trials on average, and the median damage awards for plaintiffs who won in civil rights trials ranged from $114,000 to $154,500. 08/08 NCJ 222989 Press release | Acrobat file (137K) | ASCII file (31K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 22K)

     Statistics: Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 2004. (April 2008). Presents data collected from a representative sample of felony cases filed in the nation's 75 largest counties during May 2004. Murder cases were tracked for up to 2 years and all other cases for 1 year to provide a complete overview of the processing of felony defendants from case filing to disposition and sentencing. Data highlight the demographic characteristics of felony defendants and types of arrest charges. The report also includes in-depth information on the criminal records of felony defendants, including criminal justice status at the time of arrest and the number and type of prior arrests and convictions. It describes conditions of pretrial release (bail amounts, type of release bonds, and pretrial misconduct), adjudication outcomes (dismissal, diversion, guilty plea, trial conviction rates), and sentencing data for convicted felony defendants. See also Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 2004 - Statistical Tables. Highlights include the following: Two-thirds of felony defendants were charged with a drug or property offense. More than three-fourths of felony defendants had a prior arrest history, with 53% having at least five prior arrest charges. Fifty-seven percent of felony defendants received a pretrial release prior to adjudication. 04/08 NCJ 221152

     Statistics: Campus Law Enforcement, 2004-05. Presents findings from a BJS survey of campus law enforcement agencies serving 4-year colleges and universities with 2,500 or more students. The survey covered the 2004-05 academic year and collected data from agencies using sworn police officers and those using only non-sworn security officers. The report compares law enforcement agencies serving public and private campuses by number and type of employees, screening methods used for hiring officers, training and education requirements for officers, agency functions, types of equipment, computers and information systems, special programs, and written policy directives. General campus characteristics, including crime statistics, are also summarized. Appendix tables include data from 2-year public colleges with an enrollment of 10,000 or more. Highlights include the following: Three-quarters of campus law enforcement agencies used sworn officers with full arrest powers. Nearly all campuses had 24-hour patrol, a 3-digit emergency number, and emergency blue-light phones. Among schools with 5,000 or more students, private campuses had more law enforcement employees per capita than public campuses. 02/08 NCJ 219374  Acrobat file (192K) | ASCII file (33K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 33K)

     Statistics: State Court Processing of Domestic Violence Cases. Examines the processing of domestic violence (DV) and non-domestic violence (non-DV) cases filed in May 2002 in 15 large urban counties. The study compares the domestic and non-domestic offenses of sexual and aggravated assault on 11 prosecution, conviction, and sentencing outcome measures. Data are also presented regarding court issued protection orders, guilty plea versus trial convictions, and the demographic characteristics of domestic violence defendants. Highlights include the following: A third of violent felony defendants were charged with domestic violence. Prosecuted domestic sexual assault defendants had a higher overall conviction rate (98%) than prosecuted non-domestic sexual assault defendants (87%). Domestic aggravated assault defendants (54%) were less likely to be granted pretrial release than non-domestic aggravated assault defendants (62%). 02/08 NCJ 214993 Press release | Acrobat file (221K) | ASCII file (24K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 11K)

     Statistics: State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2006. Presents findings from the 2006 BJS Census of Law Enforcement Training Academies, updating the results of the initial census conducted in 2002. The latest census included 648 academies providing basic training during 2006. Data are presented on the number and type of training instructors; types of on- and off-site training facilities; operating expenditures; funding; basic training curriculum; and the number of instruction hours for each training topic. The report also includes the number and characteristics of recruits entering basic training and completion rates by race, gender, and type of training environment. Special topics include training related to terrorism and community policing. Highlights include the following: Basic training programs averaged 19 weeks in length. Topics with the most instruction time included firearms (median of 60 hours), self-defense (51 hours), health and fitness (46 hours), patrol procedures (40 hours), investigations (40 hours), emergency vehicle operations (40 hours), criminal law (36 hours), and basic first aid (24 hours). Of an estimated 57,000 recruits who entered basic training programs during 2005, 86% or 49,000 successfully completed their program and graduated from the academy. Academies with a predominately non-stress, or academic, orientation (89%) had a higher completion rate than academies with a predominately stress, or paramilitary, orientation (80%). 02/09 NCJ 222987. Press release | Acrobat file (163K) | ASCII file (31K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 27K)

     Statistics: Crime in the United States. Preliminary Semiannual Uniform Crime Report, covering the first half of 2007. FBI. January 7, 2008. Preliminary figures indicate that, as a whole, law enforcement agencies throughout the nation reported a decrease of 1.8 percent in the number of violent crimes brought to their attention in the first half of 2007 when compared with figures reported for the first six months of 2006. The violent crime category includes murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. The number of property crimes in the United States from January to June of 2007 decreased 2.6 percent when compared with data from the same time period in 2006. Property crimes include burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. Arson is also a property crime, but data for arson are not included in property crime totals. Figures for 2007 indicate that arson decreased 9.7 percent in the first half of the year when compared to 2006 figures for the same time period.

     Statistics: Pretrial Release of Felony Defendants in State Courts. Presents findings on the pretrial release phase of the criminal justice process using data collected from a representative sample of felony cases filed in the 75 largest U.S. counties in May during even-numbered years from 1990 to 2004. It includes trends on pretrial release rates and the types of release used. Pretrial release rates are compared by arrest offense, demographic characteristics, and criminal history. Characteristics of released and detained defendants are also presented. Rates of pretrial misconduct including failure to appear and rearrest are presented by type of release, demographic characteristics, and criminal history. Highlights include the following: About 3 in 5 felony defendants in the 75 largest counties were released prior to the disposition of their case. Surety bond surpassed release on recognizance in 1998 as the most common type of pretrial release. Defendants on financial release were more likely to make all scheduled court appearances. 11/07 NCJ 214994 Acrobat file (201K) | ASCII file (37K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 23K)

     Statistics: Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2007. Presents data on crime and safety at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population. A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics, this annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It also provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools, school environments, and responses to violence and crime at school. Information was gathered from an array of sources including: - National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) (1992-2005) - School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (1995, 1991, 2001, 2003, and 2005) - Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, and 2005) - School Survey on Crime and Safety (1999-2000, 2003-04, and 2005-06) - School and Staffing Survey (1993-94, 1999-2000, and 2003-04) Highlights include the following: From July 1, 2005, through June 30, 2006, there were 35 school-associated violent deaths in elementary and secondary schools in the United States. In 2005-06, 78 percent of schools experienced one or more violent incidents of crime, 17 percent experienced one or more serious violent incidents, 46 percent experienced one or more thefts, and 68 percent experienced another type of crime. In 2005, approximately 6 percent of students ages 12-18 reported that they avoided school activities or one or more places in school because they thought someone might attack or harm them. 12/07 NCJ 219553 Press release | Acrobat file (1.8M) | ASCII file (214K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 178K)

     Statistics: Unidentified Human Remains in the United States, 1980-2004. Examines the number of unidentified persons reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) National Death Index (NDI), by State, from 1980 to 2004. This report also looks at the number of unidentified human remains reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) National Crime Information Center (NCIC) Unidentified Person File. It describes the characteristics by race and gender and the manner of death. Highlights include the following: Between 1980 and 2004, about 10,300 unidentified human remains were reported to the National Death Index (NDI). Almost three-quarters of unidentified persons were reported by 5 states; Arizona, California, Florida, New York, and Texas. Of the 2,900 National Crime Information Center records that contained data on the manner of death, 27% were ruled homicides; 12%, accidental deaths; 7%, natural causes; and 5%, suicides. The majority of unidentified persons were white (70%); blacks made up 15% of unidentified persons; and race could not be determined in 13% of the cases. 11/07 NCJ 219533 Acrobat file (201K) | ASCII file (7K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 4K)

     Statistics: Arrest-Related Deaths in the United States, 2003-2005. Presents the first findings from the law enforcement collection of the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP), which is the largest resource of information ever collected on arrest-related deaths. The report provides counts of all arrest-related deaths reported by State authorities in over 40 States, over a three-year period (2003-2005), by cause of death and characteristics of the deceased. It also includes all manners of death during an arrest, including homicides (both those by officers and other persons), suicides, alcohol or drug intoxication deaths, accidental injuries, and fatal medical problems. The report presents counts of deaths by cause for each State. Appendix tables provide details on the circumstances surrounding arrest-related deaths including the criminal offenses for which the arrest attempt was made; the use of weapons or other behavior by the arrest subject; and use of weapons and restraint devices by officers involved in the arrest. The report also presents comparative counts of law enforcement homicides from DCRP and counts of justifiable homicides by police, collected by the FBI’s Supplementary Homicide Reports program. Highlights include the following: Homicides by law enforcement officers made up 55% (1,095) of all deaths during arrests by State and local agencies. Eleven homicides were committed by other persons present at the scene. No other cause of death was reported half as often as homicide. Drug and alcohol intoxication accounted for 13% of all deaths, followed by suicides (12%), accidental injuries (7%), and illness or natural causes (6%). Three-quarters of the law enforcement homicides reported to DCRP involved arrests for a violent crime. Except for suicides (51%), violent offenders were involved in less than 30% of all other causes of death. Public-order offenders accounted for 8% of homicides, followed by property (4%) and drug offenders (2%). 10/07 NCJ 219534. For additional data, see Deaths in Custody Statistical Tables. Press release | Acrobat file (157K) | ASCII file (29K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 22K)

     Statistics: Crime in the United States, 2006. The FBI's annual report of U.S. crime statistics.

     Statistics: Bank Crime Statistics 2006. Compiled by the FBI (Feb. 2007).

     Statistics: Contacts between Police and the Public, 2005, 04/07. NCJ 215243 Presents data on the nature and characteristics of contacts between residents of the U.S. and the police over a 12-month period. Findings are provided from a nationally representative survey of more than 60,000 residents age 16 or older. Detailed information is presented on face-to-face contacts with the police, including the reason for and outcome of the contact, resident opinion on police behavior during the contact, and whether police used or threatened to use force during the contact. The report provides demographic characteristics of residents involved in traffic stops and use of force incidents. The report also provides comparative analysis with prior survey findings. Highlights include the following: An estimated 19% of U.S. residents age 16 or older had a face-to-face contact with a police officer in 2005, a decrease from 21% of residents who had contact with police in 2002. Overall, about 9 out of 10 persons who had contact with police in 2005 felt police acted properly. Of the 43.5 million persons who had contact with police in 2005, an estimated 1.6% had force used or threatened against them during their most recent contact, a rate relatively unchanged from 2002 (1.5%).

     Statistics: Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, 2004 Presents national-level statistics describing characteristics of persons processed and the distribution of case processing outcomes at each major stage of the Federal criminal justice system. This annual report includes investigations by U.S. attorneys, prosecutions and declinations, pretrial release and detention, convictions and acquittals, sentencing, appeals, and correctional populations. New this year are statistics on fugitive investigations by the U.S. Marshals Service. This is an electronic only document. Highlights include the following: * During 2004, 126,878 suspects were arrested by Federal law enforcement agencies for violations of Federal law. *During 2004, U.S. Attorneys initiated criminal investigations involving 130,078 suspects, and they concluded their investigations of 128,518. * The number of offenders on community supervision increased by 29%, from 84,801 during 1990 to 108,976 during 2004. 12/06 NCJ 213476  Full report: Acrobat file (3M) ASCII file (185K) | Spreadsheets (zip format) (83K)

     Statistics: Intimate Partner Violence in the U.S., by Shannan Catalano, Ph.D., Bureau of Justice Statistics Statistician. A report showing that the "intimate partner" violence rate has declined since 1993. In 1993, nonfatal intimate partner violence was 5.8 victimizations per 1,000 U.S. residents 12 years old and older. By 2004, the report states, this rate had fallen to 2.6 victimizations per 1,000 individuals. The report also states that the number of intimate partner homicide victims has declined since 1993, with 1,571 females murdered by intimates in 1993, compared to 1,159 during 2004, a 26 percent decline. The number of males murdered by partners during 1993 was 698, compared to 385 in 2004, a 45 percent decline. An intimate partner is defined in the report as a current or former spouse, girlfriend, boyfriend, or same-sex partner. The entire report is also available in .pdf format. 12/06.

     Statistics: Hate Crime Statistics 2005. An Annual Report from the FBI. (10/16/2006). See also, summary press release.

     Statistics: Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2006. Presents data on crime and safety at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general public. A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics, this annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It also provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools, school environments, and responses to violence and crime at school. Data are drawn from several federally funded collections including the National Crime Victimization Survey, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, School Survey on Crime and Safety, and School and Staffing Survey. Information was gathered from an array of sources including: - National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2004) - School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (1995, 1999, 2001, 2003, and 2005) - Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, and 2005) - School Survey on Crime and Safety (1999-2000 and 2003-04) - School and Staffing Survey (1993-94, 1999-2000, and 2003-04). Highlights include the following: * From July 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005, there were 21 homicides of school-age youth (ages 5 to 18) at school. * In 2003-04 teachers' reports of being threatened or attacked by students during the previous 12 months varied according to their school level. * The percentage of public schools experiencing one or more violent incidents increased between the 1999-2000 and 2003-04 school years, from 71 to 81 percent. 12/06 NCJ 214262 Press release | Acrobat file (1.6K) | ASCII file (199K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 158K)

     Statistics: Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted 2005. (10/30/2006). Annual report by the FBI. "Overall, the numbers this year fell from 2004: the number of officers killed by criminals dipped from 57 to 55; the number assaulted dropped by more than 1,800 (to 57,546, the lowest total since 2001); and the number killed accidentally decreased from 82 to 67 (the lowest total in six years)."

     Statistics: Medical Examiners and Coroners' Offices, 2004. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Presents key findings from the 2004 Census of Medical Examiners and Coroners’ (ME/C) Offices. This special report describes the medicolegal investigation of death in the United States. It provides an overview of the personnel, budgets, and workload of these offices by type of office and size of jurisdiction. It also includes information on the number of unidentified human decedents handled by ME/C offices. The report examines record keeping practices and use of national databases for unidentified remains. Detailed data tables on topics covered in this report are available on the BJS website. Highlights include the following: About 2,000 medical examiners and coroners' (ME/C) offices provided death investigation services across the United States in 2004. In a typical year ME/C offices reported that they handled about 4,400 unidentified human decedents of which about 1,000 remained unidentified after one year. Nearly 1 million human death cases were referred in 2004; about 500,000 accepted. 06/07 NCJ 216756 Press release | Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2004. Reports the results of a biennial census of Federal agencies employing personnel with arrest and firearms authority. Using agency classifications, the report presents the number of officers working in the areas of police response and patrol, criminal investigation and enforcement, inspections, security and protection, court operations, and corrections, by agency and State, as of September 2004. Data on gender and race of officers are also included. Highlights include the following: Federal officers' duties included criminal investigation (38%), police response and patrol (21%), corrections and detention (16%), court operations (5%), and security and protection (4%). The combined officer employment of CBP and ICE in 2004 was 21% greater than the comparable combined totals of the INS, U.S. Customs Service, and Federal Protective Service in 2002. Women accounted for 16% of Federal officers in 2004. A third of Federal officers were members of a racial or ethnic minority in 2004. This included 17.7% who were Hispanic and Latino, and 11.4% who were black or African American. 08/06 NCJ 212750 Acrobat file (594K) | ASCII file (37K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 12K)

     Statistics: Violent Felons in Large Urban Counties Presents data collected from a representative sample of felony cases that resulted in a felony conviction for a violent offense in 40 of the Nation's 75 largest counties. The study tracks cases for up to 1 year from the date of filing through final disposition. Defendants convicted of murder, rape, robbery, assault or other violent felonies are described in terms of demographic characteristics (gender, race, Hispanic origin, age), prior arrests and convictions, criminal justice status at time of arrest, type of pretrial release or detention, type of adjudication, and sentence received. Highlights include the following: Thirty-six percent of violent felons had an active criminal justice status at the time of their arrest. This included 18% on probation, 12% on release pending disposition of a prior case, and 75% of parole. A majority (56%) of violent felons had a prior conviction record. Thirty-eight percent had prior felony conviction and 15% had a previous conviction for a violent felony. Eighty-one percent of violent felons were sentenced to incarceration with 50% going to prison and 31% to jail. Nineteen percent received a probation term without incarceration. 8/06 NCJ 205289 Press release | Acrobat file (253K) | ASCII file (22K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 18K)

     Statistics: Citizen Complaints about Police Use of Force. Presents data on citizen complaints about police use of force received by large, general purpose State and local law enforcement agencies as well as on complaint dispositions. Findings presented are from new questions on formal citizen complaints about police use of force added to the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics survey. Detail is presented on the policies and procedures of large municipal police departments relating to the processing of citizen complaints and other administrative features. The report also discusses the limitations of complaints' data and the use of sustained complaints as a measure of police use of excessive force. Highlights include the following: During 2002 large State and local law enforcement agencies, representing 5% of agencies and 59% of officers, received a total of 26,556 citizen complaints about police use of force. About a third of all force complaints in 2002 were not sustained (34%). Twenty-five percent were unfounded, 23% resulted in officers being exonerated, and 8% were sustained. Using sustained force complaints as an indicator of excessive force results in an estimate of about 2,000 incidents of police use of excessive force among large agencies in 2002. 06/06 NCJ 210296 Press release | Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Characteristics of Drivers Stopped by Police, 2002. Presents data on the nature and characteristics of traffic stops, as collected in the 2002 Police Public Contact Survey, a supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Detailed demographic information is presented on the 16.8 million drivers stopped by police in 2002. The report provides statistics about various outcomes of traffic stops, including searches conducted by police, tickets issued to drivers stopped for speeding, arrests of stopped drivers, and police use of force during a traffic stop. The report also discusses the relevance of the survey findings to the issue of racial profiling and provides comparative analysis with prior survey findings. Highlights include the following: In 2002 an estimated 8.7% of drivers age 16 or older were stopped by police, representing nearly 17 million of the 193 million drivers in the United States. Among traffic stops of young male drivers in 2002, 11% were physically searched or had their vehicle searched by police. Among these young male drivers who were stopped, blacks (22%) and Hispanics (17%) were searched at higher rates than whites (8%). White drivers were more likely than both black and Hispanic drivers to be stopped by police for speeding. Subsequent to being stopped for speeding, blacks (78%) and Hispanics (85%) were more likely than whites (70%) to receive a ticket. 6/06 NCJ 211471 Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Background Checks for Firearm Transfers, 2004  U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.  Describes background checks for firearm transfers conducted in 2004. This annual report provides the number of applications checked by State points of contact, estimates of the number of applications checked by local agencies, the number of applications rejected, the reasons for rejection, and estimates of applications and rejections conducted by each type of approval system. It also provides information about appeals of rejected applications and arrests for falsified applications. The Firearm Inquiry Statistics Program, managed under the National Criminal History Improvement Program, is an ongoing data collection effort focusing on the procedures and statistics related to presale firearms background checks in selected States. Highlights include the following: Total applications for firearm transfers or permits increased 3.2% nationwide, from 7,831,000 in 2003 to 8,084,000 in 2004. In 2004 the rejection rate for applications checked by the FBI (1.4%) was lower than that for checks by State and local agencies (1.8%). A felony conviction or indictment was the most common reason for rejection during 2004 by State or local agencies (50%) and the FBI (38%). 10/05 NCJ 210117 Acrobat file (143K) | ASCII file (40K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 14K)

     Statistics: State Court Processing of Domestic Violence Cases. Examines the processing of domestic violence (DV) and non-domestic violence (non-DV) cases filed in May 2002 in 15 large urban counties. The study compares the domestic and non-domestic offenses of sexual and aggravated assault on 11 prosecution, conviction, and sentencing outcome measures. Data are also presented regarding court issued protection orders, guilty plea versus trial convictions, and the demographic characteristics of domestic violence defendants. Highlights include the following: A third of violent felony defendants were charged with domestic violence. Prosecuted domestic sexual assault defendants had a higher overall conviction rate (98%) than prosecuted non-domestic sexual assault defendants (87%). Domestic aggravated assault defendants (54%) were less likely to be granted pretrial release than non-domestic aggravated assault defendants (62%). 02/08 NCJ 214993 Press release | Acrobat file (221K) | ASCII file (24K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 11K)

     Statistics: Statutory Rape Known to Law Enforcement. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (August 2005). This Bulletin draws on data from the FBI's National Incident-Based Reporting System to provide a comprehensive look at the patterns of and response to statutory rape. Based on an analysis of reports from law enforcement agencies in 21 states for the years 1996 through 2000, this Bulletin characterizes victim and offender attributes and law enforcement's response to incidents of statutory rape. (NCJ 208803) [PDF]

     Guide to Bureau of Justice Statistics Website: Guide to the BJS Website: Third Edition (December 2002). Reports on the latest updates and additions to materials on the U.S. Department of Justice BJS website. In addition to paper documents, BJS electronically publishes a variety of materials, including statistical graphics and spreadsheets on its website. This report, the third in a series, outlines all of the material available on the website, some not otherwise published. NCJ 187735. Available in PDF format or plain text ASCII format.

     Publication: "Fighting Urban Crime: The Evolution of Federal-Local Collaboration" National Institute of Justice, 19 pages, December 2003. "Although rare before the mid-1980s, Federal-local law enforcement collaboration has grown rapidly as local police and prosecutors have worked closely with Federal authorities to address increased levels of drug trafficking and violent crime. This Research in Brief examines the rise of Federal-local collaboration, the various types of collaborations such as task forces and grant-funded programs, and the advantages collaboration offers both local and Federal authorities. Despite some observers' concerns about the 'federalization of crime,' most partnerships have been characterized by restraint, careful coordination, and shared operational leadership. Researchers found that collaboration has become institutionalized in many U.S. cities and is likely to expand in the future." PDF file. ASCII text file.

     Publication: Intelligence-Led Policing: The New Intelligence Architecture presents key concepts in intelligence in law enforcement, including a succinct history, a summary of current issues, and an outline of what needs to be done in the future. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance. (Sept. 2005). [PDF]

     Publication: Toward Improved Criminal Justice Information Sharing: An Information Integration Planning Model by Laura Nichols. International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) 196 pgs. [PDF].

    Report: Crime in the United States, 2001, annual FBI report (October 2002).

     Report: "Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2001". [PDF]. Reports on trends in intimate partner violence of persons age 12 or older in the United States using data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and the FBI's Supplementary Homicide Reports. Murder and nonfatal violent crimes -- such as aggravated assault, simple assault, robbery, and rape/sexual assault -- are examined for male and female victims. This Crime Data Brief updates some of the data in Intimate Partner Violence, a more detailed report on this subject published in 2000. Highlights include the following: The number of violent crimes by intimate partners against females declined from 1993 to 2001. Intimate partner violence made up 20% of all nonfatal violent crime experienced by women in 2001. 1,247 women and 440 men were killed by an intimate partner in 2000. 02/03 NCJ 197838

     Statistics: Background Checks for Firearm Transfers, 2013–2014 - Statistical Tables, by Trent D. Buskirk, Joseph M. Durso, Ronald J. Frandsen, Jennifer C. Karberg, and Allina D. Lee, Bureau of Justice Statistics (June 30, 2016 NCJ 249849).

     Statistics: Co-Offending Among Adolescents in Violent Victimizations, 2004–13, by Rachel E. Morgan, and Barbara A. Oudekerk, Bureau of Justice Statistics (July 7, 2016 NCJ 249756).

     Statistics: "Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2012," by Thomas Snyder and Jennifer Truman (June 26, 2013 NCJ 241446).

     Statistics: Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 2002 Presents data collected from a representative sample of felony cases filed in the Nation's 75 largest counties during May 2002. The cases are tracked for up to one year to provide a complete overview of the processing of felony defendants from filing to disposition and sentencing. Data collected include current arrest charges, demographic characteristics, prior arrests and convictions, criminal justice status at arrest, type of pretrial release or detention, bail amount, court appearance record, adjudication outcome, and sentence received if convicted. This periodic report has been published biennially since 1990. Highlights include the following: Eighty-two percent of defendants were male, including 90% or more of those charged with rape (99%), a weapons offense (96%), murder (93%), or robbery (90%). The percentage of female defendants increased from 14% in 1990 to 18% in 1998 and has remained stable since then. An estimated 56,146 felony cases were filed in the State courts of the Nation's 75 largest counties during May 2002. 02/06 NCJ 210818 Acrobat file (1.2M) | ASCII file (74K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 64K)

     Statistics: Hate Crimes Reported by Victims and Police. Provides information on the number of hate crimes reported to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and their characteristics. This BJS Special Report uses data from victims' reports to the NCVS from July 2000 through December 2003 and from police reports to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR) in 2002 to describe characteristics of hate crimes. Information is provided on the motivations for hate crime as perceived by victims, the types of crimes which victims thought were hate-related, reasons for reporting or not reporting hate crimes to police, police response to victim's notification of a crime, the time and place at which hate crimes occurred and offenders' gender, race, age, relationship to the victim, use of weapons, and gang membership. Rates of hate crime are presented for victims by gender, race, ethnicity, age and other characteristics. The report also compares results from the NCVS and the UCR on motivations for hate crime, the types of crimes that involve hate, and the characteristics of victims and offenders. Highlights include the following: Most hate crimes described by victims accompanied violent crimes - a rape or other sexual assault, robbery, or assault (84%). In about half of hate crimes, the victim was threatened verbally or assaulted without either a weapon or an injury being involved. In 41% of hate victimizations reported to police, law enforcement was at the scene within 10 minutes. 11/05 NCJ 209911 Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2005 Presents data on crime and safety at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population. A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics, this annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It also provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools, school environments, and responses to violence and crime at school. Information was gathered from an array of sources including: - National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2003) - School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (1995, 1999, 2001, and 2003) - Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001 and 2003) - School Survey on Crime and Safety (2000) - School and Staffing Survey (1993-94 and 1999-2000). Highlights include the following: From July 1, 2001, through June 30, 2002, there were 17 homicides and 5 suicides of school-age youth (ages 5-19) at school. Annually, from 1999 through 2003, teachers were the victims of approximately 183,000 total nonfatal crimes at school, including 119,000 thefts and 65,000 violent crimes. In 1999-2000, about 54% of public schools took at least one serious disciplinary action against a student, amounting to about 1,163,000 actions. 11/05 NCJ 210697 Press release | Acrobat (.pdf) file (766 K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 121K)

     Statistics: Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2004, annual report by the FBI. (November 21, 2005). The report indicates that 57 law enforcement officers were feloniously killed in the line of duty last year, losing their lives in 50 separate incidents in 22 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. Territories of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Data from 2, 5, and 10 years ago showed that the 57 officers murdered in the line of duty in 2004 were 5 more than the 52 officers feloniously killed in 2003, 6 more than the 51 officers murdered in 2000, but 17 fewer than the 74 officers slain in 1995. Nearly 10,500 local, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies submitted data regarding their officers who were killed or assaulted in 2004 to the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program.

     A composite picture of the victim officers feloniously killed in 2004 showed that the average age was 39 and the average length of service in law enforcement was 12 years. Fifty-four of the victim officers were male. Forty-six officers were white, 10 were black, and 1 was Asian/Pacific Islander. Of the 57 officers feloniously slain last year, 17 were killed in arrest situations. Twelve officers were slain in ambush situations, 10 officers while investigating disturbance calls, 6 while investigating suspicious persons or circumstances, 6 during traffic stops or pursuits, 3 while involved in resolving hostage situations or other high-risk tactical situations, 2 officers were slain while handling mentally deranged individuals, and 1 while handling a prisoner. Offenders used firearms to kill 54 of the 57 victim officers. Of these 54 officers, 36 were slain with handguns, 13 with rifles, and 5 were killed with shotguns. Two officers were killed when they were intentionally hit by vehicles. One officer was killed by an individual with a knife.

     In the South, the Nation’s most populous region, 27 officers were murdered in the line of duty, more than in any other region. Ten officers were slain in the Midwest, 9 in the West, and 8 in the Northeast. Three officers were slain in the U.S. Territories. The data that law enforcement agencies provided the FBI’s UCR Program showed that 58 alleged assailants were identified in connection with the 50 separate incidents that claimed the lives of the 57 law enforcement officers. All but one of the incidents in which law enforcement officers were feloniously killed in 2004 were cleared by arrest or exceptional means.

     Eighty-two law enforcement officers were killed in accidents while performing their duties in 2004. Over half of the officers killed in accidents, 48, died as a result of automobile wrecks. Ten officers died of injuries sustained in motorcycle mishaps, and 10 were killed in traffic-related incidents, e.g., struck by vehicles while directing traffic, assisting motorists, or stopping traffic at roadblocks. Four officers were mistakenly shot, 3 died in aircraft accidents, 3 drowned, 1 officer fell to his death, and 3 were killed in other situations.

     The Nation’s law enforcement agencies reported to the FBI’s UCR Program that 59,373 officers were assaulted during the performance of their duties, and 16,563 of those officers suffered injuries as a result of these attacks. Personal weapons (hands, fists, feet, etc.) were used in 80.1 percent of the attacks. Firearms were used in 3.6 percent, knives or cutting instruments in 1.9 percent. Other dangerous weapons were used in 14.5 percent of the attacks on officers.

     Statistics: National Crime Victimization Survey, Bureau of Justice Statistics, September 2005 Presents estimates of national levels and rates of personal and property victimization for the year 2004. Rates and levels are provided for personal and property victimization by victim characteristics, type of crime, victim-offender relationship, use of weapons, and reporting to police. A special section is devoted to trends in victimization from 1993 to 2004. Estimates are from data collected using the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), an ongoing survey of households that interviews about 76,000 persons in 42,000 households twice annually. Violent crimes included in the report are rape/sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault and simple assault (from the NCVS), and homicide (from the FBI's UCR program). Property crimes examined are burglary, motor vehicle theft, and property theft. Highlights include the following: The rate of violent crime dropped 9% from the period 2001-02 to the period 2003-04. During 2004, 22% of all violent crime incidents were committed by an armed offender; 6% by an offender with a firearm. Between 2001-02 and 2003-04 violent crime decreased 17% in the West, from 31 to 26 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older. 9/05 NCJ 210674 (9/28/05) [PDF].

     Statistics: Family Violence Statistics: Including Statistics on Strangers and Acquaintances. Compares family and nonfamily violence statistics from victimization through the different stages of the justice system. Family violence is defined as all types of violent crime committed by an offender who is related to the victim and includes spouse abuse, parental violence against a child, and violence among other family members. Nonfamily relationships used for comparison include boyfriends and girlfriends, friends and acquaintances, and strangers. Data are drawn from victimization surveys, official police statistics, State and Federal court statistics, and surveys of inmates in State prisons and local jails. Highlights include the following: * Family violence accounted for 11% of all reported and unreported violence between 1998 and 2002. * About 22% of murders in 2002 were family murders. * Of the nearly 500,000 men and women in State prisons for a violent crime in 1997, 15% were there for a violent crime against a family member. 6/05 NCJ 207846 Press release Full report: Acrobat file (1M) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 136K)

     Statistics: Traffic Stop Data Collection Policies for State Police, 2004 Presents findings from the 2004 Survey of State Police Agencies which obtained data from State police agencies on their policies and procedures for collecting race and ethnicity data regarding motorists involved in traffic stops. The circumstances under which demographic data are collected for traffic-related contacts and violations are presented. The survey asked if the data collected were stored in an electronically accessible format. Findings are compared to those found during previous surveys conducted in 1999 and 2001. 6/05 NCJ 209156 Acrobat file (544K) | ASCII file (9K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 3K)

     Statistics: Violence by Gang Members, 1993-2003 Provides estimates of the number and rate of violent crimes committed by offenders that victims perceived to be members of gangs based on the National Crime Victimization Survey data. This Crime Data Brief also presents information on demographic characteristics of the victims of violence by gang members such as race, age, and gender, and characteristics of the incident such as police notification and number of offenders. Trends in violence by gang members are also examined. 06/05 NCJ 208875 Acrobat file (91K) | ASCII file (4K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 4K)

     Statistics: "Black Victims of Violent Crime." Presents findings about violent crime experienced by non-Hispanic blacks. Data on nonfatal violent victimization (rape/sexual assault, robbery, aggravated and simple assault) are drawn from the National Crime Victimization Survey. Data on homicides are drawn from the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting Program’s Supplementary Homicide Reports. Comparisons are made with the victimization experience of other racial/ethnic groups. Findings include violent victimization rates by victim characteristics. Also examined are crime characteristics, including weapon use, offender race, police reporting, and police response to violent crime incidents. Trends in violent victimization are also discussed. Highlights include the following: Blacks were victims of an estimated 805,000 nonfatal violent crimes and of about 8,000 homicides in 2005. Blacks accounted for 13% of the U.S. population in 2005, but were victims in 15% of all nonfatal violent crimes and nearly half of all homicides. During the 5-year period from 2001 to 2005, the average annual rate of nonfatal violent victimization against blacks was 29 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older. For whites the rate was 23 per 1,000, and for Hispanics, 24 per 1,000. 08/07 NCJ 214258 Press release | Acrobat file (216K) | ASCII file (22K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 21K)

     Statistics: Crime in the U.S. 2004 preliminary report (January-June 2004) issued December 14, 2004 by the FBI [18 pgs. PDF].

     Statistics: Crimes Against Persons Age 65 or Older, 1993-2002 Presents data from the National Crime Victimization Survey and the Uniform Crime Reports comparing crimes against persons age 65 or older with those in younger age groups. Crime rates are presented for murder, rape/sexual assault, robbery, aggravated and simple assault, purse snatching/pocket picking, household burglary, motor vehicle theft and property theft. The report describes trends in violent and property crime between 1993 and 2002. It discusses characteristics of the crimes, including injury to victims, self protective measures used, whether weapons were present, time and place of occurrence and victim-offender relationships. Crimes include both those reported to the police and those that were not reported. This report updates a previous report for the period 1992-1997. 01/05 NCJ 206154 Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Federal Tort Trials and Verdicts, 2002-03. Presents findings on jury and bench tort trials concluded in Federal district courts during fiscal years 2002-03. Analyzing public use data assembled by the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts and BJS, the report is the latest edition in a series on the topic of tort trials. Information includes the types of tort cases that proceed to trial, plaintiff win rates, case processing times, and estimated median damage awards. The report also describes the types of Federal jurisdiction in tort trial cases, the differences between tort bench and jury trials, and details about asbestos and non-asbestos product liability trials (1990 - 2003). The overall trends in tort trial litigation from 1970 to 2003 are also examined. Highlights include the following:* Plaintiffs won in 48% of tort trials terminated in U.S. district courts in 2002-03. Plaintiffs won less frequently in medical malpractice (37%) and product liability (34%) trials. * An estimated 9 out of 10 tort trials involved personal injury issues -- most frequently, product liability, motor vehicle (accident), marine, and medical malpractice cases. * Eighty-four percent of plaintiff winners received monetary damages with an estimated median award of $201,000. 08/05 NCJ 208713 Press release | Acrobat file (162K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 16K)

     Statistics: State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2002 Presents data on personnel, facilities and resources, trainees, and training curricula of law enforcement academies in the United States, from the 2002 Census of Law Enforcement Training Academies. This is the first survey of training academies ever conducted by BJS. All academies that provide basic law enforcement training are included. Special topics include training related to terrorism, community policing, and racial profiling. Highlights include the following: Among basic law enforcement academy classes that completed training during 2002, an estimated 61,354 recruits started training and 53,302 (or 87%) successfully completed or graduated from their training program. Academies in 2002 employed about 12,200 full-time and 25,700 part-time trainers or instructors. The total expenditures of training academies during fiscal 2002 was an estimated $725.6 million, including $351.2 million among county, regional, or State academies, $299.4 million among city or municipal academies, and $75.1 million among college, university, or technical school academies. 1/05 NCJ 204030 Acrobat file (50K) | ASCII file (638K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 33K)

     Statistics: Violent Victimization of College Students, 1995-2002. Examines the incidence of college student victimization and compares the findings to persons of similar ages in the general population. In addition, the report describes the extent to which student victimization occurs on campus and in off-campus locations and settings, as well as the involvement of alcohol and drugs in student victimizations. Highlights include the following: On average, from 1995 to 2002, comparing persons ages 18-24 - Male college students were twice as likely to be victims of overall violence than female students (80 versus 43 per 1,000). White students had somewhat higher rates of violent victimization than blacks and higher rates than students of other races (65 versus 52 and 37 per 1,000 respectively). For females, nonstudents were over 1.5 times more likely than college students to be a victim of a violent crime (71 versus 43 per 1,000). 01/05 NCJ 206836 Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Carjacking, 1993-2002 Presents data for carjackings that occurred in the United States between 1993 and 2002. Carjacking is defined as completed or attempted robbery of a motor vehicle by a stranger to the victim. It differs from other motor vehicle theft because the victim is present and the offender uses or threatens to use force. The report presents information on demographic characteristics of the victims such as race, gender, and income; and characteristics of the incident such as time and place of occurrence, weapon use, police reporting and whether the motor vehicle was recovered. Highlights include the following: Carjacking rates were higher on average during the first 5 years of the 1993-2002 period (2.1 per 10,000 persons each year) than during the last 5 years (1.3 per 10,000). Carjacking victimization rates were highest in urban areas, followed by suburban and rural areas. Ninety-three percent of carjackings occurred in cities or suburbs. A weapon was used in 74% of carjacking victimizations. Firearms were used in 45% of carjackings, knives in 11% and other weapons in 18%. 07/04 NCJ 205123 Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: Contacts between Police and the Public: Findings from the 2002 National Survey. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Presents data on the nature and characteristics of contacts between residents of the U.S. and the police over a 12-month period. Findings are provided from a nationally representative survey of nearly 80,000 residents age 16 or older. Detailed information is presented on face-to-face contacts with the police, including the reason for and outcome of the contact, resident opinion on police behavior during the contact, and whether police used or threatened to use force during the contact. The report provides demographic characteristics of residents involved in traffic stops and use-of-force encounters and discusses the relevance of the survey findings to the issue of racial profiling. Highlights include the following: * About 25% of the 45.3 million persons with a face-to-face contact indicated the reason for the contact was to report a crime or other problem. * In 2002 about 1.3 million residents age 16 or older — 2.9% of the 45.3 million persons with contact — were arrested by police. * The likelihood of being stopped by police in 2002 did not differ significantly between white (8.7%), black (9.1%), and Hispanic (8.6%) drivers. * During the traffic stop, police were more likely to carry out some type of search on a black (10.2%) or Hispanic (11.4%) than a white (3.5%). 04/05 NCJ 207845 Acrobat file (886K) | ASCII file (62K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 25K)

     Statistics: Crime and the Nation's Households, 2003, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. Presents national prevalence estimates for the percentage of households with one or more persons who were victimized by crime as measured by the National Crime Victimization Survey. Analyses provide household prevalence estimates for violent and property crimes and information on those households experiencing vandalism and intimate partner violence. Findings are presented by race and Hispanic origin, by region, by urban, suburban or rural location and by household size. Overall trends since 1994 are included. Comparisons with 2002 are made. Highlights include the following: * The percentage of households experiencing crimes, about 15%, did not change significantly between 2002 and 2003. * In 2003 about 3 in 1,000 households included a member victimized by an intimate partner, such as a spouse, ex-spouse, boyfriend, or girlfriend. * About 1 in every 26 households in 2003 were either burglarized or had a member age 12 or older who was victim of a violent crime committed by a stranger. (10/04) NCJ 206348 Press release | Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K).

     Statistics: Criminal Victimization, 2002 Presents national levels and rates of personal and property victimization for the year 2002. Rates and levels are provided for personal and property victimization by victim characteristics, type of crime, victim-offender relationship, use of weapons, and reporting to police. A special section is devoted to trends in victimization from 1993 to 2002. Estimates are from data collected using the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), an ongoing survey of households that interviews about 76,000 persons in 42,000 households twice annually. Violent crimes included in the report are rape/sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault and simple assault (from the NCVS), and homicide (from the FBI's UCR program). Property crimes examined are burglary, motor vehicle theft, and property theft. Highlights include the following: Overall violent victimization and property crime rates in 2002 are the lowest recorded since the inception of the NCVS in 1973. The rate of violent crime dropped 21% from the period 1999-2000 to the period 2001-02. Reporting to the police increased from 43% of all violent crimes in 1993 to 49% in 2002; reporting of property crimes increased from 34% to 40%. (August 2003) NCJ 199994 Acrobat file (277K - PDF) | ASCII file (26K) Spreadsheets (zip format 52K)

     Statistics: Crime in the United States, 2002, FBI Uniform Crime Reporting Program Annual Report (October 27, 2003). Summary Press Release.

     Statistics: Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2003 Presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population. A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and National Center for Education Statistics, the report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It provides the most current detailed statistical information to inform on the nature of crime in schools. (October 2003) NCJ 201257. Press release | Full report (Acrobat file 987K)

     Statistics: Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2002 (Bureau of Justice Statistics, August 2003, NCJ 199995). Acrobat file (335K) (PDF) | ASCII file (40K) Spreadsheets (zip format 63K). Provides national data on Federal officers with authority to make arrests and carry firearms as of June 2002, based on a census of Federal agencies. Using agency classifications, the report presents the number of officers working in the areas of criminal investigation and enforcement, police patrol and response, security and protection, court operations, and corrections, by agency and State. Data on gender and race of officers are also included. Highlights include the following: Duties for Federal officers included criminal investigation (40%), police response and patrol (22%), corrections (18%), non-criminal investigation and inspection (14%), court operations (4%), and security and protection. INS (1,447) had the largest increase in number of officers. Next was the Veterans Health Administration (1,263), which continued its program to expand firearm authority to its entire police force, followed by the Customs Service (1,112) and BOP (748). Women accounted for 14.8% of Federal officers in 2002. Minority representation was 32.4% in 2002, up from 30.5% in 1998. Hispanic or Latino officers comprised 16.8% of officers in 2002, and African American or black officers, 11.7%.

     Statistics: "Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 2000" Bureau of Justice Statistics. Presents data collected from a representative sample of felony cases filed in 40 of the Nation's 75 largest counties during May 2000. The cases are tracked for up to one year to provide a complete overview of the processing of felony defendants. Data collected includes current arrest charges, demographic characteristics, prior arrests and convictions, criminal justice status at arrest, type of pretrial release or detention, bail amount, court appearance record, adjudication outcome, and sentence received if convicted. This periodic report is published every two years. Highlights include the following: Since 1990, the proportion of defendants charged with a violent offense has remained at about a fourth. Thirty-eight percent of all defendants were detained until court disposed of their case, including 7% who were denied bail. At the time of arrest, 35% of defendants had an active criminal justice status such as probation (14%), release pending disposition of a prior case (13%) or parole (6%). 12/03 NCJ 202021 Acrobat file [PDF] (335K) | ASCII file (40K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 63K)

     Statistics: Preliminary Crime Statistics for 2003 [PDF]  (May 24, 2004). This preliminary report of FBI crime statistics for 2003 finds that violent crime declined 3.2 percent in 2003 as compared to the data reported in 2002. Property crime remained relatively unchanged from the 2002 figure, showing a 0.1-percent decrease. The preliminary annual report is based upon information from law enforcement agencies that provided the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program with 6 to12 months of data in both 2002 and 2003. In total, 11,921 agencies met the criteria to be included in the preliminary report.

     Statistics: Preliminary Uniform Crime Report, 2002. FBI Uniform Crime Reporting Program. Released June 16, 2003.

     Statistics: Punitive Damage Awards in Large Counties, 200. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Presents findings on civil trials concluded in 2001 in the Nation's 75 largest counties that produced a punitive damage award. Information reported in numerical tables includes the types of civil cases receiving punitive damages, punitive damage award amounts, a comparison of punitive damages in bench and jury trials, and types of litigants in trials with punitive damages. In addition, information on plaintiff and defendant post-trial and appellate activity in civil trials with punitive damages is presented. Trends in punitive damage awards in civil jury trials during the 1992 and 2001 study periods are also described. This is an electronic only report. Highlights include the following: * Plaintiff winners received $50,000 or more in punitive damages in half of the estimated 356 civil trials concluded in 2001 with punitive damage awards. * Punitive damages exceeded compensatory awards in 39% of the 356 civil trails with punitive damages. * The type of tort cases in which plaintiff winners were most likely to receive punitive damages included slander/libel (58%), intentional torts (36%), and false arrest/imprisonment (26%) cases. 03/05 NCJ 208445 Acrobat file (521K) | ASCII file (7K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 13K)

     Statistics: The Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2001 (April 2003). Visit Sourcebook Online (http://www.albany.edu/sourcebook) which is updated as new material becomes available. The Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2001 presents a broad spectrum of criminal justice data from more than 100 sources in 6 sections: characteristics of the criminal justice systems, public attitudes toward crime and criminal justice topics, the nature and distribution of known offenses, characteristics and distribution of persons arrested, judicial processing of defendants, and persons under correctional supervision. Nearly all the data presented are nationwide in scope and, where possible, they are displayed by regions, states, and cities to increase their value for local decision-makers and for comparative analyses. The report includes over 600 tables, figures, subject index, annotated bibliography, technical appendixes with definitions and methodology, and list of source publishers and their addresses. Hindelang Criminal Justice Research Center. 04/03  To order: Printed copies are available for a postage and handling charge of $9.00 for U.S. buyers and $39.00 for buyers from Canada and other countries. NCJ 196438 A CD-ROM of the 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997-1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 editions is available for a postage and handling charge of $9.00 for U.S. buyers and $39.00 for buyers from Canada and other countries. NCJ 197533.

     Statistics: Reporting Crime to the Police, 1992-2000  (March 2003). This Special Report presents National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) data from 1992 to 2000 on non-lethal crimes against persons age 12 or older that were reported to police. The reporting of overall violent crime, serious violent crimes, and simple assaults increased from 1992 through 2000. In 2000 a total of 9.9 million crimes were reported to law enforcement authorities, according to NCVS estimates. Highlights include the following: Reporting to the police of rape/sexual assault and assault increased between 1992 and 2000. Violence against females was more likely to be reported than violence against males. Overall violent crime committed by strangers was reported to police at a higher percentage than was violent crime committed by non-strangers. 03/03 NCJ 195710 Acrobat file (PDF, 309K) | ASCII file (35K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 32K)

     Statistics: "Hate Crime Statistics 2002" FBI Annual Report. Presents data regarding incidents, offenses, victims, and offenders in reported crimes that were motivated in whole or in part by a bias against the victim's perceived race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or disability. November 12, 2003, 148 pgs. [PDF]

     Statistics: "Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted 2002." The FBI annually compiles data concerning the felonious and accidental line-of-duty deaths and assaults of law enforcement officers and presents these statistics in Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA). Tabular presentations include weapons used, use of body armor, and circumstances surrounding murders and assaults of officers. November 17, 2003, 112 pgs. [PDF]

     Statistics: "Violent Victimization of College Students." Bureau of Justice Statistics. Examines the incidents of college student victimization and compares the findings to persons of similar age in the general population. In addition, the report determines the extent to which student victimization occurs in campus and off-campus locations and settings, as well as the prevalence of alcohol and drugs in student victimizations. Highlights include the following: For both whites and blacks, students were victims of violence overall at rates lower than those of non-students. Among women, except for rape/sexual assault for which there were no statistical differences, college students experienced crimes of violence at lower rates than those of nonstudents. Firearms were present in 9% of all violent crimes, 7% of assaults, and 30% of robberies against college students. 12/03 NCJ 196143 Press release | Acrobat file (335K) | ASCII file (40K) Spreadsheets (zip format 63K)

     Statistics: Lauritsen, J.,. "How Families and Communities Influence Youth Victimization." 12 pgs. [PDF] Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Released: December 15, 2003. Examines how individual, family, and community factors influence the risk for nonlethal violence among U.S. youth ages 12–17. Drawing on data from a special release of the National Crime Victimization Survey, this Juvenile Justice Bulletin studies risk factors among youth of different racial and ethnic groups and analyzes which risk factors are the most significant for understanding violent victimization. By examining the connection between such factors and the risk for violent victimization, the Bulletin shows that disadvantaged communities with high proportions of young people and single-parent families experience the greatest difficulty in protecting youth from victimization.

     Statistics: "Crime and the Nation's Households," 2002 Presents findings for crimes, including vandalism and intimate partner violence. Data are presented by region, by urban, suburban or rural location and by household size. Overall trends since 1994 are also included. Highlights include the following: In 2002 a violent crime against a person age 12 or older occurred in 3% of U.S. households. In both 1994 and 2002, less than 1% of households included a member victimized by an intimate partner. About 5% of households were vandalized at least once during 2002. U.S. Department of Justice · Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics 02/04 NCJ 201797 Acrobat file (255K) [PDF] | ASCII file (10K) Spreadsheets (zip format 16K)

     Statistics: "Statistical Abstract of the United States 2003 Edition," U.S. Census Bureau (1030 pgs. Feb. 12. 2004). [PDF] (2001 and 2002 Editions also available online at the same location). 1995-2000 Editions. To order a print copy of the 2003 edition, click here.

     Statistics: "Justice Expenditure and Employment in the United States, 2001." Provides selected data from the Census Bureau's Annual General Finance and Employment Surveys. Data presented include police protection, judicial and legal services, and corrections expenditure and employment for Federal, State, and local governments in 2001 and national trend data for 1982 to 2001. Expenditure data are provided for fiscal year 2001; employment and payroll data are for the month of March 2001. The report compares justice expenditure to spending for other governmental services and analyzes trends in justice spending and employment. It also presents per capita employment data relative to other State and government services, as well as per capita expenditure data by governmental function. 05/04 NCJ 202792 Press release | Acrobat file (281K) | ASCII file (26K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 22K)

     Statistics: "Civil Trial Cases and Verdicts in Large Counties, 2001." Examines general civil cases (torts, contracts, and real property) disposed of by bench or jury trial in the nation’s 75 most populous counties in 2001. Information reported includes the type of case, types of plaintiffs and defendants, trial winners, amount of total damages awarded, amount of punitive damages awarded, and case processing time. This is the third in a series of data collections begun in 1992. Highlights include the following: During 2001 a jury decided almost 75% of the 12,000 tort, contract, and real property trials in the nation's 75 largest counties. In jury trials, the median award decreased from $65,000 in 1992 to $37,000 in 2001 in these counties. Two-thirds of disposed trials in 2001 involved tort claims, and about a third involved contractual issues. 04/04 NCJ 202803 Press release | Acrobat file (235K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 34K)

     Statistics: "Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics, 2000: Data for Individual State and Local Agencies with 100 or More Officers." Presents findings from the 2000 LEMAS survey which collected data from State and local agencies that employed 100 or more full-time sworn officers. Subject areas covered include personnel, expenditures and pay, operations, community policing, policies and programs, and computers and information systems. Tables present summary and agency-specific data for 755 local agencies and 49 State agencies. 04/04, NCJ 203350 Full report: Acrobat file (4M) | ASCII file No tables or graphs (32K) To download specific sections of the report, or supporting spreadsheets, click here.

     Statistics: "The FBI Workforce By the Numbers." (Aug. 25, 2004).

     Statistics: The Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2002 (August 2004). Visit Sourcebook Online which is updated as new material becomes available. The Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2002, the 30th edition, presents a broad spectrum of criminal justice data from more than 100 sources in 6 sections: characteristics of the criminal justice systems, public attitudes toward crime and criminal justice topics, the nature and distribution of known offenses, characteristics and distribution of persons arrested, judicial processing of defendants, and persons under correctional supervision. Nearly all the data presented are nationwide in scope and, where possible, they are displayed by regions, States, and cities to increase their value for local decision-makers and for comparative analyses. The report includes over 600 tables, figures, subject index, annotated bibliography, technical appendixes with definitions and methodology, and list of source publishers and their addresses. To order: Printed copies are available for a postage and handling charge of $9.00 for U.S. buyers and $39.00 for buyers from Canada and other countries. NCJ 203301. A CD-ROM of the 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997-1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 editions is available for a postage and handling charge of $9.00 for U.S. buyers and $39.00 for buyers from Canada and other countries. NCJ 203302.

     Statistics: Crime in the United States 2003. Annual report by the FBI. [PDF]

     Statistics: Hate Crime Statistics 2003. Annual report by the FBI. [PDF]

     Statistics: Homicide Trends in the United States: 2002 Update Outlines the primary findings from the updated section of the BJS website (www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/homicide/homtrnd.htm) about homicide patterns and trends since 1976. Topics covered include long term trends in murder and non-negligent homicide, demographic trends, multiple victims and offenders, infanticide, eldercide, homicides by intimates, law enforcement officers killed, justifiable homicides, weapons trends, clearances, regional trends, and trends by city size. The data analyzed are from the FBI Uniform Crime Reporting Program’s Supplementary Homicide Reports. (November 2004). NCJ 204885 Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K)

      Statistics: Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2004 Presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population. A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and National Center for Education Statistics, this annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It provides the most current detailed statistical information to inform the Nation on the nature of crime in schools. Information was gathered from an array of sources including: - National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002) - School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (1995, 1999, and 2001) - Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, and 2003) - School Survey on Crime and Safety (2000) - School and Staffing Survey (1993-94 and 1999-2000). Highlights include the following: Students age 12-18 were victims of about 309,000 serious violent crimes away from school, compared with about 88,000 at school. Between 1993 and 2003, the percentage of students in grades 9-12 who reported being in a fight anywhere declined from 42 percent to 33 percent. In 2003, 5 percent of students ages 12-18 reported being victims of nonfatal crimes, 4 percent reported being victims of theft, and 1 percent reported being victims of violent incidents. (November 2004) NCJ 205290 Press release ASCII file (34K) Acrobat file (906K)

     Statistics: Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted 2003. Annual report by the FBI. [PDF]

     Statistics: Tort Trials and Verdicts in Large Counties, 2001 Presents findings about tort cases disposed of by jury and bench trial in general jurisdiction courts in the Nation's 75 largest counties during 2001. Information from the Civil Justice Survey of State Courts is analyzed about types of tort cases and litigants, type of trial, plaintiff winners, compensatory and punitive monetary damages awarded to plaintiff winners, and case processing time. Analyses are presented describing trends in tort jury trials. Information on plaintiff and defendant post verdict activity at the trial court and appellate levels are also described. Highlights include the following: Plaintiffs won in 52% of tort trials in 2001. The 7,218 tort jury trials disposed of in 2001 represents a 23% decline from 9,431 tort jury trials disposed of in these counties in 1992. Litigants filed notice of appeal to a State appellate court in 13% of tort trials disposed of in 2001. (November 2004). NCJ 206240 Acrobat file (543K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 37K)

     Statistics: "American Indians and Crime: A BJS Statistical Profile, 1992-2002." Summarizes data on American Indians in the criminal justice system and reports the rates and characteristics of violent crimes experienced by American Indians. This report updates a previous BJS report, American Indians and Crime, published in 1999. The findings include the involvement of alcohol, drugs, and weapons in violence against Indians. The report describes victim-offender relationships, the race of those involved in violence against Indians, and the rate of reporting to police by victims. It discusses the rates of arrest, suspect investigations and charges filed, and incarceration of Indians for violent crimes. Highlights include the following: * From 1976 to 2001 an estimated 3,738 American Indians were murdered. * Among American Indians age 25 to 34, the rate of violent crime victimizations was more than 2½ times the rate for all persons the same age. * Rates of violent victimization for both males and females were higher for American Indians than for all races. 12/04 NCJ 203097 Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Statistics: "Felony Sentences in State Courts, 2002." Presents statistics for adults who were convicted of a felony and sentenced in State courts. The data were collected through a nationally representative survey of 300 counties in 2002. Within the 12 offense categories reported are the number and characteristics (age, sex, race) of offenders who were sentenced to prison, jail, or probation. Trends from 1994 to 2002 highlight the number and characteristics of adults convicted of felonies and the types and lengths of sentences imposed. This periodic report is published every two years. Highlights include the following: * Drug offenders were 32% of felons convicted in State courts in 2002. * State courts sentenced 41% of convicted felons to a State prison, 28% to a local jail, and 31% to straight probation with no jail or prison time to serve. * Guilty pleas accounted for 95% of felony convictions in State courts in 2002. 12/04 NCJ 206916 Acrobat file (557K) | ASCII file (25K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 28K)

     Publication: COPS POP Guide: Identity Theft by Graeme R. Newman (78 pgs., June 2004) [PDF] NCJ 205701 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). This guide addresses the problem of identity theft and reviews the factors that increase the risk of it. Identity theft is a new crime, facilitated through established, underlying crimes such as forgery, counterfeiting, check and credit card fraud, computer fraud, impersonation, pick pocketing, and even terrorism.

     Publication: COPS POP Guide: Crimes Against Tourists by Ronald W. Glensor and Kenneth J. Peak (54 pgs. August 2004) [PDF] NCJ 206408 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). This guide describes the problem of tourist crime and reviews the factors that contribute to it. It identifies a series of questions to help readers analyze their local problem and a number of measures that can be taken to address the problem.

     Publication: Identity Theft, by the U.S. Postal Inspector's Office, Publication No. 280. [PDF]

     Publication: Law Enforcement Guide to Postal Crimes, by the U.S. Postal Inspector's Office, Publication No. 146. [PDF].

Criminal Records Access and Maintenance

     Criminal Records: Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2003 Describes the status of State criminal history records systems at yearend 2003. The data presented are used as the basis for estimating the percentage of total State records that are immediately available through the FBI's Interstate Identification Index and the percentage that include dispositions. Other data presented include the number of records maintained by each State, the percentage of automated records in the system, and the number of States participating in the FBI's Interstate Identification Index. The publication also contains information regarding the timeliness of data in State record systems and procedures employed to improve data quality. The report is an update of Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2001, released in September 2003, and is the eighth in the series that began with 1989 data. 02/06 NCJ 210297 Acrobat file (2.5M) | ASCII file (53K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 54K)

     Publications: Improving Access to and Integrity of Criminal History Records. Examines the problem of missing dispositions in State criminal history records and the availability of State records to support the National Instant Criminal Background Check System. The report addresses the accomplishments that the National Criminal History Improvement Program has made since 1995 in improving the quality and accessibility of criminal history records and outlines future challenges in building a national criminal history records infrastructure. Electronic only. 7/05 NCJ 200581 Acrobat file (1.4M) | ASCII file (146K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 17K).

Disabilities

      Article: Providing Police Services to the Deaf, Police Chief Magazine. "This article describes how to bridge the communication gap between first responders and the deaf and hard-of-hearing communities."

     Disabilities: New Americans with Disabilities Technical Assistance CD-ROM. (July 18, 2008). A free CD-ROM with a collection of ADA materials, including regulations, architectural design standards, and technical assistance publications. Designed for easy use on laptop computers in the field, or other computers that lack high-speed Internet access. Documents are provided in a variety of formats, including .html, and text, to enable people with disabilities to gain easy access, translate materials to Braille, or use screen readers. Many documents are also in Acrobat PDF format. The CD-ROM may be ordered on-line at the indicated link or by calling the ADA Information Line at 1-800-514-0301 (voice) or 1-800-514-0383 (TTY), 24 hours every day.

     Disabilities: Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Special Needs Subject Response Guide for Police Officers, Children's Hospital and Health System, 20 pgs, .pdf. 2009).

     Disabilities: Police Response to People with Disabilities: Eight-Part Series. Designed for use in roll-call training, this videotape, available on-line, addresses law enforcement situations involving people who have mobility disabilities, mental illnesses, mental retardation, epilepsy or seizure disorders, speech disabilities, deafness or hard of hearing, and blindness or low vision. The eight segments range from 5-1/2 to 10-1/2 minutes in length. Dial-up. High Speed Internet (DSL/Cable).

     Disabilities: "First Response to Victims of Crime Who Have a Disability", presented by the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), provides information to help law enforcement personnel respond in a sensitive and effective manner to victims of crime who have mental or sensory disabilities. It offers guidelines and tips for first responders called to serve such victims and includes a section for each disability. It also addresses two federal laws that prohibit discrimination against individuals with disabilities: the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. This handbook is available from the National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) at 800-851-3420 and can be accessed electronically at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/publications/infores/firstrep/2002/welcome.html.

    Disability Discrimination: Accommodating the Violent: Analyzing Title II of the Americans With Disabilities Relevant to Arrests of the Armed, Violent, and Mentally Ill, by Ashley Torres, published by AELE (2016).

     Disability Discrimination: The Justice Department has published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) intended to revise the Department's Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) title II and title III regulations to implement the requirements of the ADA Amendments Act of 2008. The comment period for the proposed rule closes on March 31, 2014.

     Statistics: Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2012 - Statistical Tables, by Erika Harrell. Bureau of Justice Statistics (February 25, 2014) NCJ 244525.

     Statistics: "Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2011 - Statistical Tables," by Erika Harrell (NCJ 240299, Dec. 19, 2012).

    Statistics: "Crime Against People with Disabilities, 2008," by Erika Harrell, Ph.D., Michael Rand, December 9, 2010 NCJ 231328. Presents findings about nonfatal violent and property crime experienced in 2008 by persons with disabilities, based on the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The report presents estimates of nonfatal violent victimization (rape/sexual assault, robbery, aggravated and simple assault) and property crime (burglary, motor vehicle theft, and theft) against persons with disabilities in 2008. It compares the victimization experience of persons with and without disabilities, using population estimates based on the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS). Data are presented on victim and crime characteristics of persons with and without disabilities, including age, race and gender distribution; offender weapon use; victim injuries; and reporting to the police. Highlights include the following: * Adjusting for the varied age distributions of persons with and without disabilities, the violent crime rate against persons with disabilities was 40 violent crimes per 1,000 persons age 12 or older, which was double the violent crime rate for persons without disabilities (20 per 1,000). * Among the types of disabilities measured in 2008, persons with cognitive disabilities had the highest risk of violent victimization. * Household burglary made up a higher percentage of all property crime against households with persons with a disability (25%) than against households without persons with disabilities (19%).

     Statistics: Crime Against People with Disabilities, 2007. Presents the first findings about non-fatal violent and property crime experienced by persons with disabilities, based on the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The report includes data on non-fatal violent victimization (rape/sexual assault, robbery, aggravated and simple assault) and property crime (burglary, motor vehicle theft, theft) against persons with disabilities in 2007. It compares the victimization experience of persons with and without disabilities, using population estimates based on the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS). Data are presented on victim and crime characteristics of persons with and without disabilities, including age, race and gender distribution; offender weapon use; victim injuries; and reporting to the police. Highlights include the following: Persons with disabilities were victims of about 47,000 rapes, 79,000 robberies, 114,000 aggravated assaults, and 476,000 simple assaults. Age-adjusted rate of nonfatal violent crime against persons with disabilities was 1.5 times higher than the rate for persons without disabilities. Females with a disability had a higher victimization rate than males with a disability; males had a higher rate than females among those without a disability. 10/09 NCJ 227814.

    Videos: Police Response to People with Disabilities. Produced by: Law Enforcement Resource Center, 1523 Nicollet Ave., Minneapolis, MN 55403, 800-279-8284 Website: http://www.lerc.com/ Mental Illness: Police Response. Produced by NAMI (National Alliance for the Mentally Ill) in cooperation with the Police Executive Research Forum, 508-875-1544. NAMI website: http://www.nami.org/ PERF website: http://www.policeforum.org/

     Websites: Disabilities: 1). Commonly Asked Questions About the ADA and Law Enforcement http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/q&a_law.htm 2). US Dept of Justice ADA homepage http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adahom1.htm  3). Commonly Asked Questions About Title II of the ADA for state and local govts - http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/pubs/t2qa.txt

DNA

     DNA: "Collecting DNA at Arrest: Policies, Practices, and Implications, Final Technical Report," by Julie E. Samuels, Elizabeth H. Davies, and Dwight B. Pope, The Urban Institute (July 2013).

     DNA: "Post-Conviction DNA Testing and Wrongful Conviction (Research Report)," by John Roman, Kelly Walsh, Pamela Lachman, and Jennifer Yahner (Urban Institute, June 18, 2012).

     Publication: National Institute of Justice Journal (Issue No. 249) (NIJ) (July 2003) (Text or PDF) Feature articles highlight several scientific breakthroughs to solve crime and to protect the public and law enforcement personnel. Without a Trace? Advances in Detecting Trace Evidence details four cutting-edge methods of extracting information from microscopic particles at a crime scene. DNA Evidence: What Law Enforcement Officers Should Know explains the basics of DNA sample collection and notes some procedures that can enhance the usefulness of such evidence. CCTV: Constant Cameras Track Violators provides an overview of the use of closed circuit cameras to monitor public areas, and NIJ's Bullet-Resistant Vest Standard Reaches Milestone celebrates the success of a manufacturing protocol that has saved the lives of thousands of law enforcement personnel. The "Research At-A-Glance" section contains two articles about the relationship between alcohol and crime. Other articles discuss how mapping technology can help probation and parole officers and how perspectives on community policing have changed since the early 1990s.

     Report: "Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology." (March 2003). This report provides an overview of the President's initiative to improve the use of DNA in the criminal justice system by providing funding, training, and assistance. The President has proposed $1 billion in funding over 5 years to fulfill the goals of the initiative: reduce the DNA testing backlog, build crime lab capacity, stimulate research and development, support training, protect the innocent, and identify missing persons.

     Report: "Report to the Attorney General on Delays in Forensic DNA Analysis." (March 2003). Although crime laboratories have made enormous progress in reducing the number of unanalyzed convicted offender samples for DNA databases, they continue to be deluged with analysis requests. This National Institute for Justice (NIJ) report presents the results of a task force, convened by NIJ at the request of Attorney General John Ashcroft, to assess existing DNA analysis delays and develop recommendations for eliminating those delays. The report details six recommendations that will serve as the foundation of a comprehensive, national DNA backlog reduction strategy. Full text of the Report: ASCII Text File Adobe Acrobat File.

     Technology: The website of the National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology and the Law states that it assembles the available scientific, technological, and relevant legal resources into a comprehensive "one-stop" searchable database with equal access for all. NCSTL provides: a searchable database of legal, forensic, and technology resources; a reference collection of law, science, and technology material; partnerships with law schools, professional associations, and federal and state agencies; national conferences on science, technology, and the law; community acceptance panels; training modules and primers with an emphasis on distance education; and training for defense counsel who are handling cases involving biological evidence on the applications and limitations of DNA evidence as stated in the President's DNA Initiative.

Dogs

     Dogs: Using Canines to Address School Violence, by Courtney Grubb, Tod W. Burke, and Stephen S. Owen, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (August 2015).

     Dogs: Police and Dog Encounters: Liability, Reporting & Documentation, National Canine Research Council (2013). (10 minute video).

     Dogs: "The Problem of Dog-Related Incidents and Encounters," C.O.P.S., U.S. Department of Justice (Aug. 2011).

Domestic Violence

     Domestic Violence: "Ferreting Out Domestic Abuse," by Katti Gray, The Crime Report (August 13, 2012). Addresses new federal laws contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (often referred to as "Obamacare"), which mandates that doctors nationwide routinely screen their female patients for possible abuse by their intimate partners, in order to reduce domestic violence.

     Domestic Violence: "Profile of Intimate Partner Violence Cases in Large Urban Counties." Examines the characteristics and processing of 3,750 cases of intimate partner violence, filed in the state courts of 16 large urban counties in May 2002. Topics covered include the types of charges filed against defendants, incident-specific information such as victim injury, defendant weapon use, evidence obtained, adjudication outcomes, and sentences imposed on convicted defendants. The report also examines the impact of various case characteristics on the likelihood of conviction. See also State Court Processing of Domestic Violence Cases. Highlights include the following: Most cases of intimate partner violence involved a charge of assault, either aggravated (12%) or simple (78%); an additional 5% were charged with intimidation, including stalking. A witness to the incident was present in 50% of intimate partner violence cases; half of those witnesses were children. The defendant was convicted in 56% of intimate partner violence cases. A third (33%) of cases were discontinued by the prosecution or dismissed by the court; less than 1% ended in acquittal by a judge or jury. Another 9% of defendants were in pretrial diversion or deferred adjudication status one year after their initial appearance in court. 10/09 NCJ 228193 Press release | Acrobat file (1.4M) | ASCII file (25K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 16K)

     Domestic Violence: "Making Arrests in Domestic Violence Cases: What Police Should Know," by David Hirschel, Ph.D., National Institute of Justice (NIJ) (June 2009).

     Domestic Violence: "Practical Implications of Current Domestic Violence Research: For Law Enforcement, Prosecutors and Judges," by Andrew R. Klein, Published June 2009. "The purpose of this work is to describe to practitioners what the research tells us about domestic violence, including its perpetrators and victims, the impact of current responses to it and, more particularly, the implications of that research for day-to-day, real-world responses to domestic violence by law enforcement officers, prosecutors and judges." This NIJ ePub is based on three final reports submitted to the National Institute of Justice under contract number 2007M-07032, which was awarded to Advocates for Human Potential.

    Domestic Violence: Intimate Partner Violence. "NIJ researchers have examined the nature and effects of this crime, and whether the most common law-enforcement, court-ordered, and correctional interventions work. These web pages summarize key research findings, and links to other sources of information and assistance. " (September 25, 2007).

     Rape and Sexual Assault: "The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS)," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Dec. 2011). States that almost one-fifth of all U.S. women have been the victim of a sexual assault at some time, with one in four facing severe physical violence by a husband or boyfriend.

Drone Surveillance

     Drone Surveillance: "Pilotless Drones: Background and Considerations for Congress Regarding Unmanned Aircraft Operations in the National Airspace System" Congressional Research Service (Sept. 10, 2012).

     Drone Surveillance: "Drones in Domestic Surveillance Operations: Fourth Amendment Implications and Legislative Responses," Congressional Research Service Doc. #R42701 (Sept. 2012).

     Drone Surveillance: "Protecting Privacy From Aerial Surveillance: Recommendations for Government Use of Drone Aircraft," American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) (Dec. 2011).

     Drone Surveillance: "Recommended Guidelines for the use of Unmanned Aircraft," International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) Aviation Committee (Aug. 2012).

Drowning Investigations

     Article: "Drowning Investigations," By Gary Haupt, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 2, pgs. 14-22 (February 2006). "Agencies need to remain prepared to handle these unique cases when they arise." Also see, the Missouri State Water Patrol's resource, The Supplemental Underwater Recovery Report available on the agency’s Web site at http://www.mswp.dps.mo.gov/SuppRecoveryReport.pdf

Drugs & Drug Testing

     Drug Abuse: "Police custody following driving under the influence of cannabis: A prospective study," 231 (1) Forensic Sci. Intern. 92-97 (Sep. 10, 2013). [Abstract].

     Drug Abuse: "State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2008-2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health," U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) (2011),

      Drug Abuse: "A Tale of Three Cities: Drugs, Courts and Community Justice" (NCJ 232872, 12 pp.) discusses how three new and innovative community courts are building on the drug court model, expanding the reach of problem-solving principles beyond specialized courtrooms, and making a significant contribution to the fight against substance abuse.

    Drug Abuse: "Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior Among Serious Adolescent Offenders" (NCJ 232790, 16 pp.) presents results from the Pathways to Desistance study. This bulletin focuses on understanding the connection between substance use and serious offending, including how these behaviors affect one another in adolescence and how they change in early adulthood, particularly when one behavior ceases.

     Drug Abuse: The "Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program II (ADAM) 2009 Annual Report" (NCJ 230756, 182 pp.) documents and analyzes the 2009 data that were collected for the program. Since 2000, ADAM and ADAM II have served as an important source of information on the basic characteristics, drug use, and drug market participation of arrestees, a population often more heavily involved in drugs than other groups surveyed. (ONDCP).

     Drug Abuse: "Monitoring the Future. 2011 Data from in-school surveys of 8th, 10th and 12th grade students," financed by the National Institutes of Health (Dec. 2011). Indicates that one out of every 15 high school students smokes marijuana on a near daily basis, a 30-year peak.

     Drunk Driving: "Police Practice: Educating Young Drivers About Alcohol," by Patrick Gallagher, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (December 2011).

     Drug Abuse and Treatment: Drug Courts: An Effective Strategy for Communities Facing Methamphetamine (NCJ 209549), Bureau of Justice Assistance, May 2005. PDF Describes the history, mission, and success of drug courts, which combine intensive rehabilitation services with the justice system to effectively intervene with drug users to promote drug abstinence, community safety, and family welfare. This Bulletin provides an overview of the debilitating effects of methamphetamine, the program components of a drug court, examples of successful drug court programs in areas deeply affected by methamphetamine use, and policy recommendations for implementing a drug court that will target a methamphetamine-using population.

     Drug Abuse Prevention: 2008 National Drug Control Strategy, March 1, 2008. The U.S. government's current national drug control strategy, focusing on, among other things, calls for tighter controls on Internet sales of controlled substances.

     Drugs: New Challenges for Police: A Heroin Epidemic and Changing Attitudes Toward Marijuana, Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) (August, 2014).

     Drugs: "The Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM II) 2011 Annual Report," Office of National Drug Control Policy, Executive Office of the President (May 2012).

     Drugs: ADAM II 2010 Annual Report (May 2011). The Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM II) program is a data collection program that conducts interviews and collects urine specimens in police booking facilities with adult male arrestees within 48 hours of their arrest. Since 2007 ADAM II has been sponsored by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). The latest report indicates that more than half of adult male arrestees last year in ten cities and counties around the U.S. tested positive for at least one drug. Positive test results ranged from 52 percent in Washington, D.C., to 83 percent in Chicago. The highest rates of men testing positive for meth were Sacramento, 33 percent, and Portland, 20 percent. An increasing number of arrestees in Charlotte, New York City, and Sacramento tested positive for marijuana; four of the ten cities--Charlotte, Indianapolis, Portland, and Sacramento, showed significant increases in the percentages testing positive for opiates.

     Drugs: Seattle Police Department "Marijwhatnow? A Guide to Legal Marijuana Use In Seattle," (2012).

     Drugs: The Office of National Drug Control Policy has added two new fact sheets to its Web site: "Marijuana: Know the Facts" and "Marijuana Legalization: A Bad Idea."

     Drugs: National Drug Control Strategy, Office of National Drug Control Policy (NCJ 229210, 127 pgs. May 2010). This document emphasizes collaboration and innovative strategies and outlines 5-year goals for reducing drug use and its consequences through a balanced policy of prevention, treatment, enforcement, and international cooperation.

     Drugs and Drug Abuse: "Adult Drug Courts. Studies Show Courts Reduce Recidivism, but DOJ Could Enhance Future Performance Measure Revision Efforts," Report to Congressional Committees, U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) (Dec. 2011).

     Legal Marijuana: "Task Force Report on the Implementation of Amendment 64 Regulation of Marijuana in Colorado," (March 13, 2013).

     Marijuana Legalization: Text of Memorandum of James N. Cole, Deputy Attorney General, "Guidance Regarding Marijuana Enforcement," (August 29, 2013). Response and letter to U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder by the Major County Sheriffs’ Association, the National Sheriffs’ Association, the Association of State Criminal Investigative Agencies, the International Association of Chiefs of Police, the National Narcotic Officers Associations’ Coalition, the Major Cities Chiefs Police Association and the Police Executive Research Forum.(August 30, 2013).

     Medical Marijuana: "Exploring the Ecological Association Between Crime and Medical Marijuana Dispensaries," by Nancy J. Kepple and Bridget Freisthler, 73 Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs Issue 4 (July 2012).

     Publication: Screening and Assessing Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Among Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Resource Guide for Practitioners (NCJ 204956) December 2004 Report, 88 pages Grisso, T., Underwood, L. A. Presents information on instruments that can be used to screen and assess youth for mental health- and substance use-related disorders at various stages of the juvenile justice process. The Guide includes profiles of more than 50 instruments, guidelines for selecting instruments, and best practice recommendations for diverse settings and situations. It is intended as a basic tool for juvenile justice professionals working toward the goal of early, accurate identification of youth with mental disorders. Once identified, these youth can receive the services required to improve their lives, reduce recidivism, and promote community safety. Available online only. PDF(1.85 MB).

     Publication: "What You Need to Know About Drug Testing in Schools" offers perspectives on testing children for illegal drugs in school. This booklet, presented by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), provides those considering drug testing programs in their communities with an understanding of the issue and solid information on which to base a decision. It answers questions about the process and explains what drug testing is, who pays for it, who does the testing, and what it tells and cannot tell about an individual’s drug use. It also describes what services should be in place to effectively deal with students who test positive for drug use and offers case histories of how schools have used drug testing to address their drug issues. This booklet can be ordered by contacting the National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) at 800-851- 3420; it can be accessed electronically at http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/pdf/drug_testing.pdf.

     Report: National Drug Control Strategy, 123 pages, 2002 This report provides an overview of Federal efforts to prevent drug use, treat America's users, and disrupt the drug market. Available in PDF format and in .html. See also Pulse Check: Trends in Drug Abuse (April 2002) Executive Office of the President Office of National Drug Control Policy Washington, DC 20503 NCJ 193398.(For the entire document in PDF format, click here).

     Statistics: 2008 Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program (ADAM II), Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), (May 2009). The federal report, which surveys drug use among booked male arrestees in 10 major metropolitan areas across the country, shows the majority of arrestees in each city test positive for illicit drug use, with as many as 87 percent of arrestees testing positive for an illegal drug. According to the ADAM II report, drug use among the arrestee population is much higher than in the general U.S. population. The percentage of booked arrestees testing positive for at least one illicit drug ranged from 49 percent in Washington, D.C. to 87 percent in Chicago. The most common substances present during tests, in descending order, are marijuana, cocaine, opiates, and methamphetamine. Additionally, many arrestees tested positive for more than one illegal drug at the time of arrest; from 15 percent in Atlanta to 40 percent in Chicago. Data on drug use, drug markets, treatment utilization, and criminal offenses were collected among booked arrestees in jails within 48 hours of their booking and in the following counties and cities: Fulton County and City of Atlanta; Mecklenburg County (Charlotte, NC); Cook County (Chicago, IL); Denver County (Denver, CO); Marion County (Indianapolis, IN); Hennepin County (Minneapolis, MN); Manhattan (New York, NY), Multnomah County (Portland, OR); Sacramento County (Sacramento, CA) and Washington, D.C. (District of Columbia).

Drunk Driving

     Drunk Driving: "Police Practice: Educating Young Drivers About Alcohol," by Patrick Gallagher, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (December 2011).

Education and Crime

     College and School Crime: "Education Under Arrest: The Case Against Police in Schools," Justice Policy Institute (Nov. 15, 2011).

     College and School Crime: "Policing in Public Schools: Beyond the Active Shooter," by Gary D. Rudick, F.B.I. Law Enforcement Bulletin, p. 16 (Nov. 2011).

     Education and Crime: "School-Based Early Childhood Education and Age-28 Well-Being: Effects by Timing, Dosage, and Subgroups," by Arthur J. Reynolds, Judy A. Temple, Suh-Ruu Ou, Irma A. Arteaga, and Barry A. B. White, Science (June 9, 2011). The article argues that high-quality early care and education programs can help reduce felony arrests, incarceration rates, and substance abuse among adults who as children attended them. The study follows the educational and social development of more than 1,400 low-income, minority children from high-poverty Chicago neighborhoods. It found that as adults, those left out of the preschool program were 27 percent more likely to have been arrested for a felony by age 28 and 39 percent more likely to have spent time in jail and/or prison than those who did participate.

Elder Abuse and Elder Issues

     Alzheimer's: Alzheimer's Aware: A Guide for Implementing a Law Enforcement Program to Address Alzheimer's in the Community, Bureau of Justice Assistance (NCJ 248634 2015).

     Elder Abuse: Elder Abuse Special Feature. This resource provides links to publications and Web sites that address elder abuse by caregivers, domestic violence among the elderly, and fraud and financial abuse targeting elders. It also includes statistics on elder mistreatment victimization. (NCJRS May 2010).

Emergency Calls and Response

     Article: "Demands on Police Services in a WMD Incident," by Joel A. Carlson, 77 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 3, (March 2006), pg. 1. "Law enforcement executives must plan for the meaingful utilization of personnel and resources prior to the event to ensure an effective response to the demands on their organizations." [.html]

     Article: "Law Enforcement and Hazmat/WMD Emergency Response," by Ed Allen and Steve Patrick, 7 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 3, (March 2006), pg. 16. "The recently revised National Fire Protection Association's Technical Standard 472 specifies minimum competencies for those who will respond to hazmat/WMD incidents, regardless of their agency or response discipline. [.html]

     Article: "Police Response to Anonymous Emergency Calls," by Michael L. Ciminelli, J.D., Chief of the Domestic Criminal Law Section, DEA, 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5 pgs. 23-32 (May 2003). [PDF] Also available in .html format.

     Arrest and Imprisonment: "Detentions Based on 911 Calls," 12 pgs., Point of View, published by the Alameda County, California, District Attorney's Office (Spring 2005).

Evidence

     Article: Chief’s Counsel: The Police Officer as Expert Witness By Karen J. Kruger, Senior Assistant County Attorney, Harford County, Maryland, IACP, The Police Chief Magazine, Vol. 72, No. 6 (June 2005). "According to two recent state court rulings, some officers who offer opinion testimony are expert witnesses and should be presented as such."

     Article: "Computer Forensics," by Loren D. Mercer, 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 3, pgs. 28-32 (March 2004). [PDF] "An understanding of computer-related evidence proves necessary for law enforcement agencies and the courts." Also available in .html format.

     Article: "Law Enforcement Response at a Crisis Scene: Protecting Lives and Preserving the Admissibility of Evidence," by Lucy Ann Hoover, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 4, pgs.25-32 (April 2006). "Officers cannot ignore the restraints placed upon them by the Fourth Amendment when responding to emergency situations." [PDF] [.html]

     Article: "Expert Testimony and Risk Assessment in Stalking Cases," by Eugene Rugala, James McNamara, and George Wattendorf, 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 11, pgs. 8-18.(November 2004). [PDF] "The FBI's National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime represents a valuable resource pertaining to stalking cases." Also available in .html format.

     Article: "Geologic Material as Physical Evidence," by Joseph A. Finley, Jr., 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 3, pgs. 1-5 (March 2004). [PDF] "Geologic materials often can provide scientific support as physical evidence in criminal and civil cases." Also available in .html format.

     Article: "Spousal Privileges in the Federal Law," by Robert Kardell, M.B.A., J.D., FBI Special Agent, Chicago, Illinois. 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 8, page. 26-32 (August 2003). "Investigators must keep the rules and limitations of spousal privileges in mind when considering the consequences of using privileged information."

     Evidence: "Obtaining Admissible Evidence from Computers," by Stephen W. Cogan, 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 7, pgs. 11-22 (July 2003)."Evolving investigative procedures and legislation impact the process of obtaining evidence from computers." Also available in .html format.

     Evidence: "The Admissibility of Digital Photographs in Criminal Cases," By David P. Nagosky, Special Agent, FBI New York Office, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 12 (December 2005), pgs. 1-8. "Agencies have many considerations in ensuring the admissibility of digital photographs in criminal cases."

     Publications: Mass Fatality Incidents: A Guide for Human Forensic Identification Technical Working Group for Mass Fatality Forensic Identification June 2005. In a mass fatality incident, correct victim identification is essential to satisfy humanitarian considerations, meet civil and criminal investigative needs, and identify victim perpetrators. This 96-page Special Report provides medical examiners/coroners with guidelines for preparing the portion of the disaster plan concerned with victim identification and summarizes the victim identification process for other first responders. It discusses the integration of the medical examiner/coroner into the initial response process, and presents the roles of various forensic disciplines (including forensic anthropology, radiology, odontology, fingerprinting, and DNA analysis) in victim identification. This guide represents the experience of dozens of Federal, State, international, and private forensic experts who took part in the Technical Working Group for Mass Fatality Forensic Identification. [PDF]

     Report: "Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology." (March 2003). This report provides an overview of the President's initiative to improve the use of DNA in the criminal justice system by providing funding, training, and assistance. The President has proposed $1 billion in funding over 5 years to fulfill the goals of the initiative: reduce the DNA testing backlog, build crime lab capacity, stimulate research and development, support training, protect the innocent, and identify missing persons.

     Report: IACP In-Car Camera Report: "The Impact of Video Evidence on Modern Policing." 159 pgs. [PDF] The results of a two-year evaluation of the impact of police in-car camera systems on state police and highway patrol agencies. In 2002, the IACP was commissioned by the USDOJ Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) to examine police in-car camera systems. The study was divided into two phases. Phase I studied the process by which the cameras were selected and acquired; Phase II focused on impact evaluations. The results of these evaluations are contained within this report.

Excited Delirium

     Excited Delirium: Excited Delirium and the Dual Response: Preventing In-Custody Deaths, by Brian Roach, Kelsey Echols, and Aaron Burnett, .FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Jul. 2014).

      Excited Delirium: Excited Delirium, Restraints, and Unexpected Death: A Review of Pathogenesis Mohammad Otahbachi, MD; Cihan Cevik, MD; Satish Bagdure, MPH, MBBS; Kenneth Nugent, MD, The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins - 25 February 2010.

Expert Witnesses

     Article: Chief’s Counsel: The Police Officer as Expert Witness By Karen J. Kruger, Senior Assistant County Attorney, Harford County, Maryland, IACP, The Police Chief Magazine, Vol. 72, No. 6 (June 2005). "According to two recent state court rulings, some officers who offer opinion testimony are expert witnesses and should be presented as such."

     Article: "Expert Testimony and Risk Assessment in Stalking Cases," by Eugene Rugala, James McNamara, and George Wattendorf, 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 11, pgs. 8-18.(November 2004). [PDF] "The FBI's National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime represents a valuable resource pertaining to stalking cases." Also available in .html format.

Extremism

     Extremism: A New Approach to Countering Violent Extremism: Sharing Expertise and Empowering Local Communities, by the executive staff of the FBI's National Security Branch, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Oct. 2014).

Eyewitness Identification

     Eyewitness Identification: "A National Survey of Eyewitness Identification Procedures in Law Enforcement Agencies," Police Executive Research Forum (March 8, 2013).

Family & Medical Leave

     Article: "The Family and Medical Leave Act," By Richard G. Schott. 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 1, pgs. 25-32. (January 2006). Law enforcement employers must gain familiarity with the FMLA and its requirements. [PDF] [HTML]

Federal Agency Plans, Budgets, and Reports

     Budget Data: Fiscal Year 2005 Budget and Performance Summary, U.S. Department of Justice.

     FBI E-mail alerts: To improve public safety and law enforcement partnerships, the FBI recently launched a service that sends out e-mail alerts when new and vital information is posted on its Internet website. To sign up for free, click on the red envelope icons found at the FBI website at http://www.fbi.gov, and enter your e-mail address. Subscribers select which topics that they want updates on, such as new e-scams and warnings, most wanted terrorists, top ten fugitives, and national and local press releases. The alerts are sent as soon as updates are posted on the FBI website or in daily, weekly, or monthly digests. Since launching the service in October, the FBI has e-mailed more than 600,000 alerts to nearly 14,000 subscribers. Through its website, the FBI has also begun providing RSS (Really Simple Syndication) news feeds for press releases, top stories, and other breaking news. Go to http://www.fbi.gov/rss.htm for details.

     News: The FBI, on July 26, 2006, announced a "broad internal restructuring," aligning key programs to "reflect our shift since 9/11 into a more threat-based, intelligence-driven organization." Click here  to access information from the Bureau discussing this, including a press release and a revised organizational chart.

     Publication: "BLUEPRINT FOR ACTION: The FBI's Strategic Plan, 2004-2009." 132 pgs. (Aug. 9, 2004). [PDF].

     Publication: "Getting Results – Managing the Mission at the U.S. Department of Justice." 12 pgs. (August 09, 2004). Full Document [PDF], Brochure [PDF], Multimedia Presentation.

Federal Civil Rights Law

     Federal Civil Rights Law: "Section 1983 Is Born: The Supreme Court Stories of Tenney v. Brandhove and Monroe v. Pape," by Sheldon H. Nahmod, Chicago-Kent College of Law Research Paper No. 2013-04 (January 2, 2013).

Federal-State Cooperation

     Publication: Federal-Local Law Enforcement Collaboration in Investigating and Prosecuting Urban Crime, 1982–1999: Drugs, Weapons, and Gangs, by Malcolm Russell-Einhorn, Shawn Ward, and Amy Seeherman. Research Report for the National Institute of Justice. 1/2004, NCJ 201782. 210 pages. [PDF]

Female Offenders

     Female Offenders: "Employment and Female Offenders: An Update of the Empirical Research" (ACCN 024662) explores the literature and summarizes the empirical evidence related to the impact of employment on the criminal behavior of women. Topics discussed include female offender demographics, barriers to employment, correctional education and vocational programs, and the relationship between employment and crime.

     Gender Equality: N.Y.C. Police Department memo prohibiting the arrest of women for going topless in public (Feb. 7, 2013), based on a prior N.Y. Court of Appeals decision holding that equality of the sexes mandated that women be allowed to appear topless in public for noncommercial purposes, since men were allowed to. People v. Santorelli, #115, 880 N.Y.2d 875, 600 N.E.2d 232, 587 N.Y.S.2d 601 (1992).

Female Officers

     Female Officers: "Women in Law Enforcement, 1987-2008" (NCJ 230521, 4 pp.) presents data from the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics surveys, covering 1987 to 2007, and from the Census of Federal Law Enforcement Officers, covering 1996 to 2008. (BJS)

Firearms & Armed Suspects

     Article: "Dead Right," By Anthony J. Pinizzoto, Edward F. Davis, and Charles E. Miller III, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 3, pgs 1-8. (March 2006). "Knowledge, awareness, clear thinking, and finely honed observation skills may give officers an advantage when confronting armed subjects." This article is an excerpt from a 5-year study on officer safety that the authors recently completed. [PDF] [HTML]

     Article: Perspective The Deadly Dilemma: Shoot or Don't Shoot, by Shannon Bohrer, M.B.A., Harry A. Kern, M.Ed., and Edward F. Davis, M.S. 7 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 3, (March 2006), pg. 7. [.html]

     Article: "Selecting a Duty-Issue Handgun," by Chad A. Kaestle and Jon H. Buehler, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 1, pgs. 1-8 (January 2005). "Departments should carefully approach decisions concerning the firearms officers will use." [.html format] [PDF format].

     Assaults on Officers: Understanding Firearms Assaults against Law Enforcement Officers in the United States, by Joseph B. Kuhns, Diana Dolliver, Emily Bent, and Edward R. Maguire, COPS (March 14, 2016).

     Deadly Force: Deadly Force. Police Use of Lethal Force in the United States, by Amnesty International (June 2015).

     Deadly Force: Enhancing Accountability and Trust with Independent Investigations of Police Lethal Force, 128 Harv. L. Rev. F. 235 (Apr. 2015).

     Deadly Force: "Police Investigations of the Use of Deadly Force," by Shannon Bohrer and Robert Chaney, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, January 2010. "The use of force and the police investigation of such action can have far-reaching consequences."

     Firearms Related: Mass Murder with Firarms: Incidents and Victims, 1999-2013, by William J. Krouse and Daniel J. Richardson, Congressional Research Service (July 30, 2015).

     Firearms Related: Police Responses in Officer-Involved Violent Deaths: Comparison of Suicide by Cop and Non-Suicide by Cop Incidents, by Vivian B. Lord, 17 Police Quarterly (Sage) 79-100 (March 2014). Abstract.

     Firearms Related: Dealing with an Armed Populace--Suspect Control in the Age of Open and Concealed Carry, by John J. Knoll, Police Chief Magazine (June 2014).

     Firearms Related: "National Institute of Justice Research Report: A Review of Gun Safety Technologies," by Mark Greene (June 2013).

     Firearms: "Open letter to all federal firearms licensees," Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) (Dec. 22, 2011). Announces plans to drop a regulation barring sales of firearms to noncitizens who cannot document that they have resided in a state for 90 days. The rule has not applied to citizens, and the ATF has concluded that its application to noncitizens has no legal basis.

     Firearms: "The Current Status of GSR Examinations" by Michael Trimpe, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (May 2011). "Gunshot residue examinations have continued to improve through research, advancements, and communication."

     Firearms: Firearms Digest. The Harvard School of Public Health recently launched a new online firearms digest that compiles and summarizes research findings on firearms and gun violence. This new source is ideal for law enforcement; using topical searches under headings such as domestic violence, homicide, and crime, law enforcement can now easily incorporate research findings in the development of best practices and prevention strategies with respect to firearms violence. The Firearms Research Digest, funded by The Joyce Foundation, features clear summaries of research published in academic journals and links to the actual studies. This searchable database currently covers six years of research, from 2003 to 2009, and is being expanded to include articles dating back to 1988.

     Firearms Background Checks: Survey of State Records Included in Presale Background Checks: Mental Health Records, Domestic Violence Misdemeanor Records, and Restraining Orders, 2003 Examines the quality and accessibility of certain criminal and noncriminal records when States conduct a firearm presale background check. The report covers State mental health records, domestic violence misdemeanor records, and restraining orders. It also describes impediments to access for these types of records during a firearm presale background check. This is one of a series of reports published from the BJS Firearm Inquiry Statistics (FIST) project, managed under the BJS National Criminal History Improvement Program (NCHIP). 8/04 NCJ 206042 Acrobat file (578K) | ASCII file (5K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 21K)

     Firearms Related: "New York Police Department Annual Firearms Discharge Report 2011," (August 2012).

     Firearms Related: "Restraint in the Use of Deadly Force," by Anthony J. Pinizzotto, Edward F. Davis, Shannon B. Bohrer, and Benjamin J. Infanti, F.B.I. Law Enforcement Bulletin (June 2012).

     Firearms Sales: Survey of State Procedures Related to Firearm Sales, Midyear 2004. Provides an overview of the firearm check procedures in each State and State interaction with the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS), operated by the FBI. The report summarizes issues about State procedures, including persons prohibited from purchasing firearms, restoration of rights of purchase to prohibited persons, permits, prohibited firearms, waiting periods, fees, and appeals. Supplemental tables contain data on 2003 applications to purchase firearms and rejections, as well as tabular presentations of State-by-State responses. This is one of a series of reports published from the BJS Firearm Inquiry Statistics (FIST) project, managed under the BJS National Criminal History Improvement Program (NCHIP). This is an electronic only document. 8/05 NCJ 209288 Acrobat file (1M) | ASCII file (299K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Gun Control: "America Under the Gun: A 50-State Analysis of Gun Violence and Its Link to Weak State Gun Laws," American Progress Center (April 2013).
     Gun Control: "Public Mass Shootings in the United States: Selected Implications for Federal Public Health and Safety Policy," Congressional Research Service (March 18, 2013).

     Gun Control and School Security: "The National School Shield. Report of the National School Shield Task Force," Asa Hutchinson, Director (April 2, 2013).

      Gun Control: "Gun Violence Reduction Executive Actions," The White House, Office of the Press Secretary (Jan 16, 2013). "Now Is the Time: The President's Plan to Protect our Children and our Communities by Reducing Gun Violence," The White House, Office of the Press Secretary (Jan 16, 2013). Executive Summary.

     Gun Control: "The Case for Gun Policy Reforms in America," Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research, Baltimore, Md. (October 2012).

     Gun Violence: Ten national law enforcement organizations have started a partnership focusing on effective strategies to address gun violence, calling the problem a "crisis" and "unacceptable." The National Law Enforcement Partnership to Prevent Gun Violence was launched at the 2010 International Association of Chiefs of Police convention. The groups said that 100,000 Americans or killed or injured with firearms every year. In 2008, 34 officers were killed in the line of duty with firearms. So far this year, there have been 43 such deaths. Other groups involved in addition to the IACP itself include the National Association of Women Law Enforcement Executives, Police Executive Research Forum, Police Foundation, Major Cities Chiefs Association, National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives, International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators, Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies, National Sheriffs' Association, and Hispanic American Police Command Officers Association.

     Publication: Reducing Gun Violence: The St. Louis Consent-to-Search Program, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice [PDF] (November 2004). The third report in NIJ's Reducing Gun Violence series evaluates an innovative police program that used community-based sources to identify homes where juveniles might be harboring guns. Police then sought parental permission to search for and confiscate illegal guns. A nationally recognized success in its first year, the Consent-to-Search program subsequently experienced serious implementation problems. This report (NCJ 191332) describes the program's setbacks and implications for community policing.

     Report: Evaluation of the New York City Police Department Firearm Training and Firearm-Discharge Review Process, by Bernard D. Rostker, Lawrence M. Hanser, William M. Hix, Carl Jensen, Andrew R. Morral, Greg Ridgeway, and Terry L. Schell. A report prepared by the RAND Corporation at the request of the New York City Police Commissioner. Summary Only. Research Brief. Author Statement. The study states that both recruits and veteran police officers would benefit from firearms training on a more frequent basis and also recommends wider use of Tasers. The report also examines 455 shootings involving officers that were subject to adjudication in 2004, 2005, and 2006 by the N.Y.P.D.'s Firearms Discharge Review Board.

     Report: The texts of eleven annual reports concerning shootings by New York police officers, along with a document entitled "The NYPD's Command Structure Report" may be accessed at http://www.nyclu.org/node/1756 along with an analysis of the reports by the New York branch of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).

     Shooting Incidents: The Police Response to Active Shooter Incidents, Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) (Mar. 2014).

     Shootings: "Active Shooter Events from 2000 to 2012," by J. Pete Blair, M. Hunter Martaindale, and Terry Nichols, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (January 2014).

     Statistics: "Background Checks for Firearm Transfers, 2009 - Statistical Tables" (NCJ 231679) provides the number of firearm transaction applications checked by state points of contact and local agencies, the number of applications denied and the reasons for denial, and estimates of applications and denials conducted by each type of approval system. (BJS).

     Statistics: Background Checks for Firearm Transfers, 2004  U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.  Describes background checks for firearm transfers conducted in 2004. This annual report provides the number of applications checked by State points of contact, estimates of the number of applications checked by local agencies, the number of applications rejected, the reasons for rejection, and estimates of applications and rejections conducted by each type of approval system. It also provides information about appeals of rejected applications and arrests for falsified applications. The Firearm Inquiry Statistics Program, managed under the National Criminal History Improvement Program, is an ongoing data collection effort focusing on the procedures and statistics related to presale firearms background checks in selected States. Highlights include the following: Total applications for firearm transfers or permits increased 3.2% nationwide, from 7,831,000 in 2003 to 8,084,000 in 2004. In 2004 the rejection rate for applications checked by the FBI (1.4%) was lower than that for checks by State and local agencies (1.8%). A felony conviction or indictment was the most common reason for rejection during 2004 by State or local agencies (50%) and the FBI (38%). 10/05 NCJ 210117 Acrobat file (143K) | ASCII file (40K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 14K)

     Training: :"Focus on Training: Training for Deadly Force Encounters," by Timothy Hoff, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2012).

     Use of Force: "The Dynamic Resistance Response Model," by Charles Joyner and Chad Basile, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 76, Number 9 pgs 15-20 (September 2007). "This approach offers several advantages for officers when making use of force decisions."  [PDF] [HTML]

First Amendment

     Crowd Control: California POST has issued “Crowd Management, Intervention and Control Guidelines." (77 pp. PDF 2012).

     First Amendment: Two reports have been issued concerning allegations that the Actions of the Seattle Police Department in response to a 2012 "May Day" demonstration violated First Amendment rights. See the Seattle Police Department's own report and an Independent Review commissioned by the department.

     First Amendment: "Crowd Management: Adopting a New Paradigm," by Mike Masterson, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Aug. 2012).

     First Amendment: "Picketers, Protesters, and Police: The First Amendment and Investigative Activity," by Carl A. Benoit, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Aug. 2012).

     First Amendment: "The Honoring America's Veterans and Caring for Camp Lejeune Families Act of 2012," (H.R. 1627) is a federal statute signed into law on August 6, 2012. It was enacted to impose federal time, place, and manner restrictions on protests at military veteran funerals in response to demonstrations there by the Westboro Baptist Church. For a discussion of the issues involved in such protests, see Funeral Protests and the First Amendment, 2011 (6) AELE Mo. L. J. 101 and the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Snyder v. Phelps, #09-751, 131 S. Ct. 1207, 2011 U.S. Lexis 1903. The new statute bars protests within 300 feet of the premises of a military veteran's funeral, within 500 feet if they would block access roads to the funeral, or near the homes of relatives of the deceased, as well as bars the use of loudspeakers to disrupt the proceedings. The restrictions apply two hours before through two hours after the funeral. Violations are federal crimes, punishable by up to one year in prison, as well as a fine. Injunctions may be granted to bar demonstrations which would violate the statute, and protestors who disturb a funeral may be sued for actual civil damages or a statutory amount between $25,000 and $50,000 to be set by a judge, at the aggrieved family's election.

     First Amendment: "Suppressing Protest: Human Rights Violations in the U.S. Response to Occupy Wall Street," The Global Justice Clinic (NYU School of Law) and the Walter Leitner International Human Rights Clinic at the Leitner Center for International Law and Justice (Fordham Law School) (July 26, 2012).

     First Amendment: First Amendment-Protected Events for Law Enforcement Guidance and Reference Card, U.S. Department of Justice.

     First Amendment: "Police, Protestors and the Press," by the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press (2012).

     First Amendment: Guidelines For First Amendment-Protected Events for State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies," U.S, Department of Justice (Draft, Oct. 2011).

     First Amendment: "Criminal Speech," by Martin J. King, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 77, Number 4 (April 2008) pg. 23. ("Law enforcement officers must know the extent to which the First Amendment permits preventative prosecution based on speech intended to persuade or induce others to engage in unlawful conduct."). The above link is to a .pdf version of the publication. For a version in .html, click here.

     Protest Activities: "Time, Place, and Manner: Controlling the Right to Protest" By Martin J. King, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pgs. 20-32 (May 2007)."Courts have recently reconciled security-based restrictions with the right to protest."

Foreign Arrestees & Foreign Language Proficiency

     Article: Reaching English-as-a-Second-Language Communities: Talking with the Police. By Jones Moy, Chief of Police, and Brent Archibald, Sergeant, Monterey Park, California, Police Department, IACP, The Police Chief Magazine, Vol. 72, No. 6 (June 2005).

     Foreign Arrestees & Foreign Language Proficiency: "Overcoming Language Barriers: Solutions for Law Enforcement," from Vera' Institute of Justice's Center on Immigration and Justice, provides practical tips and advice for law enforcement personnel who interact with communities that don't speak or understand English well. The report draws upon the Center's experience developing language access strategies with law enforcement agencies in California, Nevada, and Ohio.

     Publication: Magistrate's Guide to the Vienna Convention on Consular Notifications. [PDF format] Published by the Texas Attorney General's Office (2000). Contains instruction and guidance relating to the arrest and detention of foreign nationals and related issues pertaining to the provision of consular services to foreign nationals in the U.S. Includes translations of suggested statements to be made to foreign nationals who are arrested or detained (Arabic, Chinese, Farsi, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Vietnamese) and a suggested fax sheet for notifying consular offices of an arrest or detention. Under the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, an international treaty to which 160 countries, including the U.S., are parties, foreign nationals are supposed to be allowed to contact the consulate of their country of nationality when incarcerated, imprisoned, or taken into custody or detained. In the instance of some countries, notification is mandatory, as opposed to being at the option of the foreign national, and this publication discusses a number of issues that arise as a result. EDITOR'S NOTE: At least one federal court has held that the failure to allow a foreign national to contact the consulate of their country can be the basis for a federal civil rights lawsuit. See Standt v. City of New York, No. 99-Civ-110008, 153 F. Supp. 2d 417, 2001 U.S. Dist. Lexis 9954 (S.D.N.Y.), reported in Liability Reporter, October 2001. (City could be sued for violation of civil rights for failure to allow a German visitor arrested to contact the German consulate as required by treaty). The U.S. State Department also maintains a web page containing "Instructions for Federal, State, and other Local Law Enforcement and Other Officials Regarding Foreign Nationals in the United States and the Rights of Consular Officials To Assist Them," which is updated from time to time.

     Foreign Language Proficiency: Español for Law Enforcement: An Interactive Training Tool February 2004 This CD-ROM (NCJ 201801) was developed to help law enforcement officers obtain a working knowledge of Spanish and apply it to law enforcement situations. The video walks viewers through English translations, phonetic spellings, and pronunciations of Spanish words in situations involving interviews, crime scenes, motor vehicles, and domestic violence. To obtain a copy of this CD-ROM, visit NCJRS's Online Store or call or write to NCJRS at: NCJRS P.O. Box 6000 Rockville, MD 20859-6000 Fax: 301-519-5212 Phone: 800-851-3420 (toll free).

     Training: "Law Enforcement Training. Factors in the Spanish-Speaking Community," by Arthur Natella, Jr., and Pablo Paul Madera, 77 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 12, page 12 (Dec. 2008). "Agencies must ensure that officers understand some basic elements of cultural differences to effectively enforce the law."

Forensics

     Forensic Science: Altered Fingerprints: A Challenge to Law Enforcement Identification Efforts, by the FBI’s Criminal Justice Information Services Division, Latent and Forensic Support Unit, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (May 2015).

     Publications: Mass Fatality Incidents: A Guide for Human Forensic Identification Technical Working Group for Mass Fatality Forensic Identification June 2005. In a mass fatality incident, correct victim identification is essential to satisfy humanitarian considerations, meet civil and criminal investigative needs, and identify victim perpetrators. This 96-page Special Report provides medical examiners/coroners with guidelines for preparing the portion of the disaster plan concerned with victim identification and summarizes the victim identification process for other first responders. It discusses the integration of the medical examiner/coroner into the initial response process, and presents the roles of various forensic disciplines (including forensic anthropology, radiology, odontology, fingerprinting, and DNA analysis) in victim identification. This guide represents the experience of dozens of Federal, State, international, and private forensic experts who took part in the Technical Working Group for Mass Fatality Forensic Identification. [PDF]

Fraud

     Fraud: "Fraudulent Online Hotel Booking" By Mike Hannah, Gisela Bichler, and John Welter, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pgs. 1-8 (May 2007). "Law enforcement agencies can successfully address fraudulent booking of hotel rooms through the Internet."

Freedom of Information

     Freedom of Information: Want to Obtain FBI Records a Little Quicker? Try New eFOIA System, FBI website (November 30, 2015).

     Freedom of Information: Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Re: The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). New guidelines issued March 19, 2009 by the U.S. Attorney General state that departments and agencies "should not withhold information simply because it may do so legally," but instead apply a presumption of openness. This rescinded a previous October 12, 2001 FOIA memo. Under the new guidelines, information will only be withheld if it can reasonably foreseen that its disclosure will result in harm to a statutorily protected interest or if the disclosure is prohibited by law.

     Publication: Freedom of Information Act Guide, (May 2002). The "U.S. Justice Department Guide to the Freedom of Information Act" is an overview discussion of the FOIA's exemptions, its law enforcement record exclusions, and its most important procedural aspects. Prepared by the attorney staff of the Office of Information and Privacy, it is updated and revised biennially. See also The DOJ FOIA Reference Guide, revised December 2002 This handbook is designed to familiarize the reader with the specific procedures for making a FOIA request to the Department of Justice, and includes the mailing address of the FOIA offices of each DOJ component. This guide also contains descriptions of the types of records maintained by each component. A listing of published law review articles on the Freedom of Information Act, commencing with pre-1970 articles and listing articles following that in chronological order through 2002 is available on the DOJ website in PDF format. See also Freedom of Information Case List, (May 2002).

     Publication: Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Reference Guide, U.S. Department of Justice. (Updated November 2003).

Gambling

     Gambling: Policing in the Casino Gaming Environment: Methods, Risks, and Challenges, by Kenneth J. Peak, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (May 2015).

Gangs

     Gangs: "Findings From the Evaluation of OJJDP's Gang Reduction Program" (NCJ 230106, 20 pp.) presents findings from the Urban Institute's evaluation of the Gang Reduction Program's work to reduce gang-related street crime in four cities across the country. The program is designed to address youth's needs and emphasizes the importance of changes in youth's families, communities, and organizations. (OJJDP)

     Gangs: A new National League of Cities toolkit on "Preventing Gang Violence and Building Communities Where Young People Thrive" is now available. (2009). The toolkit draws on lessons learned over the past three years from the California Cities Gang Prevention Network. The 13-city network was formed in 2007.

     Gangs: According to the 2009 National Gang Threat Assessment released by the National Gang Intelligence Center (NGIC) and the National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC), approximately one million gang members belonging to more than 20,000 gangs were criminally active in the U.S. as of September 2008. The assessment was developed through analysis of available federal, state, and local law enforcement information; 2008 NDIC National Drug Threat Survey (NDTS) data; and verified open source information. The following agencies contributed to the report: the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives; Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance; Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics; Department of Justice, Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force; Drug Enforcement Administration; Federal Bureau of Investigation; Federal Bureau of Prisons; National Drug Intelligence Center; National Gang Intelligence Center; Office of National Drug Control Policy, High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas; United States Army Criminal Investigations Division; United States Customs and Border Protection; United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement; United States Marshals Service; numerous sate and local law enforcement agencies; and the Canada Border Service Agency.

     Gangs: Report: "Public Enemy Number 1: California's Growing Racist Gang," (2007) by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) discusses a white supremacist gang which is an "unusual hybrid of a racist skinhead gang, a violent white street gang, and a prison gang" which has grown substantially in recent years. The gang was the target of a December 14, 2006 series of search and arrest warrants executed by nearly 300 police officers from two dozen federal and local law enforcement agencies in Southern California at 75 different locations, resulting in the arrests of 67 alleged members of the gang "Public Enemy Number 1 (PENI)." The raids occurred after information was uncovered concerning an alleged PENI "hit list" with the names of a prosecutor and five police officers from several different departments.

     Prison Gangs: White Supremacist Prison Gangs in the United States, A Preliminary Inventory, by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) (May 2016).

     Publication: 2005 National Gang Threat Assessment. (2005, 74 pages, PDF). The purpose of the 2005 National Gang Threat Assessment is to provide a national and regional picture of the threat posed by gangs. It is anticipated that this document will help federal, state, and local policymakers and law enforcement administrators to better understand the dimensions of the gang problem and assist them in formulating policy and allocating resources most wisely. The National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations (NAGIA), with funding and guidance from the Bureau of Justice Assistance and its partner agencies within the Department of Justice including the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the National Drug Intelligence Center, conducted this threat assessment and prepared this report. NAGIA is a cooperative organization currently composed of representatives from 16 regional gang investigators associations representing over 15,000 gang investigators across the country, as well as federal agencies and other organizations involved in gang-related matters.

     Publications: COPS Gangs Toolkit. The COPS Gangs Toolkit, consists of five publications, and provides details of community policing solutions to youth crime and school violence. The topics covered are: Addressing School-Related Crime and Disorder, Bullying in Schools, Disorderly Youth in Public Places, Graffiti, Gun Violence Among Serious Offenders, as well as a Parents Quick Reference Card. Each publication can be downloaded in .PDF format, or ordered from the U.S. Department of Justice Response Center at 800.421.6770.

     Publication: "Early Precursors of Gang Membership: A Study of Seattle Youth," produced by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), (December 2001) draws on data from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study of youth living in high-crime neighborhoods, to assess risk factors for youth gang membership. Identifying early precursors of gang membership can facilitate the development of more effective interventions to prevent youth gang membership and combat juvenile crime. This bulletin, part of OJJDP’s Youth Gang Series, analyzes the relationship between risk factors present in the lives of 10-to 12-year-old youth and the probability of their participation in gangs later in life. The implications of this analysis for the design of successful prevention strategies also are explored. For a copy of this 6-page bulletin (NCJ 190106), contact the National Criminal Justice Reference Service at 800-851-3420. Or, access this publication at OJJDP’s Web site at http://ojjdp.ncjrs.org/pubs/gangsum.html#190106.

     Statistics: Violence by Gang Members, 1993-2003 Provides estimates of the number and rate of violent crimes committed by offenders that victims perceived to be members of gangs based on the National Crime Victimization Survey data. This Crime Data Brief also presents information on demographic characteristics of the victims of violence by gang members such as race, age, and gender, and characteristics of the incident such as police notification and number of offenders. Trends in violence by gang members are also examined. 06/05 NCJ 208875 Acrobat file (91K) | ASCII file (4K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 4K)

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Persons

     Hate Crimes: Hate Violence Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and HIV-Affected Communities in 2011: A Report from the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs," (2011). The report showed a 13 percent increase over 2009 in violent crimes committed against people because of their perceived or actual sexual orientation, gender identity or status as HIV positive. Last year's homicide count reached 27, up from 22 in 2009, and was the second-highest total since the coalition began tracking such crimes in 1996. Of those killed, 70 percent were minorities and 44 percent were transgender women.

     Homosexual Youth: "Criminal Justice and School Sanctions Against Nonheterosexual Youth: A National Longitudinal Study," by Kathryn W. Himmelstein and Hannah Bruckner, Pediatrics (Jan. 2011). The article states that lesbian, bisexual and gay youth are singled out more than their heterosexual counterparts for punishment from authorities, including police and school officials, according to a new study. It found that lesbian, gay and bisexual adolescents are about 40% more likely to be expelled from school, arrested by police and convicted by courts than their peers.

     Report:  "Stonewalled – still demanding respect: Police abuses against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in the USA," by Amnesty International. (March 23, 2006).

Gender Equality

     Gender Bias: Identifying and Preventing Gender Bias in Law Enforcement Response to Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence, U.S. Department of Justice (December 15, 2015),

     Gender Equality: N.Y.C. Police Department memo prohibiting the arrest of women for going topless in public (Feb. 7, 2013), based on a prior N.Y. Court of Appeals decision holding that equality of the sexes mandated that women be allowed to appear topless in public for noncommercial purposes, since men were allowed to. People v. Santorelli, #115, 880 N.Y.2d 875, 600 N.E.2d 232, 587 N.Y.S.2d 601 (1992).

Government Secrecy

     Government Secrecy:
"An Inquiry into the Dynamics of Government Secrecy," by Steven Aftergood, 48 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 511 (2013).

Hate Crimes

     Extremist Activity: Building Resilience to Violent Extremism: One Community's Perspective, by Stevan M. Weine and John G. Horgan, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (April 2014).

     Hate Crimes: "Hate Crime Statistics, 2010 Annual Report," F.B.I. (November 2010).

     Hate Crimes: Hate Violence Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and HIV-Affected Communities in 2011: A Report from the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs," (2011). The report showed a 13 percent increase over 2009 in violent crimes committed against people because of their perceived or actual sexual orientation, gender identity or status as HIV positive. Last year's homicide count reached 27, up from 22 in 2009, and was the second-highest total since the coalition began tracking such crimes in 1996. Of those killed, 70 percent were minorities and 44 percent were transgender women.

Homeless Persons

     Homeless Persons: Policing the Homeless: One Community’s Strategy, by Steve Marcin, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (November 2014).

Hostage & Suicide Situations

     Article: "Suicide by Cop," by Anthony J. Pinizzotto, Edward F. Davis, and Charles E. Miller III, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 2, pgs. 8-21. (February 2005). [PDF] [HTML] "The adoption of a national definition of suicide by cop, criteria to determine what constitutes such acts, and a reporting mechanism to record them must occur to effectively address the devastation brought about by this phenomenon."

     Article: "Suicide Risk and Hostage/Barricade Situations Involving Older Persons," by Arthur A. Slatkin, Ed.D., 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 4, pgs. 26-33 (April 2003). [PDF format]. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, beginning with the June 2001 issues, is also available online in .html format, as well as PDF.

     Hostage Negotiation: “Crisis” or “Hostage” Negotiation? The Distinction Between Two Important Terms, By Jeff Thompson, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2014).

     Hostage Negotiations: "Understanding Stockholm Syndrome" by Nathalie de Fabrique, Stephen J. Romano, Gregory M. Vecchi, and Vincent B. Van Hasselt, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 7, pg. 10 (July 2007). "Crisis negotiators can gain an understanding of this complex phenomenon and successfully address situations where it occurs."

    Publication: National Institute of Justice, NIJ Journal Issue No. 254 Posted July 7, 2006 When a Zylon-based body armor that had passed NIJ standards failed to fully protect an officer in 2003, NIJ began investigating why. The newest NIJ Journal features an article about the findings of the investigation as well as interim changes to the standards and testing program. Another article summarizes findings from an NIJ-sponsored conference about suicide terrorism. The conference brought together experts in the field to discuss findings and share views on suicide terrorism, what compels individuals to join terrorist organizations, and the utility of a central database of research on the topic. Additional stories feature: Biometric-based identification used by a school in New Jersey to keep its students safer. A method for minimizing the costs and risks of conducting evaluations. Ways to better investigate electronic crimes. Methamphetamine use and production. Increased reports of rape involving people who know each other. Full Text HTML

Housing Issues

     Housing and Public Safety: "A Full Response to an Empty House: Public Safety Strategies for Addressing Mortgage Fraud and the Foreclosure Crisis" (NCJ 230465, 42 pp.) provides an overview of law enforcement and government responses to mortgage fraud, foreclosure, and abandoned property. (BJA).

Human Trafficking

     Human Trafficking: International Efforts by Police Leadership to Combat Human Trafficking by Michael Pittaro and Anthony Normore, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (June 2016).

     Human Trafficking: Human Trafficking Task Force Strategy e-Guide: Strengthening Collaborative Responses (NCJ 248467), Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office for Victims of Crime (October 2014).

     Human Trafficking: "Identifying Challenges to Improve the Investigation and Prosecution of State and Local Human Trafficking Cases: Executive Summary," by Colleen Owens, Meredith Dank, William Adams, Additional Authors (Urban Institute, April 30, 2012).

     Human Trafficking: In conjunction with National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month (January 2011), OVC and BJA have released the Anti-Human Trafficking Task Force Strategy and Operations e-Guide. This guide will support the work of multidisciplinary anti-human trafficking task forces around the country.

Identity Theft

     Article: "Identity Theft and the Police Response: The Problem," by Ed Dadisho, Los Angeles Police Department sergeant, Police Chief magazine (January 2005). The first of a three-part series on the issue, appearing in the January, February, and March issues of the publication. The January article addresses the problem; the February article addresses prevention and the March article addresses the investigation.

     Identity Theft: President Obama has signed into law the "Social Security Protection Act of 2011," aimed at reducing identity theft by prohibiting government agencies from printing social security numbers on checks and prohibiting prison inmates' access to social security numbers.

     Identity Theft: "Victims of Identity Theft, 2008" (NCJ 231680, 20 pp. Dec. 2010) presents findings from the 2008 Identity Theft Supplement (ITS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The NCVS/ITS used interviews from a nationally representative sample of about 56,500 U.S. household residents to collect the first BJS data on individual victims of identity theft.

     Identity Theft: "Expanding Services To Reach Victims of Identity Theft and Financial Fraud" (NCJ 230590) offers practical tools to prepare victim service providers to help victims of identity theft and financial fraud. This publication includes information about developing case protocols, training staff, and staging campaigns; it also provides self-help materials to enable victims to become better self-advocates.

     Identify Theft: "The Social Security Card Application Process: Identity and Credit Card Fraud Issues" By Richard A. Ballezza, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pgs. 11-15 (May 2007). "Suspects have attempted to exploit the social security card application process."

     Identity Theft: Combating Identity Theft: A Strategic Plan. On April 23, 2007, Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales and Federal Trade Commission Chairman Deborah Platt Majoras announced the release of the President's Identity Theft Task Force report Combating Identity Theft: A Strategic Plan. The reports contains recommendations designed to strengthen the efforts of federal, state, and local law enforcement officers; educate consumers and businesses on deterring, detecting, and defending against identity theft; assist law enforcement officers in apprehending and prosecuting identity thieves; and increase the safeguards employed by federal agencies and the private sector with respect to the personal data with which they are entrusted.

     Publication: COPS POP Guide: Identity Theft by Graeme R. Newman (78 pgs., June 2004) [PDF] NCJ 205701 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). This guide addresses the problem of identity theft and reviews the factors that increase the risk of it. Identity theft is a new crime, facilitated through established, underlying crimes such as forgery, counterfeiting, check and credit card fraud, computer fraud, impersonation, pick pocketing, and even terrorism.

     Publication: Identity Theft, by the U.S. Postal Inspector's Office, Publication No. 280. [PDF]

      Websites: IDSafety.org, a Web site created by the IACP and Bank of America (BAC), is the first step in a three-year partnership between the IACP and BAC to help consumers and law enforcement officials better understand and respond to identity crime. The Web site's goal is to help both consumers and law enforcement officials prevent and report identity crime, investigate perpetrators, and help victims.

Immigration Law & Issues

     Immigration: "Police and Immigration: How Chiefs Are Leading their Communities through the Challenge," Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) (March 2011). PERF, a Washington-based policing research organization, conducted case studies of immigration policy development in six jurisdictions where the issue has been challenging: Phoenix and Mesa, Ariz.; Prince William County, Va.; New Haven, Conn.; Minneapolis; and Montgomery County, Md. The project, which was conducted with support from Carnegie Corporation of New York, also included a national summit convened by PERF, which produced immigration policy recommendations for local police agencies, Congress, and the Obama Administration.

     Immigration: "The Performance of 287(g) Agreements," Department of Homeland Security Office of the Inspector General (April 2, 2010). Addresses the performance of 287(g) agreements between Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and state and local law enforcement agencies, involving the delegation of federal immigration enforcement authority to state and local agencies.

     Immigration: A July 10, 2009 announcement from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security requires all 66 local police agencies empowered by the federal government to enforce immigration law ("State and Local Immigration Enforcement Partnerships") to sign a new uniform memorandum within 60 days, agreeing, among other things, to pursue criminal charges that caused an illegal immigrant's detention. The announcement also indicated that eleven additional police agencies have entered into such agreements.

     Immigration: "Constitution on ICE: A Report on Immigration Home Raid Operations," by the Immigration Justice Clinic of Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law at Yeshiva University (July 22, 2009). Alleges that there has been a prevalence of constitutional violations, including home raids without warrants or other legal authority, carried out by agents of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency. The report was prepared under the guidance of an advisory panel, chaired by Nassau County, New York, Police Commissioner Lawrence W. Mulvey. Press release on publication of the report.

     Immigration: 2009 Immigration Detention Reforms (August 6, 2009). The U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency (ICE) has announced a series of reforms of the immigration detention system designed to "address the vast majority of complaints about our immigration detention, while allowing ICE to maintain a significant, robust detention capacity to carry out serious immigration enforcement." These actions include creating an Office of Detention Policy and Planning (ODPP) to design and plan a civil detention system tailored to addresses ICE's needs. The ODPP will evaluate the entire detention system in a methodical way, with seven areas of focus, each with benchmarks for progress: •Population Management: To ensure the best location, design, and operation of facilities reflecting the unique nature of civil detention; •Detention Management: To ensure appropriate custodial conditions and address day-to-day detention functions, including classification, discipline and grievances; •Programs Management: To ensure the provision of religious services, family visitation, recreation and law libraries; •Health Care Management: To ensure the timely provision of medical, dental and mental health assessment and services; •Alternatives to Detention Management: To develop a national strategy for the effective use of alternatives to detention including community supervision; •Special Populations Management: To provide attention to women, families, the elderly and vulnerable populations; and •Accountability: To ensure ICE employees perform the core functions of detention oversight, detainee classification and discipline, and grievance review. Other immediate actions include: •Discontinued use of family detention at the T. Don Hutto Family Residential Facility in Texas. In place of housing families, we will propose that the Texas facility will be used solely as a female detention center. Presently, Hutto is used to detain families and low custody female detainees. Detained families will now be housed at Berks Family Residential Center in Pennsylvania. •Formation of two advisory groups of local and national organizations interested in ICE's detention system. These groups will provide feedback and input to the Assistant Secretary. One will focus on general policies and practices, while the other will focus on detainee health care. •Appointment of 23 detention managers to work in 23 significant facilities - facilities which collectively house more than 40 percent of our detainees. These 23 federal employees will directly monitor the facilities and ensure appropriate conditions. •Establishment of an Office of Detention Oversight (ODO) whose agents will inspect facilities and investigate detainee grievances in a neutral manner. The ODO will be part of ICE's Office of Professional Responsibility.

     Immigration Detainees: A new publication from the Immigrant Justice Network examines what it terms the “Dangerous Merger” between the criminal justice system and immigration enforcement system. The paper touches on such phenomenon as the “Criminal Alien” program and how ICE contracts with local jails allegedly increase racial profiling.

     Immigration Issues:  "Immigration Detainers - Legal Issues," Congressional Research Service Doc. #R42690 (Aug. 2012).

     Immigrants and Immigration Issues: "Secure Communities by the Numbers: An Analysis of Demographics and Due Process," by Aarti Kohli, Peter L. Markowitz and Lisa Chavez, The Chief Justice Earl Warren Institute on Law and Social Policy, University of California, Berkeley School of Law (October 2011).

     Policies and Procedures: Detention Operations Manual of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. [PDF format, downloadable by Chapter].

     Publication: Enforcing Immigration Law: The Role of State, Tribal and Local Law Enforcement. An IACP (International Association of Chiefs of Police) position paper highlights concerns about state and local law enforcement agencies enforcing federal immigration law. [PDF]

     Report: No Refuge Here: A First Look at Sexual Abuse in Immigration Detention, by Stop Prison Rape. (34 pgs., October 2004, PDF, 3.15 megabytes). A report on alleged sexual assaults in U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention facilities, which house an average of 200,000 people.

In-Custody Deaths

     Arrest Related Deaths: Arrest-Related Deaths Program Assessment: Technical Report, by Duren Banks, Caroline Blanton, Lance Couzens, and Devon Cribb, Bureau of Justice Statistics (March 3, 2015, NJCJ 248544).

     Arrest Related Deaths: Arrest-Related Deaths Program: Data Quality Profile, by Duren Banks, Caroline Blanton, Lance Couzens, Devon Cribb, and Michael Planty, Bureau of Justice Statistics (March 3, 2015, NJCJ 248543).

    In Custody Deaths: A new federal law, the Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2013, was signed as Public Law No. 113-242 (December 18, 2014).

     Statistics: Assessment of Coverage in the Arrest-Related Deaths Program, by Duren Banks, Lance Couzens, and Michael Planty, Bureau of Justice Statistics (October 8, 2015 NCJ 249099).

Insurance

     Insurance: How Private Insurers Regulate Public Police by John Rappaport (Feb. 15, 2016, 77 pp., 379 fn.).

Intellectual Property Crimes

     Report: Report of Justice Department's Intellectual Property Task Force. (October 12, 2004). [PDF]. The task force examined intellectual property issues relating to criminal law, civil law, international treaties and obligations, legislative and regulatory proposals and overall public awareness. In addition to recommendations regarding civil and antitrust enforcement of intellectual property laws, the Task Force's proposals include: (1) Charging and prosecuting all intellectual property crimes whenever federal law applies, including organized crime, fraud, and illegal importation cases, in addition to strengthening the Justice Department's ability to bring those cases; (2) Updating the legal tools that help the United States to charge IP criminals overseas under American law; (3) Encouraging respect for intellectual property rights through youth education programs; and (4) Increasing cooperation with individuals, businesses, and industries that have been victimized by IP theft.

Internet Crimes

     Cyber-Crime: Fact Sheet: Department of Justice Efforts to Combat Cyber Crimes. U.S. Department of Justice. August 5, 2008.


     Internet Crime: Internet Crimes Against Children: A Matrix and Summary of Major Federal and Select State Case Law, NIJ-Sponsored, October 2009, NCJ 228814.

     Internet Crime: 2008 Internet Crime Report (Internet Crime Complaint Center, Mar. 30, 2009). Released by the Justice Department and the FBI. The number of complaints received rose 33% in 2008 compared to the prior year: 275,284 (2008) compared to 206,884 (2007).

     Internet Crimes: Investigations Involving the Internet and Computer Networks By National Institute of Justice, January 2007. This NIJ Special Report is intended as a resource for individuals responsible for investigations involving the use of the Internet and other computer networks. Any crime could involve devices that communicate through the Internet or through a network. Criminals may use the Internet for numerous reasons, including trading/sharing information (e.g., documents, photographs), concealing their identity, and gathering information on victims. The report is among a series of guides on investigating electronic crime.

     Report: IC3 Internet Crime Report January 1, 2005-December 31, 2005. Prepared by the National White Collar Crime Center (NW3C) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). (27 pgs. April 6, 2006). Discusses complaints of computer crime in 2005, including sexual exploitation of children via the internet. The Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) is a partnership between NW3C and the FBI. Internet crime prevention tips are available on the IC3 website on auction fraud, counterfeit cashier's checks, credit card fraud, debt elimination, DHL/UPS, employment/business opportunities, escrow services fraud, identity theft, internet extortion, investment fraud, lotteries, Nigerian letter or "419" schemes, phishing/spoofing, ponzi/pyramid schemes, reshipping, spam, and third party receivers of funds. Some of the details of how these schemes work is summarized here.

Interrogation

     Article: A Four-Domain Model for Detecting Deception, An Alternative Paradigm for Interviewing," by Joe Navarro, M.A., 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 6, pgs. 19-24 (June 2003). "Investigators can focus on four domains to help them detect deception during interviews." [PDF] Also available in .html format.

     Article: "Interview Clues," by Vincent A. Sandoval, 77 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 1 (Jan., 2008), pgs. 1-9. "Individuals deliberately camouflage the truth by using words that leave an investigative trail." [.html format]

     Article: "Understanding Interrogation," by Brian Parsi Boetig and Arnold R. Bellmer. 77 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 10, pg. 17 (Oct. 2008). "Law enforcement professionals must be able to accurately define and understand the term interrogation within different contexts."

     Interrogation: When Does Handcuffing Constitute Custody for Purposes of Miranda?, by Jayme W. Holcomb, and Jayhoun Rezai, FBI Law Enforcement
Bulletin (February 2016).

     Interrogation: Exploiting Verbal Markers of Deception Across Ethnic Lines: An Investigative Tool for Cross-Cultural Interviewing, by Tony Sandoval, David Matsumoto, Hyisung C. Hwang, and Lisa Skinner, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (July 2015).

     Interrogation: Nonconfrontational Interrogation: Obtaining Confessions from Streetwise Gang Members, by John J. Guzman, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (April, 2015)

     Interrogation: Reading People: Behavioral Anomalies and Investigative Interviewing, By David Matsumoto, Lisa G. Skinner,, and Hyisung C. Hwang, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2014).

     Interrogation: "Criminal Interrogations of Police Officers After Use-of-Force Incidents," by Jeffrey J. Noble, J.D., and Geoffrey P. Alpert, FBI Law Enforcement Bulleting (September 2013).Ph.D.,

     Interrogation: "Miranda Waivers," Alameda County District Attorney (2013).

     Interrogation: "Interviewing Compliant Adolescent Victims," by Catherine S. Connell and Martha J. Finnegan, 79 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pgs. 16-20 (May 2010).

      Interrogation: "Fifth Amendment Protection and Break in Custody" by Kenneth A. Myers, 79 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pgs. 26-32 (May 2010). "Law enforcement officers must have an understanding of the legal significance of a break in custody in terms of the Fifth Amendment privilege against compelled self-incrimination."

     Interrogation: "Confessions and the Constitution," by Carl A. Benoit, 70 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 4, pgs. 23-32 (April 2010). "Law enforcement officers must understand the implications of obtaining confessions in violation of constitutional safeguards."

     Interrogation: "Avoiding Sixth Amendment Suppression," by Kenneth A. Myers, 78 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin Number 3, pgs. 23-31 (March 2009). "Officers must distinguish the protections of the Sixth Amendment with the right to counsel under the Fifth Amendment's privilege."

     Interrogation: "Civil Liability for Violations of Miranda," by Special Agent Kimberly A. Crawford, Legal Instructor, FBI Academy, 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 9, pgs. 28-32 (September 2003). [PDF] (Also available in .html format). "Law enforcement officers who conduct interrogations must maintain a full understanding of the complexities of Miranda law." 

     Interrogation: A Lawyer's Guide to the Chicago Police Department's Electronic Recording of Interrogations, by Sheri H. Mecklenburg, General Counsel to the Superintendent of the Chicago Police Department (CPD). Answers many lawyers' questions about CPD's new procedure of digitally recording custodial interrogations in places of detention of persons suspected of homicide. (July 18, 2005, 18 pgs. PDF).

     Interrogation: "Miranda: When warnings are required," 31 pgs., Point of View, published by the Alameda County, California, District Attorney's Office (Summer 2005). See also, "Miranda Exceptions," 7 pgs., Point of View (Summer 2005).

     Interrogation: "Revealing Incommunicado," by Brian Parsi Boetig, David M. Vinson, and Brad R. Weldel, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 12, p. 1 (December 2006). "Agencies should consider the benefits of electronically recording interrogation." (.html format).

     Interrogation: "The Supreme Court Brings an End to the 'End Run' Around Miranda," By Special Agent, Lucy A. Hoover, Legal Instructor, FBI Academy, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 6, pgs. 26-32 (June 2005). "Courts consider a number of factors when determining whether suspects subjected to two-tiered interrogation tactics have waived their Miranda rights knowingly, intelligently, and voluntarily." [PDF] [HTML]

Investigations of Misconduct

     Report: Report of the Special State's Attorney Appointed and Ordered by the Presiding Judge of the Criminal Division of the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois in No. 2001 Misc. 4. Edward J. Egan, Special State's Attorney, and Robert D. Boyle, Chief Deputy Special State's Attorney. 292 pgs. July 19, 2006. This report, by an independent special prosecutor appointed to investigate allegations that Chicago police officers, including a former Commander, Jon Burge, engaged in torture or other mistreatment of suspects being interrogated, concluded that five individuals could have been indicted for mistreatment of suspects in three of the probed cases, but that the statute of limitations barred prosecution. The report stated that there was evidence with "varying degrees of credibility" of abuse in approximately 74 cases during the 1970s through the 1990s, involving officers at police stations in two areas under Burge's supervision. The investigation examined 148 cases of alleged abuse in some detail, while 98 other cases were classified as beyond the scope of what the special prosecutor was appointed to do, or unfounded.

Justice Department Documents

      Department of Justice Document: DoJ Inspector General's "Memorandum on Performance Challenges: National Security, Cyber Security, Federal Prisons, Protecting Civil Rights, Fraud and Financial Offenses" (11-7-2012).

     Justice Department Documents: U.S. Justice Department findings in investigation of Puerto Rico Police Department (Sept. 2011). The investigation concluded that the Puerto Rico Police Department has engaged in a pattern and practice of misconduct that violates the Constitution and federal law, including through the use of excessive force, use of unreasonable force and other misconduct designed to suppress the exercise of protected First Amendment rights, and unconstitutional stops, searches and arrests. Press release. Executive summary and full report.

    Justice Department Documents: U.S. Department of Justice Strategic Plan, Fiscal Years 2007-2012. A description of how the USDOJ intends to achieve its three major goals during the time period covered: 1. preventing terrorism and promoting the nation's security, 2. preventing crime, enforcing federal laws, and representing the rights and interests of the people, and 3. ensuring the fair and efficient administration of justice.

     Justice Department Reports: Justice Department report on investigation of Baltimore Police Department (Aug. 10, 2016). Agreement with Baltimore P.D. in principle.

     Justice Department Reports: Department of Justice report on the Ferguson, Mo. Police Department, U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division (March 4, 2015).

     Report: U.S. Department of Justice Report on Investigation of the Easton, Pennsylvania Police Department pursuant to the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, 42 U.S.C. Sec. 14141. (November 26, 2007).

     Report: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, Semi-Annual Report to Congress, April 1, 2007-September 30, 2007. Includes sections on investigations into allegations of misconduct by various personnel of the U.S. Department of Justice, including the F.B.I., U.S. Marshals Service and Federal Bureau of Prisons. (December 3, 2007). [.html format].

Juvenile Justice and School Security

     Article: "Juvenile Arson," by Paul Zipper and David K. Wilcox, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 4, pgs. 1-9 (April 2005). "Law enforcement agencies serve an important role in the coordinated approach required to effectively address juvenile firesetting." [PDF] [HTML]

     Dating Violence: The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) offers Teen Dating Violence Special Feature, an online compilation of publications and resources on the topic.

     Juveniles: Juvenile Arrests 2008 (NCJ 228479) December 2009 Bulletin, 12 page(s). Summarizes 2008 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report Crime in the United States 2008. Overall, there were 3 percent fewer juvenile arrests in 2008 than in 2007 and juvenile violent crime arrests fell 2 percent, continuing a recent decline. One area that merits continued attention is the persistently disproportionate rate of minority contact with the juvenile justice system. The arrest rate for robbery in 2008, for example, was 10 times higher for black youth than for white youth.

     Juvenile Justice Resources: "Latest Resources From OJJDP Agency": Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (56 pages, 2003). [PDF] [.HTML] Provides a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide to information available from OJJDP. Includes an overview of the kinds of publications and other information products OJJDP makes available, an annotated listing (arranged by topic) of all publications issued during 2001 and 2002, and a list of all titles published to date in OJJDP's many special bulletin series. Also presents other types of information available from OJJDP, including the JUVJUST listserv and the bimonthly newsletter OJJDP News @ a Glance.

     Juvenile Offenders: Restorative Justice and Youthful Offenders, by David Newton, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (October 2016).

     Juvenile Offenders: "Addressing the Unmet Educational Needs of Children and Youth in the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems," by Peter Leone and Lois Weinberg, Center for Juvenile Justice Reform Georgetown University (74 pgs., May 2010).

     Juveniles: "A Pivotal Moment: Sustaining the Success and Enhancing the Future of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act," a report by the Coalition for Juvenile Justice (CJJ), the national representative organization of governor-appointed state advisory groups on juvenile justice. (Sept. 8, 2009). The report is based on survey responses from 53 distinct U.S. states and territories, and explores the current state of the federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA), as well as arguing for a recommitment by federal government to nationwide delinquency prevention and justice reform efforts. Press release on report.

    Publication: National Institute of Justice, NIJ Journal Issue No. 254 Posted July 7, 2006 When a Zylon-based body armor that had passed NIJ standards failed to fully protect an officer in 2003, NIJ began investigating why. The newest NIJ Journal features an article about the findings of the investigation as well as interim changes to the standards and testing program. Another article summarizes findings from an NIJ-sponsored conference about suicide terrorism. The conference brought together experts in the field to discuss findings and share views on suicide terrorism, what compels individuals to join terrorist organizations, and the utility of a central database of research on the topic. Additional stories feature: Biometric-based identification used by a school in New Jersey to keep its students safer. A method for minimizing the costs and risks of conducting evaluations. Ways to better investigate electronic crimes. Methamphetamine use and production. Increased reports of rape involving people who know each other. Full Text HTML

     Publication: Toward Safe and Orderly Schools—The National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools Research in Brief, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice [PDF] (November 2004). What are schools doing to prevent delinquency and promote school safety? This NIJ Research in Brief (NCJ 205005) presents findings from a national survey of elementary, middle, and secondary schools. Problem behavior is widespread and most common in urban areas and middle schools. Schools have adopted a large and diverse array of activities, curricular programs, and security measures, but many of these are unproven or poorly implemented. Key characteristics of successful programs and how schools can improve program quality and implementation are identified.

     Publication: Screening and Assessing Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Among Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Resource Guide for Practitioners (NCJ 204956) December 2004 Report, 88 pages Grisso, T., Underwood, L. A. Presents information on instruments that can be used to screen and assess youth for mental health- and substance use-related disorders at various stages of the juvenile justice process. The Guide includes profiles of more than 50 instruments, guidelines for selecting instruments, and best practice recommendations for diverse settings and situations. It is intended as a basic tool for juvenile justice professionals working toward the goal of early, accurate identification of youth with mental disorders. Once identified, these youth can receive the services required to improve their lives, reduce recidivism, and promote community safety. Available online only. PDF(1.85 MB).

     School Crisis Response: "School Crisis Response Initiative," (September 2003). This Office for Victims of Crime bulletin describes how trained school personnel and community members can provide students with triage, counseling, and referral to community services after traumatic events. For the full document in .PDF format, click here.


     School Violence: "Addressing School Violence," by Brandi Booth, Vincent B. Van Hasselt, and Gregory M. Vecchi, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (May 2011). "Investigators can make accurate threat assessments in school settings by recognizing the warning signs."

     Statistics: Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2008. Presents data on crime and safety at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population. A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics, this annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It also provides the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools, school environments, and responses to violence and crime at school. Data are drawn from several federally funded collections including the National Crime Victimization Survey, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, School Survey on Crime and Safety, and School and Staffing Survey. Information was gathered from an array of sources including: - National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) (1992-2006) - School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (1995, 1991, 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007) - Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007) - School Survey on Crime and Safety (1999-2000, 2003-04, and 2005-06) - School and Staffing Survey (1993-94, 1999-2000, and 2003-04). Highlights include the following: In 2006, among students ages 12–18, there were about 1.7 million victims of nonfatal crimes at school, including 909,500 thefts and 767,000 violent crimes (simple assault and serious violent crime). In 2007, 8 percent of students in grades 9–12 reported being threatened or injured with a weapon in the previous 12 months, and 22 percent reported that illegal drugs were made available to them on school property. During the 2005–06 school year, 86 percent of public schools reported that at least one violent crime, theft, or other crime occurred at their school. 04/09 NCJ 226343. Acrobat file (1.85M) | ASCII file (217K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 87K).

     Statistics: Lauritsen, J.,. "How Families and Communities Influence Youth Victimization." 12 pgs. [PDF] Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Released: December 15, 2003. Examines how individual, family, and community factors influence the risk for nonlethal violence among U.S. youth ages 12–17. Drawing on data from a special release of the National Crime Victimization Survey, this Juvenile Justice Bulletin studies risk factors among youth of different racial and ethnic groups and analyzes which risk factors are the most significant for understanding violent victimization. By examining the connection between such factors and the risk for violent victimization, the Bulletin shows that disadvantaged communities with high proportions of young people and single-parent families experience the greatest difficulty in protecting youth from victimization.

Law Enforcement History

     Article: "The Birth of the Federal Bureau of Investigation," by John F. Fox, Ph.D., Office of Public/Congressional Affairs (July 2003). An interesting historical article, illustrated with photographs, and with 21 footnotes containing sources. Also on the FBI's website for the first time is a selection of historical documents from the Bureau's founding. As part of the FBI's celebration of the 95th anniversary of its founding, it is also featuring links to FBI History, Significant dates in FBI History, and Famous Historical Cases involving the Bureau. See also Directors, Then and Now (photos of FBI directors from the beginning to the present day, with links to their on-line biographies).

     History: The History of Policing by Lieutenant Raymond E. Foster, LAPD (ret.) (58 pgs. 2009).

     History: The FBI: A Centennial History, 1908-2008. This 132-page book traces the history of the FBI. While hardcover or paperback copies are available from the Government Printing Office, it is also available free of charge on-line, either as a printable .pdf or in a text-only format. Also of interest: The FBI History website, containing various materials on the FBI's past 100 years.

     Historical Materials: Biographies of the first U.S. Marshals appointed by President George Washington on September 24, 1789, following the passage of the first Judiciary Act. From this small group of 13 Marshals, the U.S. Marshals Service has grown today to more than 4,500 Marshals nationwide. The Service has begun a year long celebration of their agency's 215th anniversary as the nation's oldest federal law enforcement agency.

     Terrorism and National Security Issues: "Terrorism: Major Cases Past and Present," a page on the FBI website with links to information about terrorism cases the FBI has been involved in from the 1920s to the present.

Lineups

     Eyewitness Lineups: "A Test of the Simultaneous vs. Sequential Lineup Methods - An Initial Report of the AJS National Eyewitness Identification Field Studies," by Gary L. Wells, Nancy K. Steblay, and Jennifer E. Dysart, American Judicature Society (September 2011).

Litigation Documents

       Litigation Documents: The U.S. Department of Justice has filed a lawsuit against Arizona's Maricopa County and its Sheriff Joe Arpaio alleging that they have refused to provide information or cooperate in the DOJ's investigation of alleged racial profiling by police in Maricopa County -- specifically, alleged discrimination based on perceived country of origin. The complaint asserts that the sheriff's office is obligated to provide information and comply with the DOJ's investigation as a condition of federal funding it receives.

     Litigation Documents: U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division: Investigation of the Prince George's County (Md.) Police Department 1. January 22, 2004 Memorandum of Agreement (PDF), 2. Consent Decree [PDF], 3. Complaint [PDF]. The memorandum discusses general policy on responding to incidents involving mentally ill persons, use of force policies (including use of Oleoresin Capsicum), evaluation, documentation and review of uses of force, training, receipt, investigation and review of misconduct allegations, management and supervision, and monitoring, reporting, and implementation of the agreement. The separate Consent Decree concerns the use of canines, and covers canine section policy and procedures (including guard and bark methodology, deployments, warnings, recording and evaluating canine bites, and accountability, as well as review of canine deployments, training, management and supervision, and monitoring, reporting, and implementation). The Complaint concerns the County Police Department's use of canines. Press release concerning the agreement and consent decree also available. "The agreements require widespread reform in PGPD’s use of canines and force. In addition to establishing policies governing the use of canines and the use of force, these agreements also establish specific training requirements and accountability practices. Most notably, the agreements will require PGPD to take the following steps: reform its use of force policies, as well as its training, reporting, and accountability procedures; adopt and implement a “guard and bark” methodology for canines, whereby canines will locate suspects and hold them at bay by barking loudly; use of biting is restricted to specific incidents where necessary for arrest or safety of officers or civilians; create a special board to review all firearm discharges; operate a system to manage risk regarding officer performance; effectively review canine bites and other related activity; and investigate and review misconduct allegations."

     Memorandum of Agreement: Memorandum of Agreement Between the United States Department of Justice and the City of Buffalo, New York and the Buffalo Police Department, the Police Benevolent Association, Inc., and the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees Local 264, September 19, 2002. The agreement provides for a cooperative effort by DOJ, the City, the BPD, the PBA and Local 264 to establish management practices by the City and BPD that promote lawful use of chemical agent propellant ("CAP") spray and community support for the BPD and its officers. The agreement was entered into pursuant to the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, 42 U.S.C. § 14141, and resolves the DOJ's investigation into the BPD's use of CAP spray.

    Web document: Resolution of the DoJ's "pattern and practice" litigation against the Columbus Div. of Police (2002).

     Web document: DoJ's proposed stipulation Order and the Consent Decree governing the Pittsburgh Police Dept. (2002).

Management Issues

     Article: "Physical Fitness," by Daniel E. Shell, Special Projects Coordinator for the Division of Public Safety Leadership, Johns Hopkins University, and retired lieutenant, Maryland State Police, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pgs. 27- (May 2005). "By addressing several important issues, department leaders can properly plan an effective physical fitness program for their officers." [PDF] [HTML]

     Article: "Managing the Problem Employee," by Thomas Q. Weitzel, 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 11, pgs. 25-33 (November 2004). [PDF] "Law enforcement agencies need to know how to recognize and effectively handle problem employees. Also available in .html format.

     Article: Best Practices for Institutionalizing Mentoring into Police Departments by Police Chief Harvey Sprafka and Lt. April Krana. International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) 1/23/2003 (PDF format). This document is written to provide chiefs from smaller police departments with a step-by-step method for institutionalizing mentoring within their agency.

     Book: Best Practices in Law Enforcement Public Information For the first time in many years, the IACP has returned to publishing with the production of a new book. Drawing from the experience of police chiefs, their public information officers, and media personnel, this book illustrates the importance of having an effective police-media relationship. It provides the modern police executive with a comprehensive guide for developing, maintaining, and improving this critical relationship. $24.95 IACP members, $29.95 non-members (2006). To order a copy, click here or Contact Lucinda Scott, 1-800-THE-IACP ext.267 or scott@theiacp.org.

     Management Resources: "Free Resources for Smaller Agencies," by Paul D. Schultz, Chief of Police, Lafayette, Colorado, January 2007 Police Chief Magazine. Free resources can be force multipliers. These resources can improve officer safety and effectiveness, improve the level of service, reduce liability and make communities safer.

     Management Resources: "Budgeting in Smaller Police Agencies," by Chief W. Dwayne Orrick, Cordele, Georgia Police Department, in Big Ideas for Smaller Police Departments (Winter 2004), a quarterly publication of the International Association of Chief’s of Police (IACP). [PDF]

     Police Reforms: "Making Police Reforms Endure," by Trent Ikerd and Samuel Walker, I.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), April, 2010. "Presents a framework that other police departments can use and test in their efforts to institutionalize police reforms."

     Publication: "Research for Practice, How Police Supervisory Styles Influence Patrol Officer Behavior," by Robin Shepard Engel, National Institute of Justice, June 2003. (ASCII Text File) (PDF File).

     Publication: Strategic Planning Best Practices Guide The IACP Research Center Directorate’s Smaller Police Department Technical Assistance Program, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance, has published a new Best Practices Guide in its series entitled “Strategic Planning: Building Strong Police-Community Partnerships in Small Towns”. The guide is written by program advisor, Chief David L. Kurz, Durham Police Department, New Hampshire. Visit the Smaller Agency Website to access this or all guides in the series. Contact Elaine Deck, Program Manager, at 800-THE-IACP, ext. 262, or decke@theiacp.org.

     Publication: Principles for Promoting Police Integrity (PDF)-- examples of promising police practices and policies. U.S. Department of Justice, January 2001. Contains discussion of the use of force, complaints and misconduct investigations, promoting accountability and effective management, training, non-discriminatory policing and data collection, recruitment, hiring and retention.

     Publication: "Problem-Solving Tips: A Guide to Reducing Crime and Disorder Through Problem-Solving Partnerships" serves as a reference for those implementing a problem-solving approach to reduce crime and disorder through partnerships. A proactive, problem-solving approach, such as community policing, attempts to determine the root cause of a problem to prevent it from happening again. This guide, presented by the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), contains insights into every stage of the process, most of which draw from the experiences of law enforcement officers. This guide can be accessed electronically at http://www.cops.usdoj.gov; the U.S. Department of Justice Response Center provides availability and ordering information at 800-421-6770.

     Publication: Managing a Multijurisdictional Case: Identifying the Lessons Learned from the Sniper Investigation, by Gerard R. Murphy and Chuck Wexler, with Heather J. Davies and Martha Plotkin, an Office of Justice Program, BJA-supported publication, has been released by the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF). The report details a number of "lessons learned" and recommendations on how other police agencies can prepare for high-profile crimes that involve multiple jurisdictions. The report is based on the experiences detailed by more than 100 individuals closest to the DC sniper case, as well as focus groups and extensive information collection efforts. October 2004, 210 pgs. [PDF]

     Publication: Police Chief's Desk Reference: A Guide for Newly Appointed Police Leaders. International Association of Chiefs of Police New Police Chief Mentoring Project. Includes sections on IACP Resources, Leadership, Ethics, Policy and Procedures, Best Practices Guides, Funding, Accreditation, and other resources. 350 pgs. [PDF]

     Report: "Lessons Learned From Early Corrections and Law Enforcement Family Support (CLEFS) Programs," by Robert P. Delprino Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Buffalo State College, S.U.N.Y. 51 pgs. (Feb. 2002). [PDF format] This report summarizes lessons learned from the experience of 32 grants awarded by the National Institute of Justice since 1996 to address the negative effects of stress experienced by law enforcement and correctional officers and their families under the Corrections and Law Enforcement Family Support (CLEFS) Program developed in response to Section 2301 of the 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Assistance Act.

     Reports: Top Management Challenges Facing the U.S. Department of Justice. (Nov. 5, 2003). An annual memorandum by the Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Justice.

     Risk Management: "Innovations in Police Accountability: An Exploratory Study of Risk Management and Police Legal Advising," by Carol A. Archbold, Ph.D., Social and Cultural Sciences, Marquette Univ. (2002). [PDF]

     Report: "Problem Analysis in Policing" introduces and defines problem analysis and provides guidance on how problem analysis can be integrated and institutionalized into modern policing practices. The 64-page report is not a how-to guide on conducting problem analysis, but is a summary of what problem analysis is; what skills and knowledge are necessary to conduct it; and how it can be advanced by the law enforcement community, academia, the federal government, and other institutions. The ideas and recommendations in this report come primarily from a 2-day forum conducted in February 2002 by the Police Foundation and the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) that brought a group of academics, practitioners, and policy makers together to discuss problem analysis and make recommendations for its progress. This report is a culmination of the concepts and ideas discussed in the forum and includes specific, relevant statements made by participants. This publication is only available electronically at http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?Open=True&Item=847.

     Publication: Hiring and Retention Issues in Police Agencies: Readings on the Determinants of Police Strength, Hiring and Retention of Officers, and the Federal COPS Program. National Criminal Justice Reference Service (7/2003), NCJ 193428. PDF File

     Spiritual Survival Tools: Value of Spiritual Survival Tools for Law Enforcement Officers, by Cary A. Friedman, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (July 2016).

     Videotape: The Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), "Operation Cooperation: Partnerships Between Law Enforcement and Private Security." This BJA video tape presents an overview of Operation Cooperation, a national initiative designed to encourage partnerships between law enforcement agencies and private security professionals. It describes why cooperation is essential for public safety, what benefits arise from cooperation, what is being done already, and how to establish new partnerships. It also elaborates on four key elements of Operation Cooperation (networking, partnering problem solving, cross-fertilization, information sharing) and presents examples of partnerships in several states. This VHS videotape (NCJ 189103) is available from the National Criminal Justice Reference Service at 800-851-3420.

Media Issues

     Media and Law Enforcement: Ethical Guidelines for Covering Law Enforcement Actions. Ethical Guidelines for Reporting Bomb Threats. Ethical Guidelines for Airing 911 calls. The Radio-Television News Directors Association (RTNDA), The Association of Electronic Journalists. http://www.rtnda.org

     Media Issues:  "Working with the Media in Times of Crisis," by James D. Sewell, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 3, pgs. 1-6 (March 2007). "Agencies can follow several key principles to ensure that they are ready to handle media attention." [.html version]

    Social Media: The International Association of Chiefs of Police, in partnership with the U.S. Justice Department's Bureau of Justice Assistance, has launched the IACP Center for Social Media, a project to build the capacity of law enforcement to use social media to help prevent and solve crimes, strengthen police-community relations, recruit employees, and enhance services. The new website www.IACPsocialmedia.org includes free resources such as a model policy, fact sheets, case studies and instructional tutorials.

Mental Illness

     Mental Illness: Responding to Persons with Mental Illness or in Crisis, by Lisa Judge, presentation at the IACP Legal Officers' Section, Chicago, Illinois (October, 2015).

     Mental Health: The Importance of Mental Health Training in Law Enforcement, by Nicholas Wilcox, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (July 2015).

     Mental Illness: Encountering Mentally Ill People and Potential Liability under the ADA, by Michael J. Oh, Police Chief (Jul. 2014).

     Mental Illness: "Statewide Law Enforcement/Mental Health Efforts: Strategies to Support and Sustain Local Initiatives," Council of State Governments Justice Center (January 8, 2013).

     Mental Illness: A law enforcement guide for dealing with mentally ill people was issued in May, 2009 by The Council of State Governments' Justice Center. The guide translates research findings to help policymakers and practitioners develop safe and effective interventions. Supported by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, it reviews the scope and nature of the problem and a range of law enforcement responses.

     Mental Illness: "Police Practice: Moving Past What to How -- the Next Step in Responding to Individuals with Mental Illness," by Douglas Gentz, Ph.D. and William S. Goree, 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 11, pgs. 14-18. [PDF].

     Mentally Ill Persons: "Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: Tailoring Law Enforcement Initiatives to Individual Jurisdictions," BJA-Sponsored, March 2010, NCJ 229713. (68 pages).

     Publication: Screening and Assessing Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Among Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Resource Guide for Practitioners (NCJ 204956) December 2004 Report, 88 pages Grisso, T., Underwood, L. A. Presents information on instruments that can be used to screen and assess youth for mental health- and substance use-related disorders at various stages of the juvenile justice process. The Guide includes profiles of more than 50 instruments, guidelines for selecting instruments, and best practice recommendations for diverse settings and situations. It is intended as a basic tool for juvenile justice professionals working toward the goal of early, accurate identification of youth with mental disorders. Once identified, these youth can receive the services required to improve their lives, reduce recidivism, and promote community safety. Available online only. PDF(1.85 MB).

Money Laundering

     Money Laundering: "Money Laundering and Asset Forfeiture," by Douglas Leff, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (April 2012).

     Money Laundering: 2007 National Money Laundering Strategy. Report describing current efforts of federal agencies, including the Department of the Treasury, Justice Department, and Department of Homeland Security to combat money laundering. Discusses goals, including continuing to safeguard the banking system, enhancing financial transparency in money services businesses, stemming the flow of illicit bulk cash out of the U.S., attacking trade-based money laundering at home and abroad, promoting transparency in the ownership of legal entities, examining the anti-money laundering regulatory oversight and enforcement at casinos, implementing and enforcing anti-money laundering regulations for the insurance industry, and supporting global anti-money laundering capacity building and enforcement efforts, as well as improving "how we measure our progress." Includes appendixes on U.S. money laundering threat assessment, anti-money laundering statistics, law enforcement data and intelligence centers, and the strategic use of asset forfeiture. (112 pgs. pdf format).

     Publication: U.S. Money Laundering Threat Assessment, (81 pgs., December 2005). The first U.S. government-wide analysis of money laundering in the U.S. The report is the product of an interagency working group composed of experts from the spectrum of U.S. government agencies, bureaus, and offices that study and combat money laundering. [PDF]

Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy

     Article: "Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy" by Deborah Chiczewski and Michael Kelly, 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 8, page 20-24 (August 2003). "Law enforcement officers can help protect children by learning to identify behavioral artifacts of MSBP." (Sergeant Chiczewski is an investigator in the Chicago Children’s Advocacy Center, an affiliation of the Chicago, Illinois, Police Department, while Deputy Chief Kelly serves with the Hinsdale, Illinois, Fire Department.).

     Article: Melissa A. Prentice, Note, "Prosecuting Mothers Who Maim and Kill: The Profile of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy Litigation in the Late 1990s," 28 Am. J. Crim. L. 373, 376 (2001).

     Article: E. Selene Steelman, Note, "A Question of Revenge: Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy and a Proposed Diminished Capacity Defense for Homicidal Mothers," 8 Cardozo Women's L.J. 261, 262-63 (2002).

     Website: Mothers Against Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy Allegations (a website advocating the point of view that this syndrome does not actually exist, or is exaggerated).

Native Americans

     Article: "Enforcing Criminal Law on Native American Lands," by M. Wesley Clark, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 4, pgs. 22-31 (April 2005). "Policing in and adjacent to land within 'Indian country' depends on a variety of factors" [PDF]

     Native Americans: Census of Tribal Justice Agencies in Indian Country, 2002 Presents detailed information gathered on tribal law enforcement agencies, tribal courts and services, and criminal record systems from the 2002 Census of Tribal Justice Agencies in American Indian Jurisdictions. This project represents one of several components of BJS' on-going program to improve justice statistics and criminal history record information systems in Indian country. The report includes data on the number of law enforcement agencies and officers; characteristics of tribal courts and their caseloads; types of available criminal sanctions; and criminal justice statistics data collection and sharing capacity. The census collected data from nearly 350 tribes in the continental U.S. and is the first comprehensive effort to identify the range of justice agencies operating in tribal jurisdictions, the services those agencies provide, and the types of information systems maintained. Highlights include the following: 165 of the 314 responding tribes employed 1 or more full-time sworn officers with general arrest powers. An estimated 59% (188) of the 314 tribes had some form of judicial system. About 23% (71) of the responding tribes provided their own detention function. About two-thirds relied on local or county agencies to provide a jail or detention facility. 12/05 NCJ 205332. Acrobat file (337K) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 60K)

     Native American Law Enforcement: "Tribal Jurisdiction over Nonmembers: A Legal Overview," Congressional Research Service (Nov. 2013).

Natural Disasters & Health Care Emergencies

     Health Care Emergencies: "Police Planning for an Influenza Pandemic: Case Studies and Recommendations from the Field," by Andrea M. Luna, Corina Sole Brito, and Elizabeth A. Sanberg (PERF Oct. 2007). The Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) has recently advised that this publication may be helpful in preparing for a law enforcement role in responding to a swine flu pandemic.

     National Strategy Plan. A plan released by the White House and Homeland Security Council discusses how the U.S. government would deal with a flu pandemic, and discusses "critical steps" to be taken immediately and in the future to prepare for such a pandemic. (May 3, 2006).

     Report: Department of Homeland Security's Inspector General's report on FEMA's disaster response to Hurricane Katrina. The report states that FEMA should improve its organizational ability, disaster readiness response and planning, and staffing, and states that FEMA currently lacks sufficient plans and staff to adequately respond to catastrophic disasters. (218 pgs. April 14, 2006).

911 and 311 Phone Systems

     Arrest and Imprisonment: "Detentions Based on 911 Calls," 12 pgs., Point of View, published by the Alameda County, California, District Attorney's Office (Spring 2005).

     Article: 911 Homicide Calls and Statement Analysis, by Susan H. Adams and Tracy Harpster, 77 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 6, pgs. 22-31 (June 2008). "911 homicide calls can provide valuable clues to investigators because the caller, in fact, may be the killer." [PDF format]

     Publication: Calling 311: Guidelines for Policymakers. "Do 311 call systems reduce the 911 call burden? Will citizens use 311 appropriately, saving 911 for true emergencies? The answer appears to be 'yes,' according to a study sponsored by NIJ. During the first year of operating its 311 system, Baltimore police saw a 99-percent drop in lowest priority calls to 911. This Research for Policy discusses the researchers' findings, focusing on key considerations for police managers and public policymakers." (February 2005). NIJ. [PDF]

     Publication: Effective Police Communications Systems Require New "Governance" This National Institute of Justice fact sheet describes how police departments effectively communicate with each other to protect and serve citizens. To do that, police departments create "governance" agreements to jointly own, operate and manage communications systems for the benefit of all participating agencies, which may be in different counties or states. This fact sheet also describes a history of public safety communication and how communication continues to evolve in the present and the future. (June 2008, NCJ 222362)

     Publication: Managing Calls to the Police With 911/311 Systems. "Implementing a 311 call system can help police better manage citizen calls and determine the appropriate response, according to a recent NIJ study. Researchers found that given an effective public information campaign, citizens will divert most nonemergency calls from 911 to 311. But capitalizing on this major change in citizen reporting requires careful planning and organizational changes. This Research for Practice summarizes the researchers' key findings and recommendations, with practical considerations for police officers and managers." (February 2005). NIJ. [PDF].

Non-Lethal Weapons

     Article: "Deaths During Police Intervention," by Richard Parent, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 4, pgs. 18-22 (April 2006). "Research has pointed out the importance of recognizing that some methods of less lethal force and body restraint may increase the risk of death." [PDF] [.html]

     Electronic Control Weapons: COPS 2011 Electronic Control Weapon Guidelines (April 7, 2011).

     Electronic Weapons: The respiratory, metabolic, and neuroendocrine effects of a new generation electronic control device [TASER X3], Donald Dawes, et al., 207 (1) Forensic Science International 55-60 (Apr. 15, 2011). Abstract.

     Electronic Weapons: Police Use of Force, Tasers and Other Less-Lethal Weapons (NIJ pdf, 28 pages, May 2011)

     Electronic Weapons: Study of Deaths Following Electro Muscular Disruption (NIJ pdf, 74 pages, May 2011)

     Electronic Weapons: Report of the Nova Scotia Panel of Mental Health and Medical Experts Review of Excited Delirium (June 30, 2009). Discusses the phenomena referred to as excited delirium in the context of the use of conducted energy devices (CEDs) on persons displaying agitated, aggressive, irrational conduct.

     Electronic Weapons: The April 2008 issue of the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 77, Number 4 (April 2008), contains three articles concerning laser weapons: "Laser Weapons" by Robert J. Bunker and Dan Lindsay, page 2 ("no longer relegated to the realm of science fiction, laser devices have become weapons with potentially deadly consequences."); "Disruptive and Destructive Effects of Laser Illuminations," by Matt Bert, Lisa Campbell, and Sid Heal, page 10 ("whether wielded intentionally by terrorists or mischievously by citizens, laser devices can produce potentially lethal results."); and "Laser Legal Issues," by Madelyn I. Sawyer and John P. Sullivan, page 18("deterring and prosecuting criminal laser strikes requires a unified effort among local, state, and federal authorities."). The above link is to a .pdf version of the publication. For a version in .html, click here.

     Flashlights: "Use of Force and High-Intensity Tactical Police Flashlights," by R. Paul McCauley, Ph.D., Professor of Criminology, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, Pennsylvania, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 11 (Nov. 2005), pgs. 10-12. [PDF] Also available in .html format.

     Less Lethal Weapons: "Taking Tasers Seriously: The Need for Better Regulation of Stun Guns in New York," New York Civil Liberties Union (October 2011).

     Less Lethal Weapons: "Police Use of Force: The Impact of Less-Lethal Weapons and Tactics," by Philip Bulman, NIJ Journal, Issue #267, pg. 4 (Winter 2010). The article discusses less-lethal alternatives like conducted energy devices (e.g., Tasers) in use of force situations. The article reviews the results of an extensive study on the use of Conducted Energy Devices (CEDs) by multiple police departments.

      Less-Than-Lethal Weapons: IACP Executive Brief on Electro-Muscular Disruption Technology (EMDT), entitled: "Electro-Muscular Disruption Technology: A Nine Step Strategy For Effective Deployment." (25 pages). The increased use of these less than lethal weapons has raised concerns about the safety of EMDT devices – devices that use a high-voltage, low power charge of electricity to induce involuntary muscle contractions causing temporary incapacitation. The IACP has developed an Executive Brief to inform law enforcement leadership on deployment challenges surrounding EMDT technology. An appendix of references and resources related to the EMDT technology is also included in the brief. [PDF] Links to 16 other resources on the general topic may be found at the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) website at: http://www.iacp.org/research/rcdcuttingedgetech.htm The IACP also recently issued a press release on April 4, 2005 concerning the release of the Executive Brief.

     Pepper Spray: Task Force Report, University of California Police (Davis campus) pepper spray incident in Nov. 2011. (190 pp. PDF 2012).

     Publication: Deaths Following Electro-Muscular Disruption by National Institute of Justice (June 2008). Study of Deaths Following Electro Muscular Disruption: Interim Report presents interim findings from a NIJ study of deaths of individuals following exposure to electro muscular disruption (EMD) technology from conducted-energy devices (CEDs). CEDs use a high-voltage, low-power electrical charge to induce involuntary muscle contractions that cause temporary incapacitation. This report presents the findings of a medical panel composed of physicians, medical examiners, and other specialists in cardiology, emergency medicine, epidemiology, pathology, and toxicology, based on mortality reviews of CED-related deaths and a review of the current state of medical research relative to the effects of CED. The report includes sections on background, methodology, findings, recommendations for post-event medical care following CED exposure, and considerations in death investigations for deaths that occur following deployment of a CED. It also includes a glossary and an extensive list of selected references.

     Publication: Department of Defense Nonlethal Weapons and Equipment Review: A Research Guide for Civil Law Enforcement and Corrections. National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice. [PDF] (October 2004). This NIJ Special Report (NCJ 205293) provides a detailed equipment review designed to give civil law enforcement organizations a greater understanding of DoD's nonlethal weapons program and currently used nonlethal technologies. Five categories of nonlethal technologies are reviewed: chemicals, electrical devices, blunt impact munitions, directed energy, and miscellaneous or hybrid systems. Appendix A discusses the selection process and includes descriptions of DoD's Joint Nonlethal Weapons Program and similar weapons programs in branches of the military, Special Operations Command, and the U.S. Coast Guard, as well as civil law enforcement agencies' less-lethal weapons.

     Publication: Impact Munitions Use: Types, Targets, Effects. National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice. [PDF] (October 2004). Law enforcement officers use impact munitions to subdue or arrest suspects with significantly less likelihood of anyone being killed or seriously injured. This NIJ Research for Practice (NCJ 206089) draws on data from a survey of law enforcement and corrections agencies to examine more than 370 incidents in which impact munitions were used. The report details how impact munitions fill a gap in the weapons continuum and describes how distance is a key factor in injuries associated with the use of impact munitions. It also looks at the relatively small number of fatalities that resulted from the use of impact munitions.

     Statistics: Police Use of Nonfatal Force, 2002–11, by Elizabeth Davis, Shelley Hyland, and Lynn Langton, Bureau of Justice Statistics (November 14, 2015 NCJ 249216).

     Tasers: Canada has adopted new national guidelines for Taser use by law enforcement.

     Tasers: Report of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Science and Public Health on "Use of Tasers by Law Enforcement Agencies." (June 15, 2009).

     Tasers: TASER® Electronic Control Devices: Physiology, Pathology, and Law (Hardcover), by Mark W. Kroll (Editor), Jeffrey D. Ho (Editor), List Price: $119.00. (Springer, March 15, 2009).

     Tasers: An emergency medicine researcher at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center has just published the first large, independent study of injuries from “conducted electrical weapon” (CEW) or Taser® use, finding that serious injuries occurred in fewer than 1 percent of 1,201 Taser uses by law enforcement officers. The study, led by William P. Bozeman, M.D., of Wake Forest University School of Medicine, is now available online in the Annals of Emergency Medicine (“Safety and Injury Profile of Conducted Electrical Weapons Used By Law Enforcement Officers Against Criminal Suspects”) and is scheduled to appear in a future print issue of the journal. The findings represent a three-year review of 1,201 CEW uses at six law enforcement agencies across the United States. The study was funded by the National Institute of Justice. “These weapons appear to be very safe, especially when compared to other options police have for subduing violent or combative suspects,” Bozeman said. “That is not to say that injuries and deaths are impossible. Police and medical personnel need to be aware of the potential for serious injury and look for evidence that a person subdued by a Taser has been hurt.” The study reports that 99.75 percent of criminal suspects shocked by a CEW received no injuries or mild injuries only, such as scrapes and bruises. Of the 1,201 criminal suspects, 492 suffered mild injuries, mostly (83 percent) superficial puncture wounds from the Taser probes. Of the three subjects who sustained significant injuries, two suffered from head injuries related to falls; the third developed rhabdomyolysis, or a rapid breakdown of muscle tissue. Ninety-four percent of the suspects were male, and alcohol or intoxication was documented in almost half of the cases (49.5 percent). A physician at each participating agency reviewed police and medical records after each CEW use. Injuries were identified and classified as mild, moderate or severe. More than two-thirds of United States law enforcement agencies currently use CEWs. They are credited with decreasing police officer and suspect injuries and deaths due to police use of force. However, the devices have been surrounded with controversy. “While injuries from Taser use are uncommon, they are not unheard of,” Bozeman said. “Subjects exposed to a CEW discharge should be assessed for injuries, and appropriate medical evaluation should be provided when non-trivial injuries are apparent or suspected. Existing medical and/or psychiatric conditions in the suspect may also cause or contribute to the behavior that leads police to use a Taser or other physical force. These underlying conditions may require medical assessment and treatment, independent of Taser exposure.” Co-authors were J. Tripp Winslow, M.D., M.P.H., of Wake Forest University, William E. Hauda, M.D., of Inova Fairfax Hospital (Va.), Joseph J. Heck, D.O., of University Medical Center (Nev.), Derrel Graham, M.D., and Brian Martin, M.D., M.S., of Louisiana State University-Shreveport (La.).

     Websites: Less Lethal Weapon Clearinghouse Website. The IACP with the support of the COPS office, BJA, and other policing organizations and associations has developed a website clearinghouse for information on Less Lethal Weapons.

Nuisances

     Nuisances: "The Investigation and Abatement of Nuisance Properties," by Adam B. Stephens, 45 The Prosecutor No. 1, pgs. 40-44 (Jan-March 2011). "Intended to provide police and attorneys with methods to develop dialogue with place managers to prevent crime and abate nuisance activity."

Officer Death and Injury

     Article: "Preventing the 10 Deadly Errors," by Joseph Petrocelli, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 11, p. 10 (November 2006). "Thirty years after Pierce Brooks first identified these lethal errors finds the law enforcement profession still vulnerable for their occurrence." The article re-examines 10 "deadly errors" that repeatedly have led to officers' deaths, as identified in 1975 by Los Angeles Police Department Homicide Investigator Pierce R. Brooks in his book "...Officer Down, Code 3." [PDF] [HTML]

     Officer Deaths: Statistics compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation showed that 72 officers were killed by perpetrators in 2011, a 25 percent increase from the previous year and a 75 percent increase from 2008.

     Officer Safety: Improving Officer Safety and Citizen Support: Solving the Puzzle, by Mike Masterson, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (May 2014).

    Statistics: Law-enforcement officer deaths in the line of duty this year totaled 140, compared with 181 in 2007. The figures were announced by the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund and Concerns of Police Survivors.

     Statistics: "Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted 2002." The FBI annually compiles data concerning the felonious and accidental line-of-duty deaths and assaults of law enforcement officers and presents these statistics in Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA). Tabular presentations include weapons used, use of body armor, and circumstances surrounding murders and assaults of officers. November 17, 2003, 112 pgs. [PDF]

     Statistics: Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2004, annual report by the FBI. (November 21, 2005). The report indicates that 57 law enforcement officers were feloniously killed in the line of duty last year, losing their lives in 50 separate incidents in 22 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. Territories of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Data from 2, 5, and 10 years ago showed that the 57 officers murdered in the line of duty in 2004 were 5 more than the 52 officers feloniously killed in 2003, 6 more than the 51 officers murdered in 2000, but 17 fewer than the 74 officers slain in 1995. Nearly 10,500 local, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies submitted data regarding their officers who were killed or assaulted in 2004 to the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program.

     A composite picture of the victim officers feloniously killed in 2004 showed that the average age was 39 and the average length of service in law enforcement was 12 years. Fifty-four of the victim officers were male. Forty-six officers were white, 10 were black, and 1 was Asian/Pacific Islander. Of the 57 officers feloniously slain last year, 17 were killed in arrest situations. Twelve officers were slain in ambush situations, 10 officers while investigating disturbance calls, 6 while investigating suspicious persons or circumstances, 6 during traffic stops or pursuits, 3 while involved in resolving hostage situations or other high-risk tactical situations, 2 officers were slain while handling mentally deranged individuals, and 1 while handling a prisoner. Offenders used firearms to kill 54 of the 57 victim officers. Of these 54 officers, 36 were slain with handguns, 13 with rifles, and 5 were killed with shotguns. Two officers were killed when they were intentionally hit by vehicles. One officer was killed by an individual with a knife.

     In the South, the Nation’s most populous region, 27 officers were murdered in the line of duty, more than in any other region. Ten officers were slain in the Midwest, 9 in the West, and 8 in the Northeast. Three officers were slain in the U.S. Territories. The data that law enforcement agencies provided the FBI’s UCR Program showed that 58 alleged assailants were identified in connection with the 50 separate incidents that claimed the lives of the 57 law enforcement officers. All but one of the incidents in which law enforcement officers were feloniously killed in 2004 were cleared by arrest or exceptional means.

     Eighty-two law enforcement officers were killed in accidents while performing their duties in 2004. Over half of the officers killed in accidents, 48, died as a result of automobile wrecks. Ten officers died of injuries sustained in motorcycle mishaps, and 10 were killed in traffic-related incidents, e.g., struck by vehicles while directing traffic, assisting motorists, or stopping traffic at roadblocks. Four officers were mistakenly shot, 3 died in aircraft accidents, 3 drowned, 1 officer fell to his death, and 3 were killed in other situations.

     The Nation’s law enforcement agencies reported to the FBI’s UCR Program that 59,373 officers were assaulted during the performance of their duties, and 16,563 of those officers suffered injuries as a result of these attacks. Personal weapons (hands, fists, feet, etc.) were used in 80.1 percent of the attacks. Firearms were used in 3.6 percent, knives or cutting instruments in 1.9 percent. Other dangerous weapons were used in 14.5 percent of the attacks on officers.

     Statistics: Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted 2005. (10/30/2006). Annual report by the FBI. "Overall, the numbers this year fell from 2004: the number of officers killed by criminals dipped from 57 to 55; the number assaulted dropped by more than 1,800 (to 57,546, the lowest total since 2001); and the number killed accidentally decreased from 82 to 67 (the lowest total in six years)."

Physical Fitness

     Article: "Physical Fitness," by Daniel E. Shell, Special Projects Coordinator for the Division of Public Safety Leadership, Johns Hopkins University, and retired lieutenant, Maryland State Police, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pgs. 27- (May 2005). "By addressing several important issues, department leaders can properly plan an effective physical fitness program for their officers." [PDF] [HTML]

Protest Activities

     First Amendment: First Amendment-Protected Events for Law Enforcement Guidance and Reference Card, U.S. Department of Justice.

     First Amendment: "Police, Protestors and the Press," by the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press (2012).

     First Amendment: "Criminal Speech," by Martin J. King, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 77, Number 4 (April 2008) pg. 23. ("Law enforcement officers must know the extent to which the First Amendment permits preventative prosecution based on speech intended to persuade or induce others to engage in unlawful conduct."). The above link is to a .pdf version of the publication. For a version in .html, click here.

     Protest Activities: "Time, Place, and Manner: Controlling the Right to Protest" By Martin J. King, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pgs. 20-32 (May 2007)."Courts have recently reconciled security-based restrictions with the right to protest."

Policing Costs

     Policing Costs: "Making Policing More Affordable: Managing Costs and Measuring Value in Policing" (NCJ 231096, 20 pp.) examines the rising costs of policing in a medium-sized city (Mesa, Arizona) and discusses strategies being tested for managing these costs, including efforts to cut spending, raise productivity, revalue the benefits of policing, and reengineer operations.

Police Licensing

     Police Licensing: Police Licensing and Revocation, by Thomas Jurkanin, Ph.D. Police Chief Magazine (Feb. 2014).

Police Reform

     Police Reform: City of Chicago Police Accountability Task Force Report (April 2016).

Policies and Procedures

     Law Enforcement Policy: State of Policy in Law Enforcement - PowerDMS, in collaboration with the Police Foundation, conducted a survey of law enforcement agencies nationwide to gauge the current state of policies and training. This survey establishes a baseline for how agencies update their policies, ensure officers see those policies, and conduct training. The results — a benchmark for best practices — are presented in this critical report.

  Policies & Procedures: City of Beaverton, Oregon Police Department General Orders. [PDF, selectable by topic].

  Policies & Procedures: General Orders of Hawaii County Police Department, Hawaii. [.html format]

  Policies & Procedures: Iowa City, Iowa Police Department Police Department General Orders. [PDF, selectable by topic].

     Policies & Procedures: Olympia City, Washington Police Department General Orders Manual. [PDF, click on orders in .PDF table of contents to obtain specific orders]

     Publication: Developing a Police Department Policy-Procedure Manual. 12 pgs. [PDF] International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP). This best practices guide is designed for executives with fewer than 25 sworn officers, but the information in the guide is applicable to many agencies, regardless of size. Topics include: rules for effective manual development and implementation, organization of the manual, policy development steps, and much more.

Postal Crimes

     Publication: Law Enforcement Guide to Postal Crimes, by the U.S. Postal Inspector's Office, Publication No. 146. [PDF].

Privacy

     Privacy: Privacy, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties (NCJ 248457), Bureau of Justice Assistance-Sponsored (October 2014).

     Privacy: "The Dangers of Surveillance," by Neil M. Richards, 126 Harvard L. Rev. 1934 (2013).

     Privacy: "Information Resellers: Consumer Privacy Framework Needs to Reflect Changes in Technology and the Marketplace," U.S. Government Accountability Office (Sept. 2013).

     Privacy: "Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping," October 9, 2012. Congressional Research Service.

     Privacy: "Privacy: An Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act," October 9, 2012. Congressional Research Service.

     Privacy: "Consumer Data Privacy in a Networked World: A Framework for Protecting Privacy and Promoting Innovation in the Global Digital Economy," The White House (February 2012).

     Privacy: Department of Homeland Security Privacy Office 2010 Annual Report. This year’s report details the establishment of privacy officers within each component of the Agency. The report also provides updates on Fusion Centers, Cybersecurity, and Cloud Computing activities of the agency.

     Privacy: "Compendium of State Security and Privacy Legislation: Overview 2002." References and classifies State legislation on privacy and security of State criminal history record information. Statutes are grouped into 29 categories and presented both by classification and by State. The introduction summarizes changes and key issues that have arisen during the preceding three years. This report, the twelfth in a series, is compiled for Bureau of Justice Statistics by SEARCH, the National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics.11/03 NCJ 200030 Acrobat file (335K) | ASCII file (40K)

     Publications: Improving Access to and Integrity of Criminal History Records. Examines the problem of missing dispositions in State criminal history records and the availability of State records to support the National Instant Criminal Background Check System. The report addresses the accomplishments that the National Criminal History Improvement Program has made since 1995 in improving the quality and accessibility of criminal history records and outlines future challenges in building a national criminal history records infrastructure. Electronic only. 7/05 NCJ 200581 Acrobat file (1.4M) | ASCII file (146K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 17K).

Psychopathy

     Psychopathy: Focus on Psychopathy. "Psychopathy An Important Forensic Concept for the 21st Century," by Paul Babiak, M.S., Ph.D.; Jorge Folino, M.D., Ph.D.; Jeffrey Hancock, Ph.D.; Robert D. Hare, Ph.D.; Matthew Logan, Ph.D., M.Ed.; Elizabeth Leon Mayer, Ph.D.; J. Reid Meloy, Ph.D.; Helinä Häkkänen-Nyholm, Ph.D.; Mary Ellen O'Toole, Ph.D.; Anthony Pinizzotto, Ph.D.; Stephen Porter, Ph.D.; Sharon Smith, Ph.D.; and Michael Woodworth, Ph.D. ; "The Predator When the Stalker Is a Psychopath," by Sharon S. Smith, Ph.D., Mary Ellen O'Toole, Ph.D., and Robert D. Hare, Ph.D.; "Looking Behind the Mask Implications for Interviewing Psychopaths," by Mary Ellen O'Toole, Ph.D.; Matt Logan, Ph.D.; and Sharon Smith, Ph.D.; "Case Study No More Bagpipes The Threat of the Psychopath," by Matt Logan, Ph.D.; "The Language of Psychopaths: New Findings and Implications for Law Enforcement," by Michael Woodworth, Ph.D.; Jeffrey Hancock, Ph.D.; Stephen Porter, Ph.D.; Robert Hare, Ph.D.; Matt Logan, Ph.D.; Mary Ellen O’Toole, Ph.D.; and Sharon Smith, Ph.D., FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (July 2012).

Public Information

     Public Information: Best Practices in Public Information. (2006). A book published by the IACP drawing from the experience of police chiefs, their public information officers, and media personnel, and illustrating the importance of having an effective police-media relationship. It provides the modern police executive with a comprehensive guide for developing, maintaining, and improving this critical relationship.

Public Protection

     Article: "No Duty to Protect: Two Exceptions" by L. Cary Unkelbach, Assistant County Attorney representing the Arapahoe County Sheriff's Office, Centennial, Colorado. Police Chief magazine, vol. 71, no. 7 (July 2004).

Quality of Life Policing

     Quality of Life Policing: "Money Well Spent: How positive social investments will reduce incarceration rates, improve public safety, and promote the well-being of communities," a report by the Justice Policy Institute (JPI) (2010). Using Washington, D.C., as a case study, the report focuses on the nexus of public safety and poverty. The institute says police should focus their efforts on the most serious offenses rather than "quality of life offenses that are often directed at low-income communities and people who are homeless." The institute also advocates addressing "practices that create racial and income disparities in arrest and incarceration."

Race & Ethnicity

     Article: "The Police Officer's Dilemma: Using Ethnicity to Disambiguate Potentially Threatening Individuals," by Joshua Correll, Bernadette Park, and Charles W. Judd, University of Colorado at Boulder and Bernd Wittenbrink, University of Chicago, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, http://www.apa.org/journals/psp.html, Vol. 83, No. 6, 1314-1329 (Dec. 2002). American Psychological Association. Using a videogame, three studies were conducted on the effect of ethnicity on shoot/don't shoot decisions. Participants were more likely to conclude mistakenly that African-American men appearing in the game were armed and to shoot them when required to make split-second decisions about whether black or white male figures appearing in the game were holding guns.

       Litigation Documents: The U.S. Department of Justice has filed a lawsuit against Arizona's Maricopa County and its Sheriff Joe Arpaio alleging that they have refused to provide information or cooperate in the DOJ's investigation of alleged racial profiling by police in Maricopa County -- specifically, alleged discrimination based on perceived country of origin. The complaint asserts that the sheriff's office is obligated to provide information and comply with the DOJ's investigation as a condition of federal funding it receives.

     Publication: "How to Correctly Collect and Analyze Racial Profiling Data -- Your Reputation Depends On It!" (158 pgs., 532K) – [PDF]. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) 5/23/2003. This publication is the result of a COPS-funded project conducted by the CNA Corporation (CNAC) to help law enforcement agencies collect and analyze data. As part of this project, CNAC worked with the Baltimore (MD) Police Department, the Phoenix (AZ) Police Department, the Chattanooga (TN) Police Department, and the St. Paul (MN) Police Department, all of which are highlighted in the document along with the Oakland (CA) Police Department.

     Publication: Policing in Arab-American Communities After September 11, by Nicole J. Henderson, Christopher W. Ortiz, Naomi F. Sugie, and Joel Miller. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. Reports on a study examining how the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 affected relationships between law enforcement officers and residents in Arab-American neighborhoods. Four significant obstacles to improved relations between police and Arab-American communities were observed: mutual distrust between Arab-American communities and law enforcement, lack of cultural awareness among law enforcement officers, language barriers, and residents' concerns about immigration status. The study reveals some promising practices for addressing these obstacles. (July 2008)

     Racial & Gender Profiling: Institute on Race and Justice Racial and Gender Profiling Study. Final Report May 4, 2004. 107 pgs. [PDF] Reports on a study of racial and gender profiling by police departments in Massachusetts. The study concluded that nearly three out of four such departments engaged in racial profiling of minority drivers. The study included 366 departments, including city, town, and state police, as well as university state transit, and Amtrak police departments or agencies, of which only 92 were found free of such profiling.

     Racial Profiling: Racial Disparities in Florida Safety Belt Law Enforcement, by the ACLU Racial Justice Program and the ACLU of Florida (January 2016).

     Racial Profiling: DOJ Review of Ferguson - Is it a blueprint? by Eric Daigle (March, 2015).

     Racial Profiling: Stop and Frisk in Chicago, ACLU of Illinois (March, 2015).

     Racial Profiling: Chicago Police Department Stops and Resulting Searches in 2013, by the ACLU of Illinois (December 2014).

     Racial Profiling: U.S. Department of Justice, Guidance for Federal Law Enforcement Agencies Regarding the Use of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, National Origin, Religion, Sexual Orientation, or Gender Identity (December 2014).

     Racial Profiling:  Illinois Traffic Stop Study, 2010 Results, Illinois Department of Transportation. An annual report on the racial identity of motorists stopped by Illinois law enforcement officers, as well as the percentages of motorists in each racial group stopped who were given tickets or subjected to a search of their vehicles. Reports since 2004 are also available at the link.

    Racial Profiling: New York Police Dept. 2009 Stop, Question and Frisk Data. On February 16, 2010, the New York Police Department released data for 2009 showing a ten percent rise in the number of New Yorkers being stopped by police. A total of 575,304 individuals were stopped, and 87 percent were Black and Hispanic. Of these stops, only 1.3 percent resulted in discovery of a weapon, and 6 percent resulted in arrests. Under the state's stop, question and frisk policy, police officers are authorized to stop, question and possibly frisk an individual they reasonably believe is about to commit, is committing or has committed a crime. Personal information is collected on a UF-250 form, which requires an officer to document an individual's name, address, age, gender, race and physical description. Prior data may be found at New York Police Dept. 2005-2008 Stop, Question and Frisk Data.

     Racial Profiling: Illinois Traffic Stop Statistical Study: 2007 Analysis. An analysis of traffic stops in Illinois by law enforcement during 2007, conducted by the Northwestern University Center for Public Safety under a state mandate. The statistics purport to show that African-American and Hispanic motorists are searched more often, even though drugs or other illegal items turn up more frequently among white drivers. Links to results from earlier years are also provided.

     Racial Profiling: "Defending the Racial Profiling Accusation: The Case for the Social Scientist as an Expert Witness," by Brian L. Withrow, Ph.D., 40 The Prosecutor No. 4, pgs. 31-44 (July/Aug 2006), published by the National District Attorneys Association (NDAA). .

     Racial Profiling: Illinois Racial Profiling Study - 2005 Results. Illinois Gov. Rod R. Blagojevich on July 3, 2006 released the results of the Illinois Racial Profiling Study for 2005, the second annual survey of racial profiling in traffic stops. He also signed legislation (Senate Bill 2368) extending the study until July 1, 2010, expanding the areas of data collection and creating the Racial Profiling Prevention and Data Oversight Board, an advisory body charged with developing strategies to eliminate racial profiling in Illinois. The previous 2004 results are also available on the Internet.

     Racial Profiling: "Studying Racial Profiling in North Carolina," by Matthew T. Zingraff, William R. Smith, and Donald Tomaskovic-Devey, National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Journal, Issue No. 250 (November 2003). [PDF]. (For an archive of back issues of the NIJ Journal, click here).

     Racial Profiling and Traffic Stops: "Guide for Citizens and Other Stakeholders on Race Data from Police Vehicle Stops," issued by the Police Executive Research Forum (PDF)

     Reports: The texts of eleven annual reports concerning shootings by New York police officers, along with a document entitled "The NYPD's Command Structure Report" may be accessed at http://www.nyclu.org/node/1756 along with an analysis of the reports by the New York branch of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).

     Statistics: "Black Victims of Violent Crime." Presents findings about violent crime experienced by non-Hispanic blacks. Data on nonfatal violent victimization (rape/sexual assault, robbery, aggravated and simple assault) are drawn from the National Crime Victimization Survey. Data on homicides are drawn from the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting Program’s Supplementary Homicide Reports. Comparisons are made with the victimization experience of other racial/ethnic groups. Findings include violent victimization rates by victim characteristics. Also examined are crime characteristics, including weapon use, offender race, police reporting, and police response to violent crime incidents. Trends in violent victimization are also discussed. Highlights include the following: Blacks were victims of an estimated 805,000 nonfatal violent crimes and of about 8,000 homicides in 2005. Blacks accounted for 13% of the U.S. population in 2005, but were victims in 15% of all nonfatal violent crimes and nearly half of all homicides. During the 5-year period from 2001 to 2005, the average annual rate of nonfatal violent victimization against blacks was 29 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older. For whites the rate was 23 per 1,000, and for Hispanics, 24 per 1,000. 08/07 NCJ 214258 Press release | Acrobat file (216K) | ASCII file (22K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 21K)

Restraint

     Restraint: "The Effect of the Prone Maximal Restraint Position with and without Weight Force on Cardiac Output and Other Hemodynamic Measures," Savaser DJ, Campbell C, Castillo EM, Vilke GM, Sloane C, Neuman T, Hansen AV, Shah V, Chan TC, Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine (2013), doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2013.08.006. Abstract.

     Restraint Asphyxia: The Problem of Police-Related Cardiac Arrest, by SB Karch, Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine (2016), doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2016.04.008 (abstract).

Risk Management

     Risk Management: "Innovations in Police Accountability: An Exploratory Study of Risk Management and Police Legal Advising," by Carol A. Archbold, Ph.D., Social and Cultural Sciences, Marquette Univ. (2002). [PDF]

Search and Seizure & Surveillance

     Article: "Abandoning Places," by Jayme W. Holcomb. 77 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 10, pg. 22 (Oct. 2008). "Law enforcement officers must know Fourth Amendment reasonable expectation of privacy concerns when searching abandoned places."

   Article: "Cell Phone Technology and Physical Surveillance," by M. Wesley Clark, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 5, pgs. 25-32 (May 2006). "The parameters of the lawful use of cell phone technology to assist law enforcement have not been clearly established." [PDF] [HTML].

    Article: "Conducting Surveillance Operations: How to Get the Most Out of Them," by John T. Nason, 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pgs. 1-7 (May 2004). [PDF]. Also available in .html format. Special Agent Nason is the head of the FBI's Special Operations Group, Aviation and Surveillance Operations Section, Critical Incident Response Group.

     Article: "Consent Once Removed," by Edward M. Hendrie. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Volume 72, Number 2 (February 2003) pgs. 24-30. [PDF] "It is possible to make a warrantless entry to arrest a suspect based on consent to enter given previously to an undercover officer or informant."

     Criminal Investigation: "Police Lineups: Making Eyewitness Identification More Reliable," by Beth Schuster, NIJ Journal No. 258 (October 2007). Published by the National Institute of Justice of the U.S. Department of Justice.

     Criminal Investigations: "Criminal Investigative Failures," by D. Kim Rossmo. Part One, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin Number 9, pg. 1 (September 2006). Part Two, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin Number 10, pg. 12 (October 2006). A two-part article. "Cognitive biases, probability errors, and organizational traps can cause investigations to go awry." [Part One in PDF format] [Part Two in PDF format].

     Article: "The FBI's Field Intelligence Groups and Police," by Suzel Spiller, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 5, pgs. 1-6 (May 2006). "Through its Field Intelligent Groups, the FBI is maximizing the sharing of information at the federal, state, and local levels." [PDF] [HTML].

     Article: "Focus on Training: Cop 101. Surviving Prisoner Searches," by Todd Coleman, Master Police Officer, certified police instructor, who serves in the Special Operations Division of the Virginia Beach, Virginia Police Department, 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pgs. 8-11 (May 2004). [PDF] Also available in .html format.

     Article: "Knock and Talks" by Jayme W. Holcomb, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 8, pgs. 22-32 (Aug. 2006). "The use of the knock and talk technique raises a number of Fourth Amendment issues." [HTML] [PDF]

     Article: "Law Enforcement Response at a Crisis Scene: Protecting Lives and Preserving the Admissibility of Evidence," by Lucy Ann Hoover, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 4, pgs.25-32 (April 2006). "Officers cannot ignore the restraints placed upon them by the Fourth Amendment when responding to emergency situations." [PDF] [.html]

     Article: "Obtaining Written Consent to Search," by Jayme Walker Holcomb, J.D. 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 3, pgs. 26-32 (March 2003). [PDF format]. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, beginning with the June 2001 issues, is also available online in .html format, as well as PDF.

     Article: "Police Intervention Short of Arrest," by Michael J. Butzomi, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 11,  p. 26 (November 2006). "Effective policing today requires the use of strategies to intervene in criminal activity before it is successfully undertaken." [PDF] [HTML]

    Article: "Protecting Personal Privacy: Drawing the Line Between People and Containers " By Michael J. Butzomi, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 2, pgs. 26-31 (February 2006). "Law enforcement officers must understand and discern the limitations imposed on their authority in order to respect the rights guaranteed to people."

     Article: "Revoking Consent to Search," by Jayme W. Holcomb, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 2, pgs. 25-32. (February 2005). [PDF] [HTML] "Officers must be aware of both the context in which the consent to search is withdrawn and the exact manner in which the individual revoked consent to search."

     Article: The "Special Needs" Exception to the Warrant Requirement, by Martin J. King, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 6, pgs. 21-32. (June 2006). "The 'special needs' exception applies to searches and seizures conducted without individualized suspicion for the purpose of minimizing a risk of harm." [PDF] [HTML]

     Article: "Warrantless Interception of Communications," by Richard G. Schott, J.D., Special Instructor, FBI Academy.. Discusses when, where, and why criminal investigators may legally intercept and record subjects' conversations. Vol. 72, No. 1 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin pgs. 25-32 (January 2003). [PDF]. (Subsequent and prior issues of the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin are available on-line at: http://www.fbi.gov/publications/leb/leb.htm.)

     Article: "When an Informant’s Tip Gives Officers Probable Cause to Arrest Drug Traffickers," By Edward M. Hendrie, J.D., Special Agent, DEA Legal Unit, Legal Instructor DEA Training Academy, 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 12, pgs. 8-21 (December 2003). [PDF] "The degree of corroboration necessary for officers to establish probable cause depends on the informant’s credibility and basis of knowledge." Also available in .html format.

     Exclusionary rule: "The Roberts Court and the Future of the Exclusionary Rule," by Susan A. Bandes (Apr. 2009).

     Eyewitness Lineups: "A Test of the Simultaneous vs. Sequential Lineup Methods - An Initial Report of the AJS National Eyewitness Identification Field Studies," by Gary L. Wells, Nancy K. Steblay, and Jennifer E. Dysart, American Judicature Society (September 2011).

     Publication: Delayed Notice Search Warrants: A Vital and Time-Honored Tool for Fighting Crime, U.S. Department of Justice. (September 2004). [PDF]

     Publication: Reducing Gun Violence: The St. Louis Consent-to-Search Program, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice [PDF] (November 2004). The third report in NIJ's Reducing Gun Violence series evaluates an innovative police program that used community-based sources to identify homes where juveniles might be harboring guns. Police then sought parental permission to search for and confiscate illegal guns. A nationally recognized success in its first year, the Consent-to-Search program subsequently experienced serious implementation problems. This report (NCJ 191332) describes the program's setbacks and implications for community policing.

     Search and Seizure: Probation and Parole Searches, Point of View, Alameda County District Attorney's Office (Fall 2016).

     Search and Seizure: Consent Searches, Point ov View, Alameda County District Attorney's Office (Spring-Summer 2015)

     Search and Seizure: Katz and Dogs: The Best Path Forward in Applying United States v. Davis' Good Faith Exception to the Exclusionary Rule and How the Seventh Circuit Has Gone Astray, by Arlo Walsman, 10 Seventh Circuit Rev. 170 (2014).

     Search and Seizure: Executing Search Warrants in the Cloud, by John M. Cauthen, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Oct. 2014).

     Search and Seizure: Stop-and-Frisk During the Bloomberg Administration 2002-2013 (2014), New York ACLU (Aug. 2014).

     Search and Seizure: The Constitutionality of Stop-and-Frisk in New York City, by David Rudovsky & Lawrence Rosenthal, 162 U. Pa. L. Rev. Online 117 (2013).

     Search and Seizure: Investigative Contacts, Point of View, Alameda County District Attorney's Office, California (Winter 2014).

     Search and Seizure: "Knock and Talks," Point of View, pgs 15-18 (Alameda County District Attorney's Office, Winter 2014).

     Search and Seizure: "U.S. v. Jones: GPS Monitoring, Property, and Privacy," Congressional Research Service #R42511 (Apr. 30, 2012).

     Search and Seizure: "Focus on Searches: Characteristics and Implications of Diversion Safes," by Megan C. Bolduc, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (April 2012).

     Search and Seizure: "The Exigent Circumstances Exception After Kentucky v. King," by Michael T. Pettry, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2012).

     Search and Seizure: Suspicionless Border Searches of Electronic Devices: Legal and Privacy Concerns with The Department of Homeland Security's Policy, The Constitution Project (May 18, 2011). (free registration required to download).

     Search and Seizure: "Let's Be Reasonable: Fourth Amendment Principles in the Digital Age," by Scott D. Blake, 5 Seventh Circuit Rev. 491 (2010). Abstract: The expansion of computers in American society has led to new developments in Fourth Amendment doctrine. Just like every other American, criminals use computers, which requires law enforcement to search and seize computers. Frequently, an executing officer inadvertently discovers computer files with illegal content that are outside the scope of the original warrant. Reasoning that traditional Fourth Amendment doctrine does not provide sufficient protection in a digital age, two federal circuits have crafted alternative approaches that deviate from it. However, the Seventh Circuit, in United States v. Mann, has continued to apply the traditional principles of Fourth Amendment doctrine by reasoning that the plain view doctrine, the particularity requirement, and a reasonableness standard should be allowed to evolve and expand into the world of digital evidence.

       Search and Seizure: The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has issued a Privacy Impact Assessment for searching travelers' electronic devices at U.S. borders. (Aug. 25, 2009). The Department states that it has the right to search and seize all data on electronic devices carried across the border. The 51-page study was designed to determine how searches of the contents of electronic devices compared to physical searches of travelers' belongings.

     Search and Seizure: "Abandonment of Items Associated with the Person," by Jayme W. Holcomb, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 8, pgs. 23-32 (August 2007). [PDF] [.html]. "Courts use Fourth Amendment tests to determine if and why an item was abandoned."

     Search and Seizure Issues: "Legal Considerations in Using GPS," by Keith Hodges, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 7, pg. 25(July 2007). "Law enforcement officers must be aware of the legal issues that arise with the installation of GPS technology, as well as its monitoring."

     Search and Seizure: "Detaining Individuals at the Scene of a Search," by Carl A. Benoit, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 12, p. 16 (December 2006). "Officers must know the degree of force they may use when detaining individuals present at the scene of a search." (.html format).

     Search and Seizure: "Consent Searches," by Jayme Walker Holcom, J.D., Chief of the Legal Instruction Section, DEA Training Academy, 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 2, pgs. 22-32 (February 2004). [PDF] Also available in .html format. "Officers must conduct consent searches in a reasonable manner and be prepared to explain the circumstances surrounding the search."

     Search and Seizure: "Getting Schooled in the Fourth Amendment," by Lucy Ann Hoover, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 3, pgs. 22-32 (March 2007). "Law enforcement officers must know Fourth Amendment boundaries when conducting student searches on school grounds." [.html version]

     Search & Seizure: Probationers and Parolees: "Probationers, Parolees, and the Fourth Amendment," by Thomas D. Colbridge, 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 7, pgs. 11-22 (July 2003)."Probationers and parolees have limited Fourth Amendment protection because of their unique status." Also available in .html format.

     Search and Seizure: "Searches Incident to Arrest," pgs. 1-25, Point of View, published by the Alameda County, California, District Attorney's Office (Fall 2005).

     Search and Seizure: "Search Incident to Arrest in the Age of Personal Electronics," by Michael J. Bulzomi, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 76, Number 9 pgs 26-32 (September 2007). "Electronic devices with varying storage capacities present officers with unique challenges during searches incident to arrest." [PDF] [HTML]

     Search and Seizure, Vehicles: "Searches of Motor Vehicles Incident to Arrest in a Post-Gant World," by Kenneth A. Myers, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, (April 2011). "Officers must understand the narrow guidelines pertaining to searches of motor vehicles incident to the arrest of one of its occupants."

     Search and Seizure, Warrants: "The Emergency Aid Exception to the Fourth Amendment's Warrant Requirement," by Michael T. Pettry, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2011). "Exigent circumstances may allow officers an exception to the Fourth Amendment's warrant requirement."

     Vehicle Searches: "Searches of Motor Vehicles Incident to Arrest in a Post-Gant World," by Kenneth A. Myers, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (April 2011). "Officers must understand the narrow guidelines pertaining to searches of motor vehicles incident to the arrest of one of its occupants."

Second Amendment

     Gun Control: "America Under the Gun: A 50-State Analysis of Gun Violence and Its Link to Weak State Gun Laws," American Progress Center (April 2013).
     Gun Control: "Public Mass Shootings in the United States: Selected Implications for Federal Public Health and Safety Policy," Congressional Research Service (March 18, 2013).

     Gun Control and School Security: "The National School Shield. Report of the National School Shield Task Force," Asa Hutchinson, Director (April 2, 2013).

     "Symposium on the Second Amendment: Fresh Looks," 76 Chicago-Kent Law Review No. 1 (2000). On-line .pdf files of all articles in this symposium are available at the link, including "The History and Politics of Second Amendment Scholarship: A Primer" by Carl T. Bogus; "To Hold and Bear Arms: The English Perspective" by Lois G. Schwoerer; "The Second Amendment in Action" by Michael A. Bellesiles; "The Second Amendment: The Highest Stage of Originalism" by Jack N. Rakove; "Disarmed by Time: The Second Amendment and the Failure of Originalism" by Daniel A. Farber; "'A Well Regulated Militia': The Second Amendment in Historical Perspective" by Paul Finkelman; "Natural Rights and the Second Amendment" by Steven J. Heyman; "What Does the Second Amendment Mean Today?" by Michael C. Dorf; "Lost and Found: Researching the Second Amendment" by Robert J. Spitzer; and "The Second Amendment in Context: The Case of the Vanishing Predicate," by H. Richard Uviller& William G. Merkel. This symposium almost entirely presents the "group rights" perspective, i.e., that the Second Amendment does not provide for an individual right to bear arms and should not be interpreted by the courts in that manner. A collection of Law Review articles from the opposing "individual rights" perspective in .html format may be found on the website of the National Rifle Association (NRA), along with a bibliography of other articles on the subject not presented on the website.

Senior Citizens

      Article: Seniors and Law Enforcement, by Stan Van Horn. 77 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 11, pg. 1 (Nov. 2008). "Understanding seniors' influence on communities will enable agencies to provide better service to the growing elderly population."

Serial Killers

     Serial Killers: Serial Murder: Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives for Investigators. A report by the FBI's National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime. The report contains "the collective insights of a group of experts from the law enforcement, academic, and mental health professions who took part in a symposium on serial murder. The symposium's focus was actually two-fold: to bridge the gap between fact and fiction and to build up our collective body of knowledge to generate a more effective investigative response." (July 7, 2008). [PDF] [.html format]

Sex Offenders

     Sex Offenders: "Officers and Child-Sex Offenders: Operational Safety Considerations," By Joy L. Shelton, Tia A. Hoffer, Ph.D., and Charles Joyner, M.A., FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, May 2013.

     Sex Offenders: National Sex Offender Public Registry. The U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Administration (BJA) has recently embarked on a National Sex Offender Public Registry (NSOPR). On May 20, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales announced NSOPR in his “First 100 Days” speech and directed the Office of Justice Programs’ BJA to have at least 20 state public sex offender registries connected and available for use in 60 days. Via web services and the U.S. Department of Justice’s (DOJ) Global Justice XML which allows systems to “speak” to each other, this national web site will provide parents and concerned citizens with a free-of-charge, reliable national portal to access already existing public state and territory sex offender registries. NSOPR will not collect or retain any control over sex offender data, and there will be no cost to the state or territory to link to the national site. For details on this public safety initiative, contact David Lewis, BJA Senior Policy Advisor for Information Sharing, at 202-616-7829. Press Release. Fact Sheet. [PDF] Major Points.[PDF] FAQ.[PDF]

     Sex Offenders: Juveniles Who Commit Sex Offenses Against Minors This Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention bulletin presents population-based epidemiological information about the characteristics of juvenile offenders who commit sex offenses against minors. Data is analyzed from the FBI’s National Incident-Based Reporting System to describe the characteristics of the juvenile sex offender population who have come to the attention of law enforcement. (NCJ 227763) (Dec.2009).

     Statistics: Statutory Rape Known to Law Enforcement. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (August 2005). This Bulletin draws on data from the FBI's National Incident-Based Reporting System to provide a comprehensive look at the patterns of and response to statutory rape. Based on an analysis of reports from law enforcement agencies in 21 states for the years 1996 through 2000, this Bulletin characterizes victim and offender attributes and law enforcement's response to incidents of statutory rape. (NCJ 208803) [PDF]

Sexual Assault & Harassment

     Publication: Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Rape Victimization: Findings From the National Violence Against Women Survey NCJ 210346, January 2006, Special Report, by Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes. Summary | Full Text.

     Rape and Sexual Assault: The federal government has adopted a new definition of rape for purposes of the Uniform Crime Report's statistics. The new definition is: "The penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim." The new definition is gender neutral, and better reflects the text of existing modern state criminal codes. (January 6, 2012).

     Rape and Sexual Assault: "The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS)," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Dec. 2011). States that almost one-fifth of all U.S. women have been the victim of a sexual assault at some time, with one in four facing severe physical violence by a husband or boyfriend.

     Sexual Assault: Sexual Assault on Campus: What Colleges and Universities Are Doing About It. NCJ 205521, December 2005, Research for Practice, National Institute of Justice, by Heather M. Karjane, Bonnie S. Fisher, and Francis T. Cullen. Summary Full Report

     Sexual Harassment: "Cyberbullying and Sexting: Law Enforcement Perceptions," by Justin W. Patchin, Joseph A. Schafer, and Sameer Hinduja, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (June 2013).

Social Media

     Social Media: "COPS Report: Social Media and Tactical Considerations For Law Enforcement," Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) (May 2013).

     Social Media: "Interactive Social Media: The Value for Law Enforcement," by Timothy J. Henton, FBI Law Enforcement Bulleting (September 2013).

     Social Media: "Social Media and Law Enforcement," by Gwendolyn Waters, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (November 2012).

    Social Media: The International Association of Chiefs of Police, in partnership with the U.S. Justice Department's Bureau of Justice Assistance, has launched the IACP Center for Social Media, a project to build the capacity of law enforcement to use social media to help prevent and solve crimes, strengthen police-community relations, recruit employees, and enhance services. The new website www.IACPsocialmedia.org includes free resources such as a model policy, fact sheets, case studies and instructional tutorials.

Special Event Security

     Article: "Super Bowl XXXIX," By Jeffrey Westcott. 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 1, pgs. 1-5. (January 2006). Various law enforcement agencies came together and effectively addressed the challenges presented by the world’s biggest show. [PDF] [HTML]

     Article: "International Special Events," By James A. McGee. 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 1, pgs. 10-18. (January 2006). Understanding the expectations and responsibilities of multiple agencies is key to ensuring a safe and secure special event. [PDF] [HTML]

     Crowd Control: California POST has issued “Crowd Management, Intervention and Control Guidelines." (77 pp. PDF 2012).

     Protest Activities: "Time, Place, and Manner: Controlling the Right to Protest" By Martin J. King, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pgs. 20-32 (May 2007)."Courts have recently reconciled security-based restrictions with the right to protest."

     Special Events: Planning and Managing Security For Major Special Events: Guidelines for Law Enforcement. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). For law enforcement executives, command staff, and trainers involved in, or providing training in, managing special events in their communities, the safety and security of the event itself, the people who attend the event, as well as the surrounding community, are of the utmost importance. The guide covers all aspects of pre-event planning, security needs during the event, and post-event activities. Topics covered include threat and risk assessments; intelligence; staffing needs and resources; communications; access control and credentialing; traffic and transportation; logistics, training, and public information; hazardous materials; critical infrastructure; demonstrations; and security management. Published: 10/15/2007

Stress

     Article: "Dealing With Employee Stress," by James D. Sewell. 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 7, pgs. 1-6 (July 2006). "Managers must recognize how they contribute to employee stress and take specific steps to reduce these practices." [PDF] [HTML]

     Article: "Issues in Small Town Policing," by Dennis Lindsey and Sean Kelly, 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 7, pgs. 1-11 (July 2004). "Regardless of agency size or service area, all law enforcement officers face increasing amounts of job-related stress." [PDF]

     Stress: Stress Among Probation and Parole Officers and What Can Be Done About It. June 2005 [PDF] Probation and parole officers experience a great deal of job-related stress. A recent study investigated the nature and scope of the problem at nine sites around the country. Researchers identified the major sources of stress (heavy caseloads, paperwork, deadlines) and what officers do to cope. This Research for Practice summarizes key findings and provides case studies of promising stress reduction programs.

     Stress: "Stress and Job Satisfaction in an Urban Sheriff's Department: Contributions of Work and Family History, Community-Oriented Policing and Job Assignment," by Carole Barnes, Ph.D., Joseph Sheley Ph.D., Valory Logsdon and Sandra Sutherland. Feb. 2004. NCJ 203978. 178 pgs. [PDF]

Suicide

     Suicide: Suicide Risk in Older Adults: A Growing Challenge for Law Enforcement, by Tony Salvatore, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (January 2016).

     Suicide: Suicide Risk in Older Adults: A Growing Challenge for Law Enforcement, by Tony Salvatore, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (January 2016).

     Suicide: "The Role of Law Enforcement Officers in Preventing Suicide," Suicide Prevention Resource Center (May 2013).

     Suicide by Cop: Suicide by Cop: Broadening Our Understanding, by Tony Salvatore, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (September 2014).

Supervisory Liability

     Supervisory Liability: Sheldon Nahmod. "Constitutional Torts, Over-Deterrence and Supervisory Liability After Iqbal (forthcoming 2010)" Lewis & Clark Law Review 14.1 (2010).

Supreme Court Caselaw Review

     Article: "Supreme Court Cases 2001-2002," a review of cases decided by the court during the last year of possible interest to law enforcement, prepared by instructors in the Legal Instruction Unit of the FBI Academy. Vol. 71, No. 12 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin pgs. 16-24 (December 2002). [PDF]. (Subsequent and prior issues of the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin are available on-line at: http://www.fbi.gov/publications/leb/leb.htm.)

     Article: "Supreme Court Cases 2003-2004 Term," by the FBI Academy Legal Instruction Unit, 73 FBI  Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 12, pg. 15 (December 2004). "Nine Supreme Court decisions of particular importance to law enforcement are summarized." [PDF] [html]

     Supreme Court: "Supreme Court Cases: 2012 to 2013 Term," by Kevin Chechak, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (January 2014).

     Supreme Court Cases: "Supreme Court Cases, 2011-2012 Term," by Kevin Chechak, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (November 2012).

     Supreme Court Decisions: "Supreme Court Cases 2010-2011 Term," by Michael J. Bulzomi, F.B.I. Law Enforcement Bulletin, p. 23 (Nov. 2011).

     Supreme Court Review: "Supreme Court Cases 2004-2005 Term," by the FBI Academy Legal Instruction Unit, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 12 (December 2005), pgs. 14-23. Six Supreme Court decisions of particular importance to law enforcement are summarized.

     Supreme Court Cases: "Supreme Court Cases 2005-2006 Term," by Lisa A. Baker. 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin Number 10, pg. 24 (October 2006). "Seven Supreme Court decisions of particular importance to law enforcement are summarized." [PDF]

     Article: "Supreme Court Cases: 2006-2007 Term," by the FBI Academy Legal Instruction Unit, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 11, pgs 25-32 (Nov. 2007). "Five Supreme Court decisions of particular importance to law enforcement are summarized." [PDF]

    Article: Supreme Court Cases 2007-2008 Term, by the FBI Academy Legal Instruction Unit, 77 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 11, pg. 25 (Nov. 2008). "A number of Supreme Court decisions of particular importance to law enforcement are summarized."

     Article: "Supreme Court Cases 2008-2009 Term" By Lisa A. Baker, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Oct.2009)."A number of Supreme Court decisions of particular importance to law enforcement are summarized."

SWAT

     SWAT: National Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) Study: A National Assessment of Critical Trends and Issues from 2009 to 2014, by the International Association of Chiefs of Police and the National Tactical Officers Association (April 2016).

Technology

     Annual Report: FBI Laboratory 2002 Annual Report (2003). [PDF]

     Annual Report: FBI Laboratory Annual Report 2003. [PDF] 44 pgs.

     Article: "Computer Forensics," by Loren D. Mercer, 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 3, pgs. 28-32 (March 2004). [PDF] "An understanding of computer-related evidence proves necessary for law enforcement agencies and the courts." Also available in .html format.

     Article: "Future Technology in Law Enforcement," by Ben Reed, Jr., 77 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pg. 15-21 (May 2008). "Technology is developing rapidly in areas relative to the law enforcement profession." [PDF]

     Article: "The Impact of Video Monitoring Technology on Police Field Operations," by Lieutenant Gus Arroyo, Fremont Police Department, November 2002.

     Article: Human Performance Improvement for Tactical Teams, by D.J. Hathaway, 77 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 6, pgs.1-7 (June 2008). "Human performance technology can help agencies confront challenging situations and provide exceptional service." [PDF format]

     Article: "Improving Our View of the World: Police and Augmented Reality Technology," By: Captain Thomas J. Cowper, New York State Police Dr. Michael E. Buerger, Bowling Green State University. Futures Working Group (a collaboration of the FBI and Society of Police Futurists). The purpose of this research paper is to provide the policing profession an introductory source document and overview of Augmented Reality (AR). Fundamental principles and components of the technology are examined, along with research developments occurring today that have the potential to directly enhance individual human performance through the augmentation of reality. The implications of AR and some potential applications for its future use as a law enforcement tool are offered. As a source document for police officers it does not present new scientific research or highly technical data. It is intended to provide a starting point for the development of practical and beneficial policing applications through the use of AR. Complete article (PDF) 68 pages

      Article: "Law Enforcement Online," By Lesley G. Koestner, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 2, pgs. 1-6 (February 2006). "As the FBI evolves from its traditional focus on law enforcement to its post-September 11 mission, which includes the homeland security priorities of counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and cybercrime, LEO plays a crucial role."

     Computer Security: Growing Risk of Data Sabotage: Protecting Law Enforcement Agencies, by Michael Gregg, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (July 2016).

    Conductive Energy Devices: "The Effect of Less-Lethal Weapons on Injuries in Police Use-of-Force Events" by John M. MacDonald, Robert J. Kaminski, and Michael R. Smith, Am J Public Health, published 21 October 2009, 10.2105/AJPH.2009.159616. "We investigated the effect of the use of less-lethal weapons, conductive energy devices (CEDs), and oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray on the prevalence and incidence of injuries to police officers and civilians in encounters involving the use of force. Methods: We analyzed data from 12 police departments that documented injuries to officers and civilians in 24,380 cases. We examined monthly injury rates for 2 police departments before and after their adoption of CEDs. Results: Odds of injury to civilians and officers were significantly lower when police used CED weapons, after control for differences in case attributes and departmental policies restricting use of these weapons. Monthly incidence of injury in 2 police departments declined significantly, by 25% to 62%, after adoption of CED devices. Conclusions: Injuries sustained during police use-of-force events affect thousands of police officers and civilians in the United States each year. Incidence of these injuries can be reduced dramatically when law enforcement agencies responsibly employ less-lethal weapons in lieu of physical force."

     Electronic Control Weapons: COPS 2011 Electronic Control Weapon Guidelines (April 7, 2011).

     Electronic Weapons: The respiratory, metabolic, and neuroendocrine effects of a new generation electronic control device [TASER X3], Donald Dawes, et al., 207 (1) Forensic Science International 55-60 (Apr. 15, 2011). Abstract.

     Electronic Weapons: Police Use of Force, Tasers and Other Less-Lethal Weapons (NIJ pdf, 28 pages, May 2011)

     Electronic Weapons: Study of Deaths Following Electro Muscular Disruption (NIJ pdf, 74 pages, May 2011)

     Electronic Weapons: Report of the Nova Scotia Panel of Mental Health and Medical Experts Review of Excited Delirium (June 30, 2009). Discusses the phenomena referred to as excited delirium in the context of the use of conducted energy devices (CEDs) on persons displaying agitated, aggressive, irrational conduct.

     Evidence: "The Admissibility of Digital Photographs in Criminal Cases," By David P. Nagosky, Special Agent, FBI New York Office, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 12 (December 2005), pgs. 1-8. "Agencies have many considerations in ensuring the admissibility of digital photographs in criminal cases."

     Publications: Improving Access to and Integrity of Criminal History Records. Examines the problem of missing dispositions in State criminal history records and the availability of State records to support the National Instant Criminal Background Check System. The report addresses the accomplishments that the National Criminal History Improvement Program has made since 1995 in improving the quality and accessibility of criminal history records and outlines future challenges in building a national criminal history records infrastructure. Electronic only. 7/05 NCJ 200581 Acrobat file (1.4M) | ASCII file (146K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 17K).

     Communications: Audit Report. "Implementation of the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act by the Federal Bureau of Investigation," Report No. 04-19, April 2004. [PDF] A report by the Inspector General's Office of the U.S. Department of Justice. Also available in .html format.

     Computer Crime: FBI 2005 Computer Crime Survey. (19 pgs. 2005). Reports on the responses of 2,066 organizations to a survey concerning what computer security incidents they have experienced. The survey was conducted in four states: Iowa, Nebraska, New York, and Texas. Over 5,000 computer security incidents were reported, with 87% of the respondents experiencing some type of incidents. Many computer security threats came from within the organizations, and of the intrusion attempts appearing to come from outside of the organizations, the most common countries of origin appeared to be the U.S., China, Nigeria, Korea, Germany, Russia, and Romania. The organizations selected for the survey had to be in existence for three or more years, have five or more employees, be within 400 cities covered by the participating FBI offices, and have $1 million or more in annual revenue.

     Conference: 5th Annual National Conference on Science and the Law March 14-17, 2004 Tampa, Florida. For more information: http://www.ilj.org/wvu What are the emerging trends in the use of scientific evidence in the courtroom? This conference has two primary goals: (1) improve the understanding between scientists, attorneys, and judges; and (2) identify and develop questions for future research surrounding science and scientists in the criminal justice system. Cosponsored by the American Bar Association; American Academy of Forensic Sciences; National Center for State Courts; the National Clearinghouse on Science, Technology and the Law at Stetson University College of Law. In collaboration with the National Academies, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Federal Judicial Center.

     Conference Presentations: conference presentations from Beyond the Technology: The Law & Policy Implications of Increased Biometric Use (a national conference sponsored by U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) and SEARCH, the National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics) in New York City, November 5-6, 2002.

    E-mail and Internet Issues: Special Report on "Phishing" - criminal use of fraudulent e-mail and Web sites to obtain personal information. Criminal Division, U.S. Department of Justice (2004). [PDF] Includes a discussion of federal criminal laws such e-mails may violate, and links to some other resources on the topic. See also the Federal Trade Commission's webpage on "How Not to Get Hooked by a 'Phishing' Scam."

    Electronic Weapons: "Compliance Report. Wisconsin's Electronic Control Device training compared with USDOJ recommendations made to Orange County, Florida," Wisconsin Department of Justice Training and Standards Bureau. (May, 2009).

     Electronic Weapons: "Comparison Report. Wisconsin Electronic Control Device training and Amnesty International recommendations," Wisconsin Department of Justice Training and Standards Bureau. (May, 2009).

     Evidence: "Obtaining Admissible Evidence from Computers," by Stephen W. Cogan, 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 7, pgs. 11-22 (July 2003)."Evolving investigative procedures and legislation impact the process of obtaining evidence from computers." Also available in .html format.

     Publications: Increasing Efficiency in Crime Laboratories NCJ 220336, January 2008, In Short, by National Institute of Justice Summary | PDF

     Publication: "Building a 3-1-1 System for Non-Emergency Calls: A Case Study of the City of Austin Police Department." [PDF] U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). This case study documents the 311 system implementation process of Austin Police Department. The Austin Police Department was awarded funding under the 311 Technical Assistance for Start-Ups Program (FY’00) to implement a 311 system and document the implementation process. This case study describes the challenges the department encountered and strategies it used to set up the 311 system, and provides lessons learned for other agencies wishing to develop similar systems. Readers of this document are also recommended to read The Law Enforcement Tech Guide: How to plan, purchase and manage technology (successfully!).

     Publication: Forensic Science Communications is a peer-reviewed forensic science journal published quarterly in January, April, July, and October by FBI Laboratory personnel. It is a means of communication between forensic scientists. The current issue can be found online here. Back issues from 1999 to the present are also available on line.

     Publication: National Institute of Justice Journal (Issue No. 249) (NIJ) (July 2003) (Text or PDF) Feature articles highlight several scientific breakthroughs to solve crime and to protect the public and law enforcement personnel. Without a Trace? Advances in Detecting Trace Evidence details four cutting-edge methods of extracting information from microscopic particles at a crime scene. DNA Evidence: What Law Enforcement Officers Should Know explains the basics of DNA sample collection and notes some procedures that can enhance the usefulness of such evidence. CCTV: Constant Cameras Track Violators provides an overview of the use of closed circuit cameras to monitor public areas, and NIJ's Bullet-Resistant Vest Standard Reaches Milestone celebrates the success of a manufacturing protocol that has saved the lives of thousands of law enforcement personnel. The "Research At-A-Glance" section contains two articles about the relationship between alcohol and crime. Other articles discuss how mapping technology can help probation and parole officers and how perspectives on community policing have changed since the early 1990s.

     Publications: Law Enforcement & Corrections Technology News Summary, published on-line weekly by the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC), a program of the National Institute of Justice.

     Publication: Understanding Wireless Communications in Public Safety A Guidebook to Technology, Issues, Planning, and Management 2nd Ed. January 2003 The intention of this National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) guidebook is to help unravel the confusing issues, terms, and options surrounding wireless communications, particularly as it involves commercially available communications services. Originally published in 2000, the guidebook was updated in 2003 and is now available in electronic format. [PDF].

     Report: "Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology." (March 2003). This report provides an overview of the President's initiative to improve the use of DNA in the criminal justice system by providing funding, training, and assistance. The President has proposed $1 billion in funding over 5 years to fulfill the goals of the initiative: reduce the DNA testing backlog, build crime lab capacity, stimulate research and development, support training, protect the innocent, and identify missing persons.

     Report: "Risk Management: An Essential Guide to Protecting Critical Assets," by the National Infrastructure Protection Center (11 pgs, November 2002). [PDF]. "As organizations increase security measures and attempt to identify vulnerabilities in critical assets, many are looking for a mechanism to ensure an efficient investment of resources to counter physical and cyber threats. One method is a risk management model that not only assesses assets, threats, and vulnerabilities, but also incorporates a continuous assessment feature. [...] Security managers and decision-makers that operate in any sector of the national infrastructure must have a sound methodology to manage both physical and cyber risks to their organization."

     Search and Seizure Issues: "Legal Considerations in Using GPS," by Keith Hodges, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 7, pg. 25(July 2007). "Law enforcement officers must be aware of the legal issues that arise with the installation of GPS technology, as well as its monitoring."

    Standard: NIJ Standard, Walk-Through Metal Detectors for Use in Concealed Weapon and Contraband Detection: NIJ Standard–0601.02, January 2003. This NIJ Standard describes performance requirements and testing methods for active walk-through metal detectors used to find metal weapons and metal concealed contraband carried on a person and/or concealed by a nonmetal object. The report can be used by purchasing agents and procurement officials in determining whether an owned or prospective product meets the requirements of the standard and can serve as the basis for tests conducted by qualified testing laboratories and as a reference in procurement documents. It also contains definitions to help readers use and understand the information and provides field testing procedures for and mechanical drawings of several potentially dangerous test objects. This Standard supersedes NIJ Standard–0601.01 published in 2000. (.pdf format).

     Tasers: "Power Down: TASERs, The Fourth Amendment and Police Accountability in the Fourth Circuit," 91 N.C. L. Rev. 606 (January 2013).

     Tasers: Canada has adopted new national guidelines for Taser use by law enforcement.

     Tasers: Taser International Training Bulletin 15.0. (Oct. 2009): "1. We have issued a new TASER Targeting Guide that will apply for the new XREP impact munition as well as ECDs such as the X26, M26 and X3. Note, we have lowered the recommended point of aim from center of mass to lower-center of mass for front shots. ... There are three reasons: a. Simplify targeting for all TASER systems to one easy to remember map, avoiding chest shots when possible and the risk of a head/eye shot in a dynamic situation, as is standard for impact munitions b. When possible, avoiding chest shots with ECDs avoids the controversy about whether ECDs do or do not affect the human heart. c. Close-spread ECD discharges to the front of the body are more effective when at least one probe is in the major muscles of the pelvic triangle or thigh region. Back shots remain the preferred area when practical. 2. When dealing with exhausted individuals or persons exhibiting symptoms of distress or agitated/excited delirium: a. Once officers engage in capture procedures, it is important to minimize the duration of the physical struggle. New research shows that physical struggle, simulated by punching a heavy bag at full intensity, can cause acidosis that can reach dangerous levels in only 45 seconds of intense exertion, starting from a resting state. Accordingly, officers engaging subjects in a physical struggle or in an exhaustive state should minimize the duration of struggle and the adverse physiological effects. The physiological effects of a TASER ECD discharge of up to 15 seconds were significantly less than that of either fleeing (simulated with a sprint) or fighting (simulated with the heavy bag). This research shows that the TASER ECD, as part of an overall capture plan, is a viable option to help minimize the duration of the struggle. b. When encountering subjects exhibiting symptoms of exhaustion, distress or agitated/excited delirium, refer to your agency’s guidelines for proper response. These subjects are at significant risk of arrest-related death. Immediate medical attention may reduce this risk. 3. The primary risk of serious injury or death during ECD deployment is risk related to falls. Users should be reminded to avoid deploying ECDs on persons on elevated platforms or other places where a fall can be more injurious."

     Tasers: "A Multi-Method Evaluation of Police Use of Force Outcomes," University of South Carolina TASER ECD Three-Year Study. Summary. Full NIJ Report.

     Tasers: TASER® Electronic Control Devices: Physiology, Pathology, and Law (Hardcover), by Mark W. Kroll (Editor), Jeffrey D. Ho (Editor), List Price: $119.00. (Springer, March 15, 2009).

     Tasers: Report of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Science and Public Health on "Use of Tasers by Law Enforcement Agencies." (June 15, 2009).

     Technology: Body-Worn Cameras for Criminal Justice: Market Survey, National Institute of Justice (Mar. 2014).

     Technology: "Operation Candid Camera: Rialto Police Department's Body-Worn Camera Experiment," by William Farrar, Chief of Police, Rialto, California Police Department, Police Chief (January 2014).

     Technology: "Body Worn Cameras. Tip: Don’t make assumptions that people have video-like perception skills," by Sgt. Chuck Humes, LawOfficer.com, Feb. 14, 2013.

     Technology: "Evaluating the Use of Public Surveillance Cameras for Crime Control and Prevention -- A Summary," by Nancy G. La Vigne, Samantha S. Lowry, Joshua A. Markman, and Allison M. Dwyer, Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center (September 2011).

     Technology: "Focus on In Car Camera" DVD. This no-cost resource was developed by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) Technology Technical Assistance Project (TTAP) through funding by the U.S Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). This video demonstrates how planning and implementation are the keys to a successful in-car camera program that protects officers, their departments, and the citizens they serve. Free copies of the DVD may be ordered at the link.

     Technology: The website of the National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology and the Law states that it assembles the available scientific, technological, and relevant legal resources into a comprehensive "one-stop" searchable database with equal access for all. NCSTL provides: a searchable database of legal, forensic, and technology resources; a reference collection of law, science, and technology material; partnerships with law schools, professional associations, and federal and state agencies; national conferences on science, technology, and the law; community acceptance panels; training modules and primers with an emphasis on distance education; and training for defense counsel who are handling cases involving biological evidence on the applications and limitations of DNA evidence as stated in the President's DNA Initiative.

     Technology: High-Priority Criminal Justice Technology Needs, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice. (2009).

     Technology: Investigative Uses of Technology: Devices, Tools, and Techniques by the National Institute of Justice October 2007. This NIJ special report discusses techniques and resources for investigating technology-related crime. It explains technology-related tools and devices that an investigator may encounter or that may assist an investigation, and legal issues affecting the use of high technology. Devices not only can aid an investigation; they can facilitate crime. For example, criminals can use cell phones to trigger explosives and credit cards and other customer cards to engage in fraud, theft, and identity theft. For each device described, the report provides an overview of their functions and usefulness to investigators. Devices can be multifunctional (e.g., cell phones can perform camera functions). As more functions converge into a single device, investigators need to be aware that relevant information can be stored in seemingly mundane or commonplace objects or devices.

     Technology: "License Plate Recognition Technology," by Arthur Gordon and Ross Wolf, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 3, pgs. 8-13 (March 2007). "While this technology may not be perfect, it still is a significant resource for helping law enforcement officers combat crime." [.html version]

     Technology: Law Enforcement Tech Guide for Small and Rural Police Agencies (1837K) published by Community Orient Policing Services (COPS), U.S. Department of Justice, (11/8/2005). This practical and user-friendly guidebook is geared to the small and rural police agency, providing strategies, best practices, recommendations, and ideas for successful IT planning and implementation. Agencies with minimal personnel and financing can learn how to implement IT projects from preliminary project planning and project plan creation to technology acquisition, implementation, and maintenance. This guidebook complements the Law Enforcement Tech Guide: How to plan, purchase, and manage technology (successfully!). When used together, they make an impressive toolset for technology implementation.

Terrorism, Homeland Security, National Security Issues

     Annual Report: U.S. Department of Justice, 2005 Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Annual Report. The report states that the U.S. government made 2,074 applications to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court in 2005 for approval to conduct physical or electronic searches. Two of the applications were withdrawn before the court decided whether to approve them, though one of these applications was later resubmitted and approved by the court. The court did not deny any of the applications, but did modify 61 applications before approving them. This is more than the 2004-year total of 1,758 such requests. The report, for the first time, included information about requests for access to business records and issuance of national security letters, stating that 9,254 national security letters were issued for information about 3,501 U.S. persons in 2005. The Justice Department also states that it made 155 applications to the court for access to business records and production of tangible things in 2005, all of which were approved.

     Annual Report: Administration Office of the United States Courts, 2005 Wiretap Report. States that state and federal courts authorized 1,773 interceptions of wire, oral, and electronic communications in 2005, an increased of 4% over intercepts approved in 2004. Federal officials requested 625 intercept applications in 2005, a 14% decrease from those requested in 2004.

     Article: "Demands on Police Services in a WMD Incident," by Joel A. Carlson, 77 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 3, (March 2006), pg. 1. "Law enforcement executives must plan for the meaingful utilization of personnel and resources prior to the event to ensure an effective response to the demands on their organizations." [.html]

     Article: "Law Enforcement and Hazmat/WMD Emergency Response," by Ed Allen and Steve Patrick, 7 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 3, (March 2006), pg. 16. "The recently revised National Fire Protection Association's Technical Standard 472 specifies minimum competencies for those who will respond to hazmat/WMD incidents, regardless of their agency or response discipline. [.html]

     Article: "Managing Joint Terrorism Task Force Resources," by James Casey, 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 11, pgs. 1-6 (November 2004). [PDF] "Effectively handling joint terrorism task force resources provides an important key for law enforcement agencies to combat terrorism." Also available in .html format.

      Article: "Law Enforcement Online," By Lesley G. Koestner, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 2, pgs. 1-6 (February 2006). "As the FBI evolves from its traditional focus on law enforcement to its post-September 11 mission, which includes the homeland security priorities of counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and cybercrime, LEO plays a crucial role."

     Article: "Defending Against Cybercrime and Terrorism," by Tony Aeilts, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 1, pgs. 14-20 (January 2005). "Higher-education institutions offer additional resources to law enforcement agencies in the fight against terrorism." [.html format] [PDF format].

    Article: "Countering Violent Islamic Extremism," by Carol Dyer, Ryan E. McCoy, Joel Rodriguez, and Donald N. Van Duyn, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 12 (Dec. 2007), pgs. 3-9. "Working with communities and identifying patterns and trends of extremist behavior in its early stages can help counter the spread of extremist ideology." [.html format]

     Article: "Words Make Worlds," by Angus Smith, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 12 (Dec. 2007), pgs. 12-18. "To effectively penetrate the extremist world, the law enforcement and intelligence communities must understand extremist discourse." [.html format].

     A Better-Prepared America: A Year in Review (May 2004). The Department of Homeland Security issued a review of the past year's progress, citing areas such as grants, training, interoperability, and community involvement.

     Extremist Activity: Building Resilience to Violent Extremism: One Community's Perspective, by Stevan M. Weine and John G. Horgan, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (April 2014).

     National Security: Independent APA review on national security interrogations (July 2015).

     National Security Issues: DoD Evaluation of Over-Classification of National Security Information (Redacted), Inspector General Department of Defense (Sept. 30, 2013).

     Publication: Citizen Corps (NCJ 203669), Bureau of Justice Assistance, June 2004. PDF or HTML Describes Citizen Corps, a nationwide program that promotes volunteer activities that support community safety and homeland security. Citizen Corps programs and partners build on the successful efforts that are in place in many communities across the United States to prevent crime and respond to emergencies.

     Terrorism and Narional Security: Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Committee Study of the Central Intelligence Agency's Detention and Interrogation Program Executive Summary (Declassified Dec. 3, 2014). CIA Response (Approved for Release Dec. 8, 2014).

     Terrorism and National Security: Report to the Special Committee of the Board of Directors of the American Psychological Association. Independent Review Relating to APA Ethics Guidelines, National Security Interrogations, and Torture, Sidley Austin LLP (July 2, 2015).

     Terrorism: Using Human Sources in Counterterrorism Operations: Understanding the Motivations and Political Impact, by Simon De Block, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (April 2016).

     Terrorism: Illusion of Justice Human Rights Abuses in US Terrorism Prosecutions, Human Rights Watch (July 21, 2014). The 214-page report examines 27 federal terrorism cases from initiation of the investigations to sentencing and post-conviction conditions of confinement. It documents the significant human cost of certain counterterrorism practices, such as overly aggressive sting operations and unnecessarily restrictive conditions of confinement.

     Terrorism: Countering Violent Extremism in the United States, Congressional Research Service (Feb. 2014).

     Terrorism: "Terrorism, Miranda, and Related Matters," Congressional Research Service Report (Apr. 2013).

     Terrorism,: "Lawfulness of a Lethal Operation Directed Against a U.S. Citizen Who Is a Senior Operational Leader of Al-Qa'ida or An Associated Force," Department of Justice White Paper (Written in 2011, Published February 2013).

     Terrorism: "The Evolution of Terrorism Since 9/11," by Lauren B. O'Brien, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Sept. 2011). "Understanding how terrorism trends have evolved can help agencies face today's current threat environment."

     Terrorism: "Sovereign Citizens: A Growing Domestic Threat to Law Enforcement," by the FBI's Counterterrorism Analysis Section, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Sept. 2011). "Law enforcement must become knowledgeable and aware of sovereign-citizen extremists."

     Terrorism: A Review of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Use of Exigent Letters and Other Informal Requests for Telephone Records, January 2010. A report by the U.S. Department of Justice's Inspector General.

     Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues: "Cyber Terror," by William L. Tafoya, F.B.I. Law Enforcement Bulletin, p. 1(November 2011).

     Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues: Targeted and Entrapped: Manufacturing the "Homegrown Threat" in the United States, Center for Human Rights and Global Justice, NYU School of Law (May 2011).

     Terrorism, Homeland Security and National Security Issues: F.B.I. "Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide," (Dec. 16, 2008), disclosed in response to Freedom of Information Act request.

    Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues: Strategic Risk Management in Government: A Look at Homeland Security. A report issued by the IBM Center for the Business of Government, describing the recent history of strategic risk management in the Homeland Security Department and offering findings and recommendations for the President, DHS, and Congress.

   Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues: The Department of Homeland Security has released a progress report on 9-11 Commission Recommendations. The recommendations pertain to guarding against terrorism and ensuring transportation security, border security; increasing "preparedness efforts;" protecting privacy and civil liberties; and improving collaboration and information sharing. The recommendations include developing a risk-based plan for transportation security, airline passenger pre-screening, airline passenger explosives screening, and checked-bag screening. The tracking and disrupting of terrorist financing, standardizing secure identification, integrating border security into larger network of screening points including transportation system are also recommended. The DHS also advised allocating homeland security funds based on risk and improving interoperability of communications at all levels of government and establishing a unified incident command system. The DHS report also recommended balancing security and civil liberties and safeguarding individual privacy when sharing information.

     Terrorism and National Security Issues: Report of Justice Department under FISA and USA PATRIOT Act: (May 14, 2009). In a report to the Congress, the Justice Department revealed a substantial increase in the use of National Security Letters to acquire information on American citizens without court order. National Security Letters are an extraordinary search procedure that gives the FBI the power to compel the disclosure of customer records held by banks, telephone companies, Internet Service Providers, and others. The report stated that during 2008, the Government made 2,082 applications to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court for authority to conduct electronic surveillance and physical searches for foreign intelligence purposes. The applications include permission for electronic surveillance, physical searches or both, and all applications were approved. In 2008, the FBI issued 24,744 National Security Letters pertaining to 7,225 U.S. persons compared to 16,804 requests pertaining to 4,327 U.S. persons in 2007.

     Terrorism and National Security Issues: Report, The State Secrets Privilege and Other Limits on Litigation Involving Classified Information, Congressional Research Service #R40603 (May 28, 2009).

     Terrorism: "Terrorism Prevention," by William McCormack, 78 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin Number 3, pgs 1-7 (March 2009). "All law enforcement agencies play an important role in thwarting heinous acts of terrorism."

    Terrorism: The FBI's Terrorist Watchlist Nomination Practices, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, Audit Division, May 2009.

     Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues: "Unclassified Report on the President's Surveillance Program," prepared by the Offices of Inspectors General of the Department of Defense, Department of Justice, Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, and Office of the Director of National Intelligence. (July 10, 2009). A report on the President's Surveillance Program initiated by President Bush following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, including interception of certain communications into and out of the U.S. The report is designed to be a comprehensive review of the program mandated by Title III of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Amendments Act of 2008. A separate classified report was also submitted to Congressional committees.

     Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues:  Attorney General Memorandum to Department Components on Guidelines for Domestic FBI Operations (October 3, 2008). Discusses new guidelines affecting FBI investigations and information gathering relating to federal crimes, threats to national security, and foreign intelligence, investigative assistance by the FBI to other federal, state, local, tribal, and foreign agencies, the FBI's intelligence analysis and planning functions, and FBI information sharing. The Consolidated Guidelines, published the same date, are also available on-line.

     Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, Report to Congress on Implementation of Section 1001 of the USA PATRIOT Act, as required by Sec. 1001(3) of Public Law 107-56. August 3, 2007. A report to Congress on claims of civil rights or civil liberties violations allegedly committed by DOJ employees from the period January 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. This is the eleventh in a series of semiannual reports.

     Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues: "Radicalization in the West: The Homegrown Threat," prepared by Mitchell D. Silber and Arvin Bhatt, Senior Intelligence Analysts, NYPD Intelligence Division. (90 pgs. PDF Format, August 2007). An assessment, by the New York Police Department, of "the kind of threat we face domestically" from terrorism.

     "Patterns of Global Terrorism" Report 2003, U.S. State Department (April 2004). (A 7.4 megabyte .pdf file). Individual sections may be downloaded in .pdf format here. Individual sections of the report may be access in .html format here. NOTE:  Corrected Year in Review, Appendix A, and Appendix G were posted on June 22, 2004. (Numbers in the overall report text, specifically numbers of killed and wounded, will subsequently be revised to reflect the corrected Appendices. Until that occurs, reference should be made to these supplemental files). Also, a new fact sheet Chronology of Non-Significant International Terrorist Incidents, 2003 was released on June 22, 2004. (An International Terrorist Incident is judged non-significant if it does not result in a loss of life or serious injury to persons, major property damage (more than $10,000), and/or is not an act or attempted act that could reasonably be expected to create the conditions noted).

     "Responding to Incidents of National Character". The Federal Emergency Management Agency has issued recommendations for fire and emergency services based on the events of 11 September 2001 and other incidents (May 26, 2004). Press release  Full report. [PDF]

     9/11 COMMISSION STAFF STATEMENT (May 18, 2004) Statement released by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks in the U.S. at a hearing in New York, discussing "communication difficulties" among N.Y.C. police, fire department, and other emergency rescue personnel on September 11, 2001 at the World Trade Center following the terrorist attack. [PDF].

     General Accounting Office (GAO) Report on Airport Perimeters and Access Control [PDF] and The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) response to issues raised in the report.

     Report : "We the People: Homeland Security from the Citizens' Perspective," [PDF], by the Council for Excellence in Government, contains almost fifty recommendations for improving homeland security and citizen involvement. An article in Government Executive discusses the report.

     Article: "Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, Before and After the USA PATRIOT Act," by Michael J. Bulzomi, J.D., Legal Instructor, FBI Academy, 72 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 6, pgs. 25-33 (June 2003)."The FISA and USA PATRIOT Act provide oversight to law enforcement officers investigating terrorist and intelligence cases. Also available in .html format.

     Conference: BioSecurity 2003. October 20–22, 2003 in Washington, D.C. BioSecurity 2003 is an international scientific and educational conference that provides a forum for officials in government, defense, science and technology, public health, academia, medicine, law enforcement, and public policy to exchange information applicable to biosecurity strategies. The Biosecurity Mailing List provides event updates, which will also be posted to the conference web site.

     Homeland security website: The Justice Dept. has created a National Security Resources website for the criminal justice community, at: www.nationalsecurityresources.gov/

     Publication: Emergency Preparedness Guide for Homeowners, 9 pgs. [PDF] Published by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the Homeownership Alliance.

    Publication: National Institute of Justice, NIJ Journal Issue No. 254 Posted July 7, 2006 When a Zylon-based body armor that had passed NIJ standards failed to fully protect an officer in 2003, NIJ began investigating why. The newest NIJ Journal features an article about the findings of the investigation as well as interim changes to the standards and testing program. Another article summarizes findings from an NIJ-sponsored conference about suicide terrorism. The conference brought together experts in the field to discuss findings and share views on suicide terrorism, what compels individuals to join terrorist organizations, and the utility of a central database of research on the topic. Additional stories feature: Biometric-based identification used by a school in New Jersey to keep its students safer. A method for minimizing the costs and risks of conducting evaluations. Ways to better investigate electronic crimes. Methamphetamine use and production. Increased reports of rape involving people who know each other. Full Text HTML

     Publication: The Office for Domestic Preparedness Guidelines for Homeland Security. Prevention and Deterrence. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office for Domestic Preparedness. June 2003. 31 pgs. [PDF].

     Publication: Protecting Your Community From Terrorism: The Strategies for Local Law Enforcement Series. The first of a series of five white papers to address local law enforcement concerns in preventing and preparing for terrorist acts. Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) (March 2003) 120 pages. [PDF].

     Publication: Department of Justice Emergency Preparedness: Guidance and General Information. Justice Management Division (February 2003).

     Publication: Law Enforcement Intelligence: A Guide for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Agencies, by Dr. David Carter, Michigan State University. Funded by COPS (Community Oriented Policing Services). "Dr. Carter's guide promises to help law enforcement agencies develop or enhance their intelligence capacity and enable them to be instrumental in fighting terrorism and other crimes while preserving hard-won community policing relationships." Downloadable executive summary and 12 downloadable chapters, as well as appendices. (November 23, 2004). [PDF]

     Report: "Patterns of Global Terrorism" Report 2002, U.S. State Department (April 2003). (A 40.3 megabyte .pdf file). Individual sections may be downloaded in .pdf format here. Individual sections of the report may be accessed in .html format here.

     Report: "Report to Congress on Implementation of Section 1001 of the USA PATRIOT Act" (January 27, 2004) U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General. HTML PDF The latest in a series of reports by the office, which is mandated by Congress in Section 1001 of the USA PATRIOT Act to review information and receive complaints alleging abuses of civil rights and civil liberties by employees and officials of the Department of Justice.

     Reports: The Federal Bureau of Investigation's Efforts to Improve the Sharing of Intelligence and Other Information. Report Number 04-10 (December 2003). Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Justice. (HTML format; also available in PDF format).

     Statute: The Homeland Security Act of 2002, law establishing Cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security and addressing related issues. (November 2002). [PDF]. Also see: Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan (November 25, 2002, 18 pages, .pdf format, detailing the agencies and units included or excluded in the new Department).

     Terrorism: "Detention of U.S. Persons as Enemy Belligerents," Congressional Research Service, Report No. R42337 (Feb. 2012).

     Terrorism and National Security Issues: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, Report to Congress on Implementation of Sec. 1001 of the USA Patriot Act, as required by Sec. 1001(3) of Public Law 107-56. August 2008. (Concerns claims of civil rights or civil liberties violations allegedly committed by DOJ employees).

     Terrorism and National Security Issues: "Terrorism: Major Cases Past and Present," a page on the FBI website with links to information about terrorism cases the FBI has been involved in from the 1920s to the present.

     Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues: "Annual Threat Assessment of the Director of National Intelligence for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence," by J. Michael McConnell, Director of National Intelligence. 47 pgs., February 5, 2008. States, among other things, that "Al-Qa’ida and its terrorist affiliates continue to pose significant threats to the United States at home and abroad," and that the radical Islamic terrorist group has improved its "identification, training, and positioning of operatives for an attack" inside the United States.

     Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues: Law Enforcement Intelligence: A Guide for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Agencies. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). This intelligence guide was prepared in response to requests from law enforcement executives for guidance on intelligence functions in a post-September 11 world. It will help law enforcement agencies develop or enhance their intelligence capacity and enable them to fight terrorism and other crimes while preserving community policing relationships. Published: 09/24/2007

     Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues: National Strategy for Information Sharing. On October 31, 2007, the White House announced the release of the National Strategy for Information Sharing. The Strategy sets forth a plan to build upon the progress made in improving information sharing since the September 11 attacks and establishes an integrated national information sharing capability. It was developed using a collaborative process and based on significant input provided by members of the Federal Information Sharing Council, as well as state, local, tribal, and private sector officials from across the nation.

    Terrorism, Homeland Security, National Security Issues: "Financing Terror," by Dean T. Olson, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 2, pgs 1- 5 (Feb. 2007). "From stolen baby formula to intellectual property theft, terrorist groups employ a variety of criminal schemes to raise funds." [.html version]

    Terrorism, Homeland Security, National Security Issues: Special Report: A Review of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Use of National Security Letters, U.S.D.O.J. office of the Inspector General (March 9, 2007).

     Terrorism, Homeland Security, National Security Issues: A Review of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Use of Section 215 Order for Business Records, U.S.D.O.J. office of the Inspector General (March 2007).

      Terrorism and Homeland Security: Country Reports on Terrorism 2004. The U.S. Department of State's annual report on terrorism around the world. (Called "Patterns of Global Terrorism" in prior years). (136 pgs. April 2005). [PDF] Statistical data formerly found in this report is now presented in another document prepared by the National Counterrorism Center, entitled "A Chronology of Significant International Terrorism for 2004." (92 pgs. April 2005) [PDF]

     Terrorism and Homeland Security: Interim National Preparedness Goal, March 31, 2005 [PDF], published by the Department of Homeland Security for the guidance of federal agencies and departments, and state, local, territorial, and tribal officials, as well as the public and non-governmental organizations in strengthening preparedness for emergencies, including major disasters and terrorist attacks.

     Terrorism & Homeland Security: IACP Training Key #581 - Suicide Bombers, Part One IACP Training Key #582 - Suicide Bombers, Part Two. Published July 8, 2005, indicating that police officers who encounter suicide bombers should shoot them in the head. Part I covers profiles of suicide bombers and common beliefs behind committing a terrorist act. "By profiling the suicide bomber, law enforcement personnel can better understand the types of actions associated with suicide bombers and can be better prepared to prevent attacks." Part II explains how police and other first responders should react to such incidents.

     Terrorism & Homeland Security: Strategy for Homeland Defense and Civil Support. U.S. Department of Defense. Addresses the Department's roles in the homeland defense mission and support to civil authorities. (June 30, 2005). [PDF]

     Terrorism and Homeland Security Issues: A General Accounting Office (GAO) report states that the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, although making some progress in deploying radiation detection equipment at U.S. ports-of-entry, still needs to do "much" more work to prevent risks of terrorism at U.S. ports. (March 28, 2006).

     Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues: The Senate Judiciary Committee hearings on "Wartime Executive Power and the National Security Agency's Warrantless Surveillance Authority" have been published (908 pages). Access at: http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/2006_hr/nsasurv.html or http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/2006_hr/nsasurv.pdf [PDF]

     Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues: National Strategy for Combating Terrorism, released by the White House on September 5, 2006.

     Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues: U.S. Department of Justice White Paper on National Security Administrations (NSA) Legal Authority. (January 19, 2006). White House's views on why NSA domestic wiretaps and eavesdropping is legal. See also, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978.

     Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues: State Dept. Country Reports on Terrorism 2005. (PDF, March 2006). (html format).

     Terrorism and National Security Issues: U.S. Dept. of Justice Inspector General's Report, "A Review of the FBI's handling of the Brandon Mayfield Case," January 2006. Brandon Mayfield is an Oregon attorney detained by federal agents for a time on the basis of a belief that a fingerprint found on a bag of detonators used in the March 11, 2004 terrorist attacks on commuter trains in Madrid, Spain was his. The attorney, a convert to Islam, was subsequently found not to be linked to the attack. The report found that "three experienced FBI examiners and a court-appointed expert," while confused by the similarity between Mayfield's fingerprint and the print found on the detonators, did not engage in any intentional misconduct. The report further found that the main factors resulting in "the FBI's failure to question the original misidentification and catch its error were the similarity of the prints and the Laboratory's overconfidence in the superiority of its examiners." Click here to read the FBI's response to the report.

     Terrorism: The President's Memorandum to the Director of Central Intelligence regarding the strengthening Central Intelligence Agency capabilities and Memorandum to the Attorney General regarding further strengthening of Federal Bureau of Investigation capabilities (11-23-2004).

     Terrorism: Report to the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States: The FBI's Counter-terrorism Program Since September 2001. [PDF] 80 pages, (FBI, April 14, 2004).

     Terrorism: Homeland Security Presidential Directive/Hspd-6 Subject: Integration and Use of Screening Information. (September 16, 2003). Directive of President Bush to the Attorney General to establish an organization to consolidate the U.S. government's approach to terrorism screening and provide for the "appropriate and lawful use of Terrorist Information in screening processes."

     Terrorism: Memorandum of Understanding on the Integration and Use of Screening Information to Protect Against Terrorism (September 16, 2003) Federal interagency agreement amongst the State Department, Department of Justice, Department of Homeland Security, and the CIA promising to coordinate and share information on potential terrorist threats with federal, state, local, and foreign authorities or governments. [PDF]  Issued in implementation of President Bush's September 16, 2003 Presidential Directive, listed above.

     Terrorism: The U.S. Department of Justice has established a new website, www.lifeandliberty.gov, to educate Americans about how the use of the USA PATRIOT Act helps to preserve life and liberty, and to attempt to respond to criticisms and misconceptions about the statute.

     Terrorism: "Report From The Field: The USA PATRIOT Act At Work," U.S. Department of Justice (July 2004). 31 pgs. [PDF] A compilation of "dozens of real life cases from across the county in which the FBI and other law enforcement officials have used the tools of the Patriot Act to protect America's families and communities, and to save lives."

     Terrorism: Final Report of The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (also known as the 9-11 Commission). July 22, 2004. 7.22 megabyte file. [PDF].

     Terrorism: A Promising Practices Guide: Developing Partnerships Between Law Enforcement and American Muslim, Arab, and Sikh Communities, by the Partnering for Prevention and Community Safety Initiative, Northeastern University School of Law. A report seeking to "identify and help implement promising practices for building relationships between federal, state, and local law enforcement and American Muslim, Arab, and Sikh communities" in order to "enhance counterterrorism initiatives, protect communities from hate crimes and hate incidents, and help preserve American civil liberties." The approach taken in this report has been strongly criticized by Daniel Pipes, director of the Middle East Forum, and a member of the presidentially-appointed board of the U.S. Institute of Peace.

     Terrorism/Homeland Security: President Bush orders a common identification card standard for access to federal facilities. Homeland Security Presidential Directive No. 12 (2004).

     Terrorism, Homeland Security, and National Security Issues: The National Intelligence Estimate: The Terrorist Threat to the U.S. Homeland (National Intelligence Council, July 17, 2007). A report stating that the U.S. currently "is in a heightened threat environment," and predicting that al Qaeda and similar terrorist organizations, such as Hezbollah may engage in attacks on "prominent political, economic, and infrastructure targets" in the U.S. for the purpose of producing "mass casualties, visually dramatic destruction, significant economic aftershocks, and fear among the U.S. population."

     Terrorism and National Security Issues: National Response Plan, Department of Homeland Security, 426 pgs.(January 6, 2005). Describes how federal agencies will work with state, local, and tribal governments in the event of an emergency--naturally occurring or terrorist imposed. [PDF]

     Terrorism & Homeland Security Issues: U.S. Customs and Border Protection has published, in the Federal Register, the Final Rule for the CBP Advanced Passenger Information System (APIS). It finalizes the requirement for all commercial air and sea carriers to submit advanced information on all passengers and crewmembers prior to entry to or departure from the U.S.

     Testimony: "Information and Intelligence Sharing: FBI Report Card to Congress," (August 23, 2004). The text of the August 17, 2004 testimony of FBI Executive Assistant Director Maureen Baginski before the House Select Committee on Homeland Security discussing progress on the information-sharing recommendations of the 9-11 Commission.

     Website: FBI Counter-Terrorism Website. Information on the most wanted terrorists, on-line form for providing tips and information, recent warnings, links to useful resources, etc.

     Website: Counter-Terrorism Training and Resources for Law Enforcement. Contains material and links to information on training and technical assistance, conferences, funding, research and statistics, equipment, planning and risk assessment, publications, legislation, and victim assistance.

Trafficking in Persons

     Annual Report:  Assessment of U.S. Government Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons, September 2005 (9/30/05). [PDF].

     Human Trafficking: International Efforts by Police Leadership to Combat Human Trafficking by Michael Pittaro and Anthony Normore, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (June 2016).

     Human Trafficking: "Human Sex Trafficking," by Amanda Walker-Rodriguez and Rodney Hill, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2011). "Human sex trafficking is a serious problem for every level of law enforcement."

     Human Trafficking: "Investigating Human Trafficking," by Kevin Bales and Steven Lize, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 4, pgs. 24-31 (April 2007)."Law enforcement agencies can take practical steps to effectively address cases of human trafficking." [PDF] [HTML]

     Publication: Anti-Trafficking News Bulletin, U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Volume 2, Issue 1 (April 2005) 10 pgs, PDF. Provides recent news and analysis concerning law enforcement efforts to combat human trafficking. Additional information on the evils of human trafficking and the latest anti-trafficking efforts is available on the Internet at: http://www.usdoj.gov/trafficking.htm

     Report: Report to Congress from Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzalez on U.S. Government Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons in Fiscal Year 2004. [PDF]. (July 2005). Appendix 1 and Appendix 2 to the report contain additional information about the efforts of various government agencies and private organizations cooperating with governmental efforts in this area. [PDF]

     Report: Assessment of U.S. Government Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons. U.S. Department of Justice. 53 pgs. (June 2004) [PDF]. A follow-up of a similar report issued last year. Examines the legal and practical problems involved in combating the trafficking of persons across international borders into the U.S. to be used for sex and labor exploitation purposes. The report estimates that such crimes currently involve between 14,500 and 17,500 victims each year. See also, "Report to Congress from Attorney General John Ashcroft on U.S. Government Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons in Fiscal Year 2003," 42 pgs. [PDF] (May 1, 2004). Eighty pages of appendices to that report are also available in .pdf format.

     Human Trafficking: Model State Anti-Trafficking Criminal Statute. [PDF] [Wordperfect file]

     Sex Trafficking: A Victim-Centered Approach to Sex Trafficking, by Larry Alvarez and Jocelyn Canas-Moreira, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (November 2015).

Training & Guidelines

     Article: "Educating and Training the Future Police Officer," by Michael Buerger, Associate Professor of Criminal Justice, Bowling Green State University in Ohio, 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 1, pgs. 26-32 (January 2004). [PDF] "The future challenges facing the law enforcement professional can spark the integration of academic study and on-the-job training and experience that will culminate in improved service to the public." Also available in .html format.

     Article: "Focus on Training: Cop 101. Surviving Prisoner Searches," by Todd Coleman, Master Police Officer, certified police instructor, who serves in the Special Operations Division of the Virginia Beach, Virginia Police Department, 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pgs. 8-11 (May 2004). [PDF] Also available in .html format.

     Article: "Training for Law Enforcement Managers," by Robert Trott, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 5, pgs. 12-18 (May 2006). "Using professional military education as a model, law enforcement agencies can substantially improve their managers' education, preparation, and development." [PDF] [HTML].

     Education of Personnel: Police Chief Magazine (August 2006). "Distance Learning is Practical—Even for Chiefs. To read how one chief selected and finished an advanced degree through distance learning, click here. "College Education and Policing " Many agencies require a college education as prerequisite for employment. To read about the justifying research and actual department experiences, click here.

     Guidelines: "Crowd Management and Civil Disobedience Guidelines," California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training. (35 pgs. March 2003). (A revision of guidelines first published in December of 1998).

     Statistics: State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2006. Presents findings from the 2006 BJS Census of Law Enforcement Training Academies, updating the results of the initial census conducted in 2002. The latest census included 648 academies providing basic training during 2006. Data are presented on the number and type of training instructors; types of on- and off-site training facilities; operating expenditures; funding; basic training curriculum; and the number of instruction hours for each training topic. The report also includes the number and characteristics of recruits entering basic training and completion rates by race, gender, and type of training environment. Special topics include training related to terrorism and community policing. Highlights include the following: Basic training programs averaged 19 weeks in length. Topics with the most instruction time included firearms (median of 60 hours), self-defense (51 hours), health and fitness (46 hours), patrol procedures (40 hours), investigations (40 hours), emergency vehicle operations (40 hours), criminal law (36 hours), and basic first aid (24 hours). Of an estimated 57,000 recruits who entered basic training programs during 2005, 86% or 49,000 successfully completed their program and graduated from the academy. Academies with a predominately non-stress, or academic, orientation (89%) had a higher completion rate than academies with a predominately stress, or paramilitary, orientation (80%). 02/09 NCJ 222987. Press release | Acrobat file (163K) | ASCII file (31K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 27K).

     Training: Emergency Medical Response in Active-Threat Situations: Training Standards for Law Enforcement, by John M. Landry, Sara J. Aberle, Andrew J. Dennis, and Matthew D. Sztajnkrycer, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2015).

     Training: :"Focus on Training: Training for Deadly Force Encounters," by Timothy Hoff, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2012).

     Training: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has announced the availability of a new Independent Study Course titled: Active Shooter, What You Can Do (IS-907), a no-cost training course developed to provide the public with guidance on how to prepare for and respond to active shooter crisis situations. An active shooter is defined in the course as an individual "engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a confined and populated area. In most cases, there is no pattern or method to their selection of victims." This new online training is available through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Emergency Management Institute (EMI) at http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/IS907.asp.

     Training: "Law Enforcement Training. Factors in the Spanish-Speaking Community," by Arthur Natella, Jr., and Pablo Paul Madera, 77 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 12, page 12 (Dec. 2008). "Agencies must ensure that officers understand some basic elements of cultural differences to effectively enforce the law."

     Training: Law Enforcement Training Database. Bureau of Justice Assistance. A catalog of all federally funded and supported training available to state and local law enforcement officials. Each database listing includes the training provider, a course description, eligibility criteria, and contact information.

     Training: "Conflict Resolution for School Personnel: An Interactive School Safety Training Tool" (October 2002). This interactive CD–ROM (NCJ 194198) from NIJ contains five modules (anger, threats, attacks with weapons, suicide, and weapons on campus) that are intended to aid school personnel in their responses to such potentially violent situations. The modules, which can be viewed in any order, are broken down into 12 didactic tutorials (e.g., de-escalating student conflicts, assessing a suicide threat, suspected gunshots) and 14 interactive scenarios (e.g., fight in library, Internet hit list, gun in cafeteria). Free, but shipping may apply. To obtain a copy of this CD–ROM, call or write to NCJRS at— NCJRS P.O. Box 6000 Rockville, Maryland 20859–6000 Phone: 800–851–3420 Fax: 301–519–5212 TTY service for the hearing impaired: 1–877–712–9279 (toll free) or 301–947–8374 (local).

     Training: "Eyewitness Evidence: A Trainer's Manual For Law Enforcement" National Institute of Justice. This NIJ Special Report assists law enforcement trainers with creating and instructing courses on eyewitness evidence, particularly interviewing witnesses and conducting lineups. It provides instructors with sample lesson plans, explanations grounded in research, and multimedia presentations that supplement key points in the training curriculum. NCJ 188678 (2003, 62 pages). [PDF format] [Html format]

     Training: "Developing a Scenario-Based Training Program," by Michael D. Lynch, Sergeant, curriculum coordinator and instructor at the West Virginia State Police Academy, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 10, pgs. 1-8 (October 2005). "Providing officers with realistic training situations will enable them to hone their skills in a safe environment." [PDF] (also available here in .html format).

     Training: "Liability for Failure to Train," by Martin J. King, FBI Special Agent and Instructor FBI Academy, 74 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 10, pgs. 22-31 (October 2005). "'Deliberate indifference' is a standard of fault that is demonstrated when government policymakers act with conscious disregard for the obvious consequences of their actions." [PDF] (also available here in .html format).

     Training: In partnership with Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) has developed a new Volunteers in Police Service (VIPS) training course, "VIPS and Disaster Response." Responding to a disaster can strain a law enforcement agency's limited resources. Recent disasters have shown that law enforcement volunteers can play a valuable role in supplementing disaster preparation, response, and recovery efforts. This no-cost training provides information about integrating volunteers into a law enforcement agency's plan for natural disasters, public health crises, and other emergencies. Participants will come away with specific information about disaster preparedness, the role of volunteers during disasters, CERT, and pandemic response. Visit www.policevolunteers.org to register and view more information. The VIPS Program has released a new version of its Volunteering with Law Enforcement: A Citizen's Guide brochure. This brochure includes space for a law enforcement agency to add their contact information and can be used to recruit volunteers. Law enforcement agencies can request bulk copies of the brochure here.

     Use of Force: Re-Engineering Training on Police Use of Force, Police Executive Research Forum (August, 2015).

     Website: National POST Portal. Presents links to connect to the Peace Officer Standards and Training Agency or Central Academy of all but three states.

Undercover Employees

     Article: "Safeguarding Undercover Employees," by Meredith Krause, 77 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 8, pg. 1 (Aug. 2008). "The selection, management, and retention of effective undercover employees pose significant challenges to law enforcement agencies. [PDF format].

Use of Force

     Article: "Deaths During Police Intervention," by Richard Parent, 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 4, pgs. 18-22 (April 2006). "Research has pointed out the importance of recognizing that some methods of less lethal force and body restraint may increase the risk of death." [PDF] [.html]

     Article: "Documenting the Use of Force," by Todd Coleman, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 11, pgs 18-23 (Nov. 2007). "Officers must properly document incidents involving the use of force." [PDF]

     Article: "The Heck Doctrine and Excessive Force Claims--A Conviction Isn't Everything," by Rachelle Sorg, Chicago Bar Association, 20 CBA Record No. 8, pg. 58 (November 2006). Article discusses the rule in Heck v. Humphrey, No. 93-6188, 512 U.S. 477 (1994), barring federal civil rights lawsuits that would imply the invalidity of a prior criminal conviction that has not yet been overturned on appeal or otherwise invalidated or set-aside, and its application in lawsuits concerning claims of excessive force during arrests. The article focuses on caselaw from the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, and from federal district courts in Illinois.

     Article: "The Police Officer's Dilemma: Using Ethnicity to Disambiguate Potentially Threatening Individuals," by Joshua Correll, Bernadette Park, and Charles W. Judd, University of Colorado at Boulder and Bernd Wittenbrink, University of Chicago, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, http://www.apa.org/journals/psp.html, Vol. 83, No. 6, 1314-1329 (Dec. 2002). American Psychological Association. Using a videogame, three studies were conducted on the effect of ethnicity on shoot/don't shoot decisions. Participants were more likely to conclude mistakenly that African-American men appearing in the game were armed and to shoot them when required to make split-second decisions about whether black or white male figures appearing in the game were holding guns.

     Article: "Use of Force Policies & Training, A Reasoned Approach," by Thomas D. Petrowski, FBI Special Agent and Instructor, FBI Academy. Vol. 71, No. 10 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin pgs. 25-32 (October 2002). (.pdf format). (First part of a two-part article. The second part will appear in the November 2002 issue. Subsequent and prior issues of the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin are available on-line at: http://www.fbi.gov/publications/leb/leb.htm.)

     Article: "Use of Force Policies & Training, A Reasoned Approach," by Thomas D. Petrowski, FBI Special Agent and Instructor, FBI Academy. Vol. 71, No. 11 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin pgs. 22-32 (November 2002). [PDF]. (Second part of a two-part article. The first part appeared in the October 2002 issue. Subsequent and prior issues of the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin are available on-line at: http://www.fbi.gov/publications/leb/leb.htm.)

     Article: "Blunt and penetrating injuries caused by rubber bullets during the Israeli-Arab conflict in October, 2000: a retrospective study," The Lancet, 25 May 2002. The article is online, but free registration is required at http://www.thelancet.com/ -- then access the article at: http://pdf.thelancet.com/pdfdownload?uid=llan.359.9320.original

     Book: "The abuse of police authority: a national study of police officers' attitudes," by David Weisburd, Rosann Greenspan, Edwin E. Hamilton, Kellie A. Bryant and Hubert Williams. $24.95 (2001, 197 pages, 41 tables/figures) ISBN 1-884614-17-5. The Police Foundation, http://www.policefoundation.org/

    Conductive Energy Devices: "The Effect of Less-Lethal Weapons on Injuries in Police Use-of-Force Events" by John M. MacDonald, Robert J. Kaminski, and Michael R. Smith, Am J Public Health, published 21 October 2009, 10.2105/AJPH.2009.159616. "We investigated the effect of the use of less-lethal weapons, conductive energy devices (CEDs), and oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray on the prevalence and incidence of injuries to police officers and civilians in encounters involving the use of force. Methods: We analyzed data from 12 police departments that documented injuries to officers and civilians in 24,380 cases. We examined monthly injury rates for 2 police departments before and after their adoption of CEDs. Results: Odds of injury to civilians and officers were significantly lower when police used CED weapons, after control for differences in case attributes and departmental policies restricting use of these weapons. Monthly incidence of injury in 2 police departments declined significantly, by 25% to 62%, after adoption of CED devices. Conclusions: Injuries sustained during police use-of-force events affect thousands of police officers and civilians in the United States each year. Incidence of these injuries can be reduced dramatically when law enforcement agencies responsibly employ less-lethal weapons in lieu of physical force."

     Deadly Force: Deadly Force. Police Use of Lethal Force in the United States, by Amnesty International (June 2015).

     Deadly Force: "Police Investigations of the Use of Deadly Force," by Shannon Bohrer and Robert Chaney, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, January 2010. "The use of force and the police investigation of such action can have far-reaching consequences."

    Electronic Weapons: "Compliance Report. Wisconsin's Electronic Control Device training compared with USDOJ recommendations made to Orange County, Florida," Wisconsin Department of Justice Training and Standards Bureau. (May, 2009).

     Electronic Weapons: "Comparison Report. Wisconsin Electronic Control Device training and Amnesty International recommendations," Wisconsin Department of Justice Training and Standards Bureau. (May, 2009).

     Firearms: Firearms Digest. The Harvard School of Public Health recently launched a new online firearms digest that compiles and summarizes research findings on firearms and gun violence. This new source is ideal for law enforcement; using topical searches under headings such as domestic violence, homicide, and crime, law enforcement can now easily incorporate research findings in the development of best practices and prevention strategies with respect to firearms violence. The Firearms Research Digest, funded by The Joyce Foundation, features clear summaries of research published in academic journals and links to the actual studies. This searchable database currently covers six years of research, from 2003 to 2009, and is being expanded to include articles dating back to 1988.

     Pepper Spray: Task Force Report, University of California Police (Davis campus) pepper spray incident in Nov. 2011. (190 pp. PDF 2012).

     Report: Evaluation of the New York City Police Department Firearm Training and Firearm-Discharge Review Process, by Bernard D. Rostker, Lawrence M. Hanser, William M. Hix, Carl Jensen, Andrew R. Morral, Greg Ridgeway, and Terry L. Schell. A report prepared by the RAND Corporation at the request of the New York City Police Commissioner. Summary Only. Research Brief. Author Statement. The study states that both recruits and veteran police officers would benefit from firearms training on a more frequent basis and also recommends wider use of Tasers. The report also examines 455 shootings involving officers that were subject to adjudication in 2004, 2005, and 2006 by the N.Y.P.D.'s Firearms Discharge Review Board.

     Report: Commission on Special Weapons and Tactics (S.W.A.T.) (Sept. 2002) - [PDF format 1,120k 42pg] This report by the California Attorney General's Commission on Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) identifies seven important issues and makes numerous recommendations to improve public safety and law enforcement success in the use of SWAT.

     Report: "Pepper Spray's Effects on a Suspect's Ability to Breath," a NIJ Research in Brief (CJF 188069) presents the result of a study on the combined effects of pepper spray exposure and positional restraint on respiratory functions conducted by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). The findings suggest that inhalation of pepper spray does not pose a significant risk to subjects in terms of respiratory and pulmonary functions, even when it occurs with positional restraint. However, pepper spray exposure did result in a small but statistically significant increase in blood pressure, the origins and implications of which remain unclear. The report can be ordered from the National Criminal Justice Reference Service at 800-851-3420 or accessed online.

     Publication: Deaths Following Electro-Muscular Disruption by National Institute of Justice (June 2008). Study of Deaths Following Electro Muscular Disruption: Interim Report presents interim findings from a NIJ study of deaths of individuals following exposure to electro muscular disruption (EMD) technology from conducted-energy devices (CEDs). CEDs use a high-voltage, low-power electrical charge to induce involuntary muscle contractions that cause temporary incapacitation. This report presents the findings of a medical panel composed of physicians, medical examiners, and other specialists in cardiology, emergency medicine, epidemiology, pathology, and toxicology, based on mortality reviews of CED-related deaths and a review of the current state of medical research relative to the effects of CED. The report includes sections on background, methodology, findings, recommendations for post-event medical care following CED exposure, and considerations in death investigations for deaths that occur following deployment of a CED. It also includes a glossary and an extensive list of selected references.

     Publication: "Responding to Incidents Involving Allegations of Excessive Use of Force: A Checklist to Guide Police Executives," by the U.S. Department of Justice Community Relations Service. (September 2003). [PDF] [WordPerfect] [HTML]

     Publication: "Police Use of Force: Addressing Community Racial Tensions," by the U.S. Department of Justice Community Relations Service. (September 2003). [PDF] [Microsoft Word .Doc] [HTML]

     Reports: The texts of eleven annual reports concerning shootings by New York police officers, along with a document entitled "The NYPD's Command Structure Report" may be accessed at http://www.nyclu.org/node/1756 along with an analysis of the reports by the New York branch of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).

     Statistics: Police Use of Nonfatal Force, 2002–11, by Elizabeth Davis, Shelley Hyland, and Lynn Langton, Bureau of Justice Statistics (November 14, 2015 NCJ 249216).

    SWAT: Independent Board of Inquiry into the Oakland Police Department March 21, 2009 Incident. A Public Report of Findings and Recommendations. (Dec. 2009). A report that is critical of command decisions to "prematurely" have a SWAT team enter an apartment where an armed parolee was present following his shooting and killing two motorcycle officers who subjected him to a traffic stop. The offender subsequently shot and killed two SWAT officers before being killed himself.

     Tasers: "Power Down: TASERs, The Fourth Amendment and Police Accountability in the Fourth Circuit," 91 N.C. L. Rev. 606 (January 2013).

     Tasers: Taser International Training Bulletin 15.0. (Oct. 2009): "1. We have issued a new TASER Targeting Guide that will apply for the new XREP impact munition as well as ECDs such as the X26, M26 and X3. Note, we have lowered the recommended point of aim from center of mass to lower-center of mass for front shots. ... There are three reasons: a. Simplify targeting for all TASER systems to one easy to remember map, avoiding chest shots when possible and the risk of a head/eye shot in a dynamic situation, as is standard for impact munitions b. When possible, avoiding chest shots with ECDs avoids the controversy about whether ECDs do or do not affect the human heart. c. Close-spread ECD discharges to the front of the body are more effective when at least one probe is in the major muscles of the pelvic triangle or thigh region. Back shots remain the preferred area when practical. 2. When dealing with exhausted individuals or persons exhibiting symptoms of distress or agitated/excited delirium: a. Once officers engage in capture procedures, it is important to minimize the duration of the physical struggle. New research shows that physical struggle, simulated by punching a heavy bag at full intensity, can cause acidosis that can reach dangerous levels in only 45 seconds of intense exertion, starting from a resting state. Accordingly, officers engaging subjects in a physical struggle or in an exhaustive state should minimize the duration of struggle and the adverse physiological effects. The physiological effects of a TASER ECD discharge of up to 15 seconds were significantly less than that of either fleeing (simulated with a sprint) or fighting (simulated with the heavy bag). This research shows that the TASER ECD, as part of an overall capture plan, is a viable option to help minimize the duration of the struggle. b. When encountering subjects exhibiting symptoms of exhaustion, distress or agitated/excited delirium, refer to your agency’s guidelines for proper response. These subjects are at significant risk of arrest-related death. Immediate medical attention may reduce this risk. 3. The primary risk of serious injury or death during ECD deployment is risk related to falls. Users should be reminded to avoid deploying ECDs on persons on elevated platforms or other places where a fall can be more injurious."

     Tasers: "A Multi-Method Evaluation of Police Use of Force Outcomes," University of South Carolina TASER ECD Three-Year Study. Summary. Full NIJ Report.

     Tasers: An emergency medicine researcher at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center has just published the first large, independent study of injuries from “conducted electrical weapon” (CEW) or Taser® use, finding that serious injuries occurred in fewer than 1 percent of 1,201 Taser uses by law enforcement officers. The study, led by William P. Bozeman, M.D., of Wake Forest University School of Medicine, is now available online in the Annals of Emergency Medicine (“Safety and Injury Profile of Conducted Electrical Weapons Used By Law Enforcement Officers Against Criminal Suspects”) and is scheduled to appear in a future print issue of the journal. The findings represent a three-year review of 1,201 CEW uses at six law enforcement agencies across the United States. The study was funded by the National Institute of Justice. “These weapons appear to be very safe, especially when compared to other options police have for subduing violent or combative suspects,” Bozeman said. “That is not to say that injuries and deaths are impossible. Police and medical personnel need to be aware of the potential for serious injury and look for evidence that a person subdued by a Taser has been hurt.” The study reports that 99.75 percent of criminal suspects shocked by a CEW received no injuries or mild injuries only, such as scrapes and bruises. Of the 1,201 criminal suspects, 492 suffered mild injuries, mostly (83 percent) superficial puncture wounds from the Taser probes. Of the three subjects who sustained significant injuries, two suffered from head injuries related to falls; the third developed rhabdomyolysis, or a rapid breakdown of muscle tissue. Ninety-four percent of the suspects were male, and alcohol or intoxication was documented in almost half of the cases (49.5 percent). A physician at each participating agency reviewed police and medical records after each CEW use. Injuries were identified and classified as mild, moderate or severe. More than two-thirds of United States law enforcement agencies currently use CEWs. They are credited with decreasing police officer and suspect injuries and deaths due to police use of force. However, the devices have been surrounded with controversy. “While injuries from Taser use are uncommon, they are not unheard of,” Bozeman said. “Subjects exposed to a CEW discharge should be assessed for injuries, and appropriate medical evaluation should be provided when non-trivial injuries are apparent or suspected. Existing medical and/or psychiatric conditions in the suspect may also cause or contribute to the behavior that leads police to use a Taser or other physical force. These underlying conditions may require medical assessment and treatment, independent of Taser exposure.” Co-authors were J. Tripp Winslow, M.D., M.P.H., of Wake Forest University, William E. Hauda, M.D., of Inova Fairfax Hospital (Va.), Joseph J. Heck, D.O., of University Medical Center (Nev.), Derrel Graham, M.D., and Brian Martin, M.D., M.S., of Louisiana State University-Shreveport (La.).

     Training: :"Focus on Training: Training for Deadly Force Encounters," by Timothy Hoff, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March 2012).

     Use of Force: Media Coverage of Use of Force and Disability, Ruderman Family Foundation (March 2016).

     Use of Force: Police Violence and Citizen Crime Reporting in the Black Community, by Matthew Desmond, Andrew V. Papachristos, and David S. Kirk, American Sociological Review 2016 Vol. 9(15) 957-976.

     Use of Force: An Empirical Analysis of Racial Differences in Police Use of Force, by Roland G. Fryer, Jr., National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Working Paper No. 22399 (July 2016).

     Use of Force: Officer Survival Spotlight - What Is a Safe Distance?, by Marcus Young, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (July 2016).

     Use of Force: Graham v. Connor - Is Objective Reasonableness Good Enough? by John J. Knott, Police Chief Magazine (June 2016).

     Use of Force: Lethal in Disguise. The Health Consequences of Crowd-Control Weapons, Physicians for Human Rights (2016).

     Use of Force: Critical Issues in Policing Series. Use of Force: Taking Policing to a Higher Standard, Police Executive Research Forum (January 29, 2016).

     Use of Force: Police Use of Force in New York City: Findings and Recommendations on NYPD’s Policies and Practices, N.Y.C. Department of Investigation, Office of the Inspector General for the NYPD (October 1, 2015).

     Use of Force: Re-Engineering Training on Police Use of Force, Police Executive Research Forum (August, 2015).

     Use of Force: Investigation of the Cleveland Division of Police, U.S. Attorney's Office, Northern District of Ohio, Findings Letter (Dec. 4, 2014). Joint Statement of Principles by the U.S. Department of Justiice and the City of Cleveland Regarding the Cleveland Division of Police (Dec. 2, 2014).

     Use of Force: Graham, M.A. Investigation of Deaths Temporally Associated with Law Enforcement Apprehension, Acad Forensic Pathol. 2014 4 (3): 366-389. Abstract.

     Use of Force: Toronto Police - Police Encounters with People in Crisis (July 2014).

     Use of Force: A Rational Foundation for Use of Force Policy, Training and Assessment, by John Klein and Ken Wallentine (2014).

     Use of Force: "The Legitimacy of Using Excessive Force during Civil Policing among Israel’s Border Guard Police Officers," by Efrat Shoham and Shirley Yehosha Stern, 3 (2) Beijing Law Review 15-23 (June 2012).

     Use of Force: Las Vegas Metro Police Dept. Use of Force Policy (2012).

     Use of Force: "Final Technical Report Draft: Assessing Police Use of Force Policy and Outcomes," by William Terrill, Eugene A. Paoline III, Jason Ingram. Federally funded research report (February 2012).

      Use of Force: "Police Attitudes about the Use of Unnecessary Force: An Ecological Examination," by S. W. Phillips, & J. J. Sobol, 26 (1) Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology (2011).

      Use of Force: "An Examination of Contextual and Organizational Factors Influencing Police Use of Force: A Multilevel Model," by H. Lee et al., 33 (4) Policing 681 (2010).

     Use of Force: Book, "Managing the Use of Force Incident: For Criminal Justice Officers, Supervisors, and Administrators," by Howard Webb (404 pages, Charles C. Thomas Pub. Ltd, 2011). Topics covered include understanding the use of force incident, preparing for the use of force incident, and managing the use of force incident.

     Use of Force: "Law Enforcement Perspective on the Use of Force," by Anthony J. Pinizzotto, Edward F. Davis, Shannon Bohrer, and Robert Cherney, 78 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 4. pgs 16-21 (April 2009). "Hands-on, experiential training can give prosecuting attorneys a better understanding of the use of deadly force."

     Use of Force: "The Dynamic Resistance Response Model," by Charles Joyner and Chad Basile, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 76, Number 9 pgs 15-20 (September 2007). "This approach offers several advantages for officers when making use of force decisions."  [PDF] [HTML]

Vehicles & Pursuits

     Article: "Protecting America's Roadways," by Rebecca Kanable. 75 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 11, p. 1 (November 2006). "By recognizing that drunk driving laws need high-visibility enforcement and making prevention a priority, officers can protect America's roadways." [PDF] [HTML]

     Article: "Traffic Stops," by Anthony J. Pinizzotto, Edward F. Davis, and Charles E. Miller III, 77 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pg. 1-10 (May 2008). "These routine, repetitive tasks can turn deadly for officers accustomed to resolving them by issuing a traffic violation notice, written warning, or verbal reprimand." [PDF]

     Article: Vehicle Pursuits and the Fourth Amendment, by Carl A. Benoit, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, No. 10, pgs 23-32 (Oct. 2007). "The Fourth Amendment provides guidance for police chases that result in a seizure." [PDF]

     Book: Highway Safety Desk Book. (September 2004). [PDF] Prepared by the Highway Safety Committee, International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), the entire 374 page book is available online. Intended for police leaders as a quick and practical compendium of information to assist in asserting leadership in one of policing's most important functions, Police Traffic Services.

     Kidnapping: "Abduction by Vehicular Assault," by James O. Beasley II and Jennifer D. Eakin, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Oct.-Nov. 2013).

     Publication: Updated Manual of Police Traffic Services Policies and Procedures. (July 2004). [PDF] An updated compilation of sample traffic policies, initially created by IACP, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) nearly three decades ago. The current 130 page document, now available online, will help promote an effective traffic management system that provides public security, reduces traffic crashes, discourages traffic violations, suppresses criminal activity, and expedites the flow of traffic.

     Pursuits: Law Enforcement: "Motor vehicle crash deaths related to police pursuits in the United States," F. P. Rivara and C. D. Mack, Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center and Departments of Pediatrics and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle Departments of Pediatrics and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle.Injury Prevention (April 2004) 10: 93-95. Abstract. Full text is available online. (Requires registration and $8 payment). The study examined all traffic fatalities in the U.S. from 1994 to 2002 and determined that 2,654 fatal crashes resulted from police pursuits, involving a total of 3,146 deaths. According to the study, 1,048 of the decedents were not in fleeing vehicles, but rather were occupants of another vehicle, pedestrians or bicyclists. Forty police officers died in the course of such pursuits.

     Pursuits: "Slow Pursuits Lead to Fast and Safe Apprehensions," By John Specht, Lieutenant, Hillsboro, Oregon, Police Department, Police Chief Magazine. vol. 73, no. 3 (March 2006). The Hillsboro, Oregon Police Department has developed an alternative method of apprehension to reduce liability. Click here to read the article and full text of the pursuit policy.

      Pursuits: "Emergency Driving and Pursuits. The Officer's Perspective," by David P. Schultz, Ed Hudak, and Geoffrey P. Alpert, 78 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 4. pgs 1-7 (April 2009). "Research on officers' perceptions of emergency and pursuit driving has revealed several issues of interest."

     Vehicles: Michigan State Police Tests 2004 Patrol Vehicles, January 2004. The results of the 2003 model year tests are now available in this bulletin. [PDF] [ASCII Text File].

     Vehicle Information:  A new federal government online vehicle database provides used car buyers access to critical vehicle history, and will allow law enforcement agencies to better monitor and prevent the selling of dangerous and stolen vehicles and other auto fraud. The new National Motor Vehicle Title Information System allows car buyers to get access to a used vehicle's records -- including odometer data, title history, salvage and "total loss" designations, and theft reports. See The National Motor Vehicle Title Information System FBI Press Release: National Auto Fraud and Theft Prevention System Goes Live and FBI Fact Sheet: National Motor Vehicle Title Information System,

     Vehicles and Traffic Law & Safety: A study by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety released January 13, 2005 concluded that seat belt laws which permit officers to stop vehicles solely on the basis of the failure of drivers or passengers to buckle up reduced traffic accident death rates by 7% in those states adopting them. Twenty-one states and the District of Columbia now have "primary seat belt" laws allowing stops for failing to use seat belts, while 28 states only permit officers to write tickets for failure to use seat belts if the vehicle is pulled over for some other reason. (New Hampshire has no seat belt law).

     Vehicle Searches: "Searches of Motor Vehicles Incident to Arrest in a Post-Gant World," by Kenneth A. Myers, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (April 2011). "Officers must understand the narrow guidelines pertaining to searches of motor vehicles incident to the arrest of one of its occupants."

     Vehicle Stops: "Force Science study pinpoints vehicle stop vulnerabilities," PoliceOne.com, March 4, 2013. See also, "Force Science News #202: New! Force Science seeks answers to sudden vehicle stop attacks."

Violence Against Women

     Dating Violence: The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) offers Teen Dating Violence Special Feature, an online compilation of publications and resources on the topic.

     Publication: Violence Against Women: Identifying Risk Factors, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice [PDF] (November 2004). This NIJ Research in Brief addresses whether sexual and physical abuse in childhood and adolescence are risk factors for becoming a victim of violence against women as an adult. It combines the results taken from two studies, one of which followed college women and men for 4 years, and the other, which followed low-income, mostly black women who had been victims of childhood sexual abuse. Each study found that child sexual abuse alone was a risk factor only when combined with adolescent sexual abuse. Although each study examined a narrowly defined population, taken together, both studies came to remarkably similar conclusions.

     Report: "Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2001". [PDF]. Reports on trends in intimate partner violence of persons age 12 or older in the United States using data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and the FBI's Supplementary Homicide Reports. Murder and nonfatal violent crimes -- such as aggravated assault, simple assault, robbery, and rape/sexual assault -- are examined for male and female victims. This Crime Data Brief updates some of the data in Intimate Partner Violence, a more detailed report on this subject published in 2000. Highlights include the following: The number of violent crimes by intimate partners against females declined from 1993 to 2001. Intimate partner violence made up 20% of all nonfatal violent crime experienced by women in 2001. 1,247 women and 440 men were killed by an intimate partner in 2000. 02/03 NCJ 197838

     Statistics: Family Violence Statistics: Including Statistics on Strangers and Acquaintances. Compares family and nonfamily violence statistics from victimization through the different stages of the justice system. Family violence is defined as all types of violent crime committed by an offender who is related to the victim and includes spouse abuse, parental violence against a child, and violence among other family members. Nonfamily relationships used for comparison include boyfriends and girlfriends, friends and acquaintances, and strangers. Data are drawn from victimization surveys, official police statistics, State and Federal court statistics, and surveys of inmates in State prisons and local jails. Highlights include the following: * Family violence accounted for 11% of all reported and unreported violence between 1998 and 2002. * About 22% of murders in 2002 were family murders. * Of the nearly 500,000 men and women in State prisons for a violent crime in 1997, 15% were there for a violent crime against a family member. 6/05 NCJ 207846 Press release Full report: Acrobat file (1M) | ASCII file (34K) | Spreadsheets (zip format 136K).

Violence Prediction

     Violence Prediction: "The Role of Emotion in Predicting Violence," by David Matsumoto, Hyi Sung Hwang, and Mark G. Frank, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Jan. 2012). "Understanding and predicting individual or group behavior starts with recognizing the importance of emotion."

Websites & Electronic Publications

     Anti law enforcement website: "Who's A Rat" is a database of criminal informants and law enforcement personnel that can be accessed by criminal defense attorneys, defendants and other registered site users.

     Publications: The Community Policing Dispatch is a monthly electronic newsletter intended to educate readers about criminal justice issues affecting the implementation of community policing. Published by the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. The March 2008 issue features articles about the use of force, the rising trend of unsolved homicides, and homeland security training opportunities. January and February 2008 issues of the publication are also currently available on-line.

    Statistics: The U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics has launched a new Web site. It can be found at http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov

     Websites: A new U.S. Justice Department website, Crime Solutions, is intended to help taxpayers judge the effectiveness of state and local anti-crime programs. It has a database of reviews of academic studies on hundreds of anti-crime programs. Each program is classified in one of three categories: effective, promising, or no effects.      

    Websites: The Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) has developed an online information resource on Preparing the Justice System for a Pandemic Influenza and Other Public Health Emergencies. Resources recently added include online presentations that detail two different perspectives of pandemic influenza preparedness. Also visit www.pandemicflu.gov.

     Websites: The Council of State Governments (CSG) has announced the launch of its Justice Center, a national resource center on criminal justice policy. The center will continue to coordinate projects on improving the response to people with mental illness in contact with the criminal justice system, addressing prisoner reentry issues, and promoting justice reinvestment strategies. It will also explore such issues as alcohol-related emergency room admissions and housing concerns as they relate to the justice system.

     Websites: Disabilities: 1). Commonly Asked Questions About the ADA and Law Enforcement http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/q&a_law.htm 2). US Dept of Justice ADA homepage http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adahom1.htm  3). Commonly Asked Questions About Title II of the ADA for state and local govts - http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/pubs/t2qa.txt

     Homeland security website: The Justice Dept. has created a National Security Resources website for the criminal justice community, at: www.nationalsecurityresources.gov/

      Websites: IDSafety.org, a Web site created by the IACP and Bank of America (BAC), is the first step in a three-year partnership between the IACP and BAC to help consumers and law enforcement officials better understand and respond to identity crime. The Web site's goal is to help both consumers and law enforcement officials prevent and report identity crime, investigate perpetrators, and help victims.

     Websites: Less Lethal Weapon Clearinghouse Website. The IACP with the support of the COPS office, BJA, and other policing organizations and associations has developed a website clearinghouse for information on Less Lethal Weapons.

     Website: Operation FALCON (“Federal And Local Cops Organized Nationally”), which was conducted April 4–10, 2005, resulted in Deputy U.S. Marshals and their law enforcement partners in local law enforcement arresting a total of 10,340 fugitives and clearing more than 13,800 felony warrants. Nearly 960 federal, state, and local agencies helped the USMS identify thousands of the nation’s most dangerous fugitives during Operation FALCON. The Marshals Service’s five regional fugitive task forces and three foreign field offices joined forces with their counterparts to put more than 3,000 law enforcement officers on the street during each day of the operation. The members of the task force prioritized for arrest those involved in homicides, sexual assaults, gang-related crimes, kidnappings, major drug offenses, crimes against children and the elderly, and unregistered sex offenders. In the honor of the victims, Operation FALCON was conducted in conjunction with National Crime Victim’s Rights Week.

     Website: National POST Portal. Presents links to connect to the Peace Officer Standards and Training Agency or Central Academy of all but three states.

     Website: www.regulations.gov/  "Regulations.gov is the U.S. Government web site that makes it easier for you to participate in Federal rulemaking - an essential part of the American democratic process. On this site, you can find, review, and submit comments on Federal documents that are open for comment and published in the Federal Register, the Government's legal newspaper."

     Website: The Society of Police Futurists International (PFI) is an organization of law enforcement practitioners, educators, researchers, private security specialists, technology experts and other professionals dedicated to improving criminal and social justice through the professionalization of policing. Futures Research (long-range planning and forecasting) is the pivotal discipline that constitutes the philosophical underpinnings of PFI. The tools and techniques of this field are applied in order to more accurately anticipate and prepare for the evolution of law enforcement ten, twenty, and even fifty years into the future. Futures Research offers both philosophical and methodological tools to analyze, forecast, and plan in ways rarely seen in policing in the past. Publishes The Police Futurist newsletter, of which current and back issues are available for download in PDF format.

     Website: State Sex Offender Registry Websites. A directory, compiled by the FBI, of direct links to 44 state sex offender registry websites throughout the country.

     Website: FBI Counter-Terrorism Website. Information on the most wanted terrorists, on-line form for providing tips and information, recent warnings, links to useful resources, etc.

     Website: Counter-Terrorism Training and Resources for Law Enforcement. Contains material and links to information on training and technical assistance, conferences, funding, research and statistics, equipment, planning and risk assessment, publications, legislation, and victim assistance.

     Website: CIA World Factbook 2002. On-line access to this publication which provides statistical information and other useful information on all the countries in the world, including data on populations, militaries, geography, governments, and trans-national issues. The book may be searched on-line, or downloaded in .PDF format.

     Websites: Project Safe Childhood. U.S. Department of Justice. Project Safe Childhood aims to combat the proliferation of technology-facilitated sexual exploitation crimes against children. Among other resources, the website contains a guide available on-line, and a list of on-line publications.

     Websites: National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse. A website of a National Center, established in 1985 by the National District Attorneys' Association as a program of the American Prosecutors Research Institute (APRI), which provides training, technical assistance and publications to prosecutors, investigators and allied criminal justice professionals on all aspects of criminal child abuse and exploitation.

     Websites: "Homicide in Chicago-1870-1930." An on-line database at Northwestern University School of Law has information on 11,000 murders during the indicated years, from the Chicago Fire until the Depression. Information includes police reports, photographs, and related materials, including crime commission reports and video commentary by legal experts. Specially featured cases include the 1886 Haymarket incident in which seven police officers were killed, the assassination of Mayor Carter Harrison when he gave a speech at the World Columbian Exposition in 1893, a 1919 race riot in which 38 people died, and the Franks' killing in 1924 by University of Chicago students Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb.

     Websites: United States Marshals Service. This website was restructured on June 7, 2004, with additional features, including expanded information on the major duties and services provided by the Marshals Service, more information on fugitive investigations, a list of local U.S. Marshal district office contacts and information, and a new section on the story of the U.S. Marshals Service. Other features include information on prisoner health care (including the U.S. Marshals Service Prisoner Health Standards), court productions, and a public defender handbook, as well as a U.S. Marshals for Kids page with a variety of information and activities.

     Websites: USAonWatch/Neighborhood Watch. This website and program was created by the National Sheriffs' Association, in conjunction with several federal agencies, to encourage the initiation and/or revitalization of Neighborhood Watch programs throughout the country. One of the oldest and best known crime prevention concepts in history, Neighborhood Watch (NW) was created to unite law enforcement agencies, private organizations, and individual citizens in a massive effort to reduce residential crime. USAonwatch is used not only to promote NWs, but also record the number of NWs started. Includes a national database of neighborhood watch programs and information on starting and registering a program with the site. A resource center is also provided, along with an electronic newsletter that can be subscribed to.

     Websites: Volunteers in Police Service. One of the Citizen Corps programs is the Volunteers in Police Service (VIPS) Program. The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) is managing and implementing the VIPS Program in partnership with and on behalf of the White House Office of the USA Freedom Corps and the U.S. Department of Justice. The program's ultimate goal is to enhance the capacity of state and local law enforcement to utilize volunteers. This website serves as a gateway to information for law enforcement agencies and citizens interested in law enforcement volunteer programs. To date, it currently states, more than 890 law enforcement volunteer programs, representing more than 61,000 volunteers in all fifty states, have registered with the VIPS Program. The program offers a number of resources through the website, including an on-line directory of existing volunteer programs, a resource guide, an online clearinghouse of sample documents and forms, including policies and procedures, liability waiver forms, training materials, volunteer applications, etc., technical assistance, VIPS Info, a monthly electronic newsletter, and a moderated discussion group for registered VIPS programs to share information and ideas. The VIPS Program has also released two educational videos: Introducing Volunteer Activities to Law Enforcement (12 minutes) and Introducing Law Enforcement Volunteerism to the Community (13 minutes). VHS copies of either or both videos are available by emailing info@policevolunteers.org

Wiretapping and Videotaping

     Annual Report: Administration Office of the United States Courts, 2005 Wiretap Report. States that state and federal courts authorized 1,773 interceptions of wire, oral, and electronic communications in 2005, an increased of 4% over intercepts approved in 2004. Federal officials requested 625 intercept applications in 2005, a 14% decrease from those requested in 2004.

     Article: "Pole Cameras and Surreptitious Surveillance" By M. Wesley Clark, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Nov.2009). "Affixing a camera to a utility pole can be an effective surveillance technique, especially in circumstances where physical surveillance is operationally impractical."

     Electronic Surveillance: Conducting 24/7 Electronic Stakeouts to Address Property Crimes, by Travis Martinez, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (October 2015).

     Technology: "Operation Candid Camera: Rialto Police Department's Body-Worn Camera Experiment," by William Farrar, Chief of Police, Rialto, California Police Department, Police Chief (January 2014).

     Technology: "Focus on In Car Camera" DVD. This no-cost resource was developed by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) Technology Technical Assistance Project (TTAP) through funding by the U.S Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). This video demonstrates how planning and implementation are the keys to a successful in-car camera program that protects officers, their departments, and the citizens they serve. Free copies of the DVD may be ordered at the link.

     Videotaping: "Orwell’s Vision: Video and the Future of Civil Rights Enforcement" by Howard M. Wasserman, 68 Md. L. Rev. 600 (2009) Discuses the impact of widely available videotaping equipment on police-civilian encounters and on litigation.

     Wiretaps: 2006 Wiretap Report, by the Administrative Office of the United States Courts (April 30, 2007). "Federal and state courts across the United States issued 1,839 orders authorizing or approving the interception of wire, oral or electronic communications in 2006. The total is a 4 percent increase over 2005."

     Wiretapping: "Wiretapping, Tape Recorders, and Legal Ethics: An Overview of Questions Posed by Attorney Involvement in Secretly Recording Conversation," Congressional Research Service Doc. #R42650 (Aug. 2012).

    Wiretapping: Wiretap Report 2010, Administrative Office of U.S. Courts (2011). More than 3,100 wiretaps were granted to law enforcement by courts in 2010, an increase of 34 percent above 2009. Federal courts approved 1,207 wiretaps, and state courts approved 1,987. Only one request was denied last year, and the report indicates that 84% of the wiretaps were granted in drug related cases. 2,582 arrests and 2,504 convictions in 2010 resulted from wiretaps authorized in previous years.

Witness Protection & Informants

     Article: "Hiding in Plain Sight A Peek into the Witness Security Program" By Douglas A. Kash, J.D., Senior Attorney, DEA, Arlington, Virginia, 73 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 5, pgs. 25-32 (May 2004). [PDF]. Also available in .html format.

     Article: "No Duty to Protect: Two Exceptions" by L. Cary Unkelbach, Assistant County Attorney representing the Arapahoe County Sheriff's Office, Centennial, Colorado. Police Chief magazine, vol. 71, no. 7 (July 2004).

Wrongful Conviction

     Wrongful Convictions: "The High Costs of Wrongful Convictions," a study by the Better Government Association and Northwestern University Law School Center on Wrongful Convictions (June 2011). The study documents the costs incurred in 85 criminal prosecutions in which the convictions were overturned in Illinois. It states that wrongful convictions cost Illinois $214 million between 1989, when modern DNA testing became widely available, and 2010. It estimates that the cost will reach approximately $300 million when 16 pending lawsuits are resolved. The study also states that the actual perpetrators of crimes for which others were convicted went on to commit at least 94 more felonies, including 14 murders and 11 sexual assaults, and that 83 men and 2 women spent a total of 926 years behind bars for crimes they did not commit. The study claimed that misconduct or errors by state employees were involved in 81 of the 85 cases, in 66 cases by the police, in 44 by prosecutors and in 29 by forensic specialists.


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