AELE Law Library:
List of Police and Public Safety Law Materials

Annotations, articles, books/ booklets, catalogs, law review articles/ notes, and reports


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CONTENTS

1.         Administrative Law

2.         Arbitration

3.         Biological or Chemical Threats and Terrorism

4.         Bounty Hunters

5.         Canines (use of police dogs)

6.         Civil Liability and Civil Rights

7.         Collective Bargaining

8.         Constitutional Claims (in general)

9.         Decertification of Police Officers

10.       Disability Discrimination

11.       Discipline

12.       Discovery, Confidentiality and Records Privacy

13.       DNA

14.       Domestic Partnerships

15.       Domestic Violence

16.       Drug Enforcement

17.       Due Process (for employees)

18.       Educational Requirements and Incentives

19.       Eleventh Amendment

20.       E Mail and Internet Use

21.       Employment Practices

22.       English-Only Rules

23.       Ethics

24.       Evidence

25.       Excessive Force (by peace officers)

26.       Exclusionary Rule

27.       Family and Medical Leave

28.       First Amendment Rights of Public Employees

29.       Gangs and Police Action

30.       Genetic Testing and Medical Privacy

31.       Hairstyle and Appearance

32.       Health Care

33.       Mental Illness - Police Response to

34.       Motor Vehicle Laws and Searches

35.       Negligent Failure to Protect Crime Victims

36.       Nepotism

37.       News Media

38.       Perjury by Police Officers

39.       Political Activity of Police Personnel

40.       Polygraph

41.       Prisoner Rights

42.       Private Security

43.       Privatization of Prisons and Criminal Justice

44.       Psychological Testing

45.       Race Discrimination in Employment

46.       Race Relations and the Police; Profiling

47.       Resistance to Arrest

48.       Residency Requirements

49.       School Law

50.       Search and Seizure

51.       Sex Discrimination

52.       Sexual Harassment

53.       Sexual Orientation

54.       Smoking

55.       Surveillance, Infiltration, Monitoring and Facial Recognition

56.       Stress

57.       SWAT Operations

58.       Terrorism

59.       Testing (non psychological)

60.       Transsexual Inmates

61.       Vision Standards

62.       Wage and Hour Claims

63.       Workplace Privacy

64.       Workplace Violence

Most law review articles and notes can be downloaded from Westlaw or Lexis-Nexis ®. These are not available from AELE.

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW

       Law Review: “A Proposal for a Statewide Law Enforcement Administrative Law Council,” by Wayne W. Schmidt, 2 (3) Jour. of Police Sci. & Admin. 330-338 (Northw. Univ. Sch. of Law, 1974).

ARBITRATION

       Article: “Defeating mandatory arbitration clauses,” Trial magazine (ATLA Jan. 2000) and online at www.atlanet.org.

       Article: “Due process protocol for mediation and arbitration of statutory disputes arising out of the employment relationship,” on Internet at: http://www.bna.com/bnabooks/ababna/special.htm (PDF format).  The protocol is endorsed by the Amer. Bar Assn., Amer. Arbitr. Assn., Natl. Empl. Lawyers Assn., FMCS, ACLU, etc.

       Law Review: “Arbitrating sexual harassment grievances; Defense of mandatory arbitration of employment disputes,” Univ. of Penn. J. of Labor and Empl. Law, Vol. 2, No. 1. http://www.law.upenn.edu/journals/jlel/.

       Book: The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws has published on the Internet (for discussion purposes) the latest draft of their revisions to the Uniform Arbitration Act.  Since its publication in 1955, the UAA has been adopted in 35 states, and in some form in 14 other jurisdictions.  The latest version of the proposed revisions is at: http://www.law.upenn.edu/bll/ulc/ulc_frame.htm.

BIOLOGICAL OR CHEMICAL THREATS AND TERRORISM

     • Law Review: “Bioterrorism Meets Privacy: An Analysis of the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act and the HIPAA Privacy Rule,” by Julie Bruce, Loyola University Chicago Institute for Health Law, Annals of Health Law, 12 Ann. Health L. 75 (2003) 22,368 words.

     • Law Review: “Combating Terrorism in the Environmental Trenches: Terrorism and the Future of Torts: If Terror Reigns, Will Torts Follow?” by John M. Barkett, Widener Law Symposium, 9 Wid. L. Symp. J. 485 (2003) 22,226 words.

     • Law Review: “Public Health and International Law: Bioterrorism, Public Health, and International Law,” David P. Fidler, Chicago Journal of Intern. Law, Univ. of Chicago, 3 Chi. J. Int’l L. 7 (2002) 8,948 words.

     • Law Review: “Biological Terrorism: Legal Measures for Preventing Catastrophe,” by Barry Kellman, Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 24 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y 417 (2001) 26,303 words.

     • Law Review: “Confronting Disease in a Global Arena,” by Lauren Z. Asher, Cardozo Journal of Intern. and Compar. Law, Yeshiva Univ., 9 Cardozo J. Int’l & Comp. L. 135 (2001) 14,605 words.

     • Law Review: “Bioterrorism: Perfectly Legal,” by Heather A. Dagen, Catholic Univ. Law Review, 49 Cath. U.L. Rev. 535 (2000) 22,988 words.

BOUNTY HUNTERS

       Law Review: “S.B. 1257: Arizona Regulates Bounty Hunters,” Arizona State Law Journal - Spring, 1999, 31 Ariz. St. L.J. 229 (11,894 words) Includes a current state-by-state analysis.

       Law Review: “Running from the Law: Should Bounty Hunters Be Considered State Actors and Thus Subject to Constitutional Restraints?” Vanderbilt Univ. Law Review - Jan. 1999, 52 Vand. L. Rev. 171 (16,247 words).

       Law Review: “Bounty Hunters: Can the Criminal Justice System Live Without Them?” Univ. of Illinois Law Review - 1998, 1998 U. Ill. L. Rev. 1175 (17,055 words).

       Law Review: “Bounty Hunters as Evidence Gathers: Should they be considered state actors under the Fourth amendment when working with police?” Univ. of Cincinnati - Winter, 1997, 65 U. Cin. L. Rev. 665 (12,843 words).  

       Law Review: “When Man Hunts Man: The Rights and Duties of Bounty Hunters in the American Criminal Justice System,” Houston Law Review - Fall, 1996, 33 Hous. L. Rev. 731 (42,478 words).

       Law Review: “Tyranny on The Streets: Connecticut’s Need for the Regulation of Bounty Hunters,” Quinnipiac Law Review (Bridgeport CT) - Fall, 1994, 14 Quinnipiac L. Rev. 479 (26,476 words).

CANINES (Use of Police Dogs)

       Article: “Drug Detection Dogs: Legal Considerations,” by Michael Bulzomi, FBI Law Enfor. Bull., Jan. 2000; www.fbi.gov/ (full text).

       Law Review: “An Examination of the Training and Reliability of the Narcotics Detection Dog,” by Robert C. Bird, Kentucky Law Journal, Winter, 1996/1997, 85 Ky. L.J. 405 (15,076 words).

       Law Review: “Sniffing out the Fourth Amendment: U.S. v. Place -- Dog sniffs -- Ten years later,” Univ. of Maine School of Law, Maine Law Review, Winter, 1994, 46 Me. L. Rev. 151 (22,966 words).  

CIVIL LIABILITY AND CIVIL RIGHTS

        Law Review “Extra! Extra! Read All About It: What a Plaintiff “Knows or Should Know” Based on Officials’ Statements and Media Coverage of Police Misconduct For Notice of a § 1983 Municipal Liability Claim,” by Jenny Rivera, Fordham University School of Law, Fordham Urban Law Journal, Dec. 2000, 28 Fordham Urb. L.J. 505 (24,222 words).

        Law Review: “A Plainly Obvious Need For New-Fashioned Municipal Liability: The Deliberate Indifference Standard and Board of County Commissioners of Bryan County v. Brown,” by Kevin R. Vodak, DePaul Law Review, Spring, 1999, 48 DePaul L. Rev. 785 (26,155 words).

        Law Note: “County of Sacramento v. Lewis: A ‘Conscience-Shocking’ Decision Regarding Officer Liability in High-Speed Police Pursuits,” Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, June, 1999, 32 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 1357 (20,714 words).

       Law Review: Municipal Liability: Derivative or Direct? Statutory or Constitutional? Distinguishing the Canton Case from the Collins Case, DePaul Law Review, Spring, 1999, 48 DePaul L. Rev. 687 (21,465 words).

       Article: “Defending Police Misconduct Claims: Evaluation, Negotiation, and Settlement,” For the Defense, Feb. 1999.

       Law Review: “False arrest -- damages: Psychological and legal aftermath of false arrest and imprisonment,” by R. I. Simon, 21 (4) Bull. Amer. Acad. Psychiatry & the Law: 523-8, 1993. A review of the forensic psychiatric literature and legal cases.

       Law Comment: “Good Cop-Bad Cop: Reassessing the Legal Remedies for Police Misconduct,” Utah Law Review, 1993 Utah L. Rev. 149 (33,198 words).

       Law Review: “The Feds, lies, and videotape: the need for an effective federal role in controlling police abuse in urban America,” by Paul Hoffman, University of Southern California Law Review, May, 1993, 66 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1453 (47,298 words).

       Article: J. Ronzio, Esq. and G. Kiser, Esq., “The Civil Rights Act of 1991.”  59 (5) The Police Chief 11-12 (May 1992). A succinct summary of the changes.

       Law Review: “Accountability in Government and Section 1983,” by Mark R. Brown, Univ. of Mich. Law School, Fall 1991, 25 U. Mich. J.L. Ref. 53 (50,952 words).

       Law Review: “Municipal Liability for Police Misconduct: Must Victims Now Prove Intent?” by Ruth Friedman, Yale Law Journal, Feb. 1988, 97 Yale L.J. 448 (14,478 words).

       Law Review: “Police Liability for Creating the Need To Use Deadly Force in Self-Defense,” by Frank G. Zarb, Jr., Michigan Law Review, Aug. 1988, 86 Mich. L. Rev. 1982 (19,695 words).

COLLECTIVE BARGAINING

       Article: “Safeguarding employee rights in a post-union world,” vol. 30 (3) Columbia J. Law & Social Prob., www.columbia.edu/cu/jlsp/.

CONSTITUTIONAL CLAIMS (in General)

       Law Review: “Equal Protection for Non-Suspect Class Victims, “ by J. Michael McGuinness, Campbell Law Review, Summer, 1996, 18 Campbell L. Rev. 333 (13,103 words).

DECERTIFICATION OF POLICE OFFICERS

 

        Law Review: “Revocation of Police Officer Certification: A Viable Remedy for Police Misconduct?” by Roger L. Goldman and Steven Puro, St. Louis Univ. Law Journal, 45 St. Louis L.J. 541 (Spring, 2001).

        Law Review: “Symposium: New Approaches to Ensuring the Legitimacy of Police Conduct: De-Certification: Achieving Interstate Reciprocity,” by Clarence Harmon, 22 St. Louis U. Pub. L. Rev. 167 St. Louis Univ. Public Law Review (2003).

DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION

         Law Review: “911: How Will Police and Fire Departments Respond to Public Safety Needs and the Americans with Disabilities Act?”, New York Univ. School of Law, Journal of Legislation and Public Policy (1998/1999), 2 N.Y.U. J. Legis. & Pub. Pol’y 39 (46,458 words, 529 notes).

      Law Review: “The practical impossibility of considering the effect of mitigating measures under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990,” Fordham Urban Journal, April, 1999, 26 Fordham Urb. L. J. 1267 (18,611 words).  

       Law Review: “The determination of disability under the ADA: should mitigating factors such as medications be considered?” by Timothy Stewart Bland, Idaho Law Review, 1999, 35 Idaho L. Rev. 265 (11,094 words).

       Article: “The ADA and police hiring practices,” 64 (6) Police Chief (IACP) 24-29 (June 1997) www.theiacp.org.  

       Law Review: “Avoiding the inevitable: Resolving conflicts between the ADA and [collective bargaining laws],” 11 (3) The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 375-414 (Fall/Winter, 1996). abasvcctr@abanet.org -- discusses the conflict between seniority clauses and reasonable accommodation, the union’s duty of fair representation, prohibitions against direct dealing.

       Article: “Where access control meets the ADA,” 39 (9) Security Management 69-72 (Sep. 1995). www.securitymanagement.com.

       Law Review: Stahlhut, “Playing the trump card: may an employer refuse to reasonably accommodate under the ADA by claiming a collective bargaining obligation?,” 9 (1) Labor Lawyer (ABA) 71 (1993) abasvcctr@abanet.org.

DISCIPLINE

        Article: “Interviews and Interrogations of Public Employees: Beckwith, Garrity, Miranda and Weingarten Rights,” by Wayne W. Schmidt, 4 (7) Law Enf. Exec. Forum 1(Nov. 2004) Ill. Law Enf. Stds. & Trng. Bd. & W. Ill. Univ. [also online at www.aele.org/interviews.pdf ]

        Law Review: “Compelled Statements from Police Officers and Garrity Immunity,” by Steven D. Clymer, New York Univ. Law Review (Nov. 2001) 76 N.Y.U.L. Rev. 1309 (25,609 words.

        Law Symposium “The Rampart scandal: Policing the criminal justice system: calling in the Girl Scouts: Feminist legal theory and police misconduct,” by Mary Ellen Gale, Univ. of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law (Feb. 2001) 3 U. Pa. J. Const. L. 296 (35,020 words).

       Law Review: “The Fair Retail Credit Act and Workplace Investigations,” Win-Spr. 2000, 15 (3) The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 391-413 (11,224 words).

       Law Note: “Police Discharge: Fifth Amendment,” Stetson Law Review, Winter, 1999, 28 Stetson L. Rev. 878 (1,203 words).

       Law Review: “Police discipline in Chicago: arbitration or arbitrary?” by Mark Iris.  89 (1) J. Cr. L. & Crim. 215-44 (Fall 1998), Northw. Univ. Sch. of Law (Chicago). In a 5-year study of C.P.D. arbitration awards involving disciplinary suspensions, where a total of 2,607 suspension days were given in 533 cases, various arbitrators sustained only a total of 1,309 days (50.21%).

       Annotation: “Suspension of license: entrapment as a defense in proceedings to revoke or suspend license to practice law or medicine,” 61 A.L.R.3d 357.

       Article: “Citizen complaints: What the police should know,” 67 (12) FBI Law Enf. Bull. 1-5 (Dec. 1998); www.fbi.gov/ (full text).  Profiles the more typical complaints and discusses how they are resolved.

       Article: “Just discipline,” 3 (4) Policing Today 34-37 (Dec. 1997).  The article summarizes the changes in the law desired by the Assn. of Chief Police Officers in Britain.

       Law Note: “A police officer’s legal, consensual, off-duty sexual relationship is not protected by the right of privacy under either the federal or Texas constitutions: City of Sherman v. Henry, 928 S.W.2d 464 (Tex. 1996),” 28 Tex. Tech L. Rev. 187 (1997) (18364 words). 

       Law Review: “Code of Silence: Police Shootings and the Right to Remain Silent,” by Robert M. Myers, Golden Gate Univ., Spring 1996, 26 Golden Gate U.L. Rev 497 (24,441 words).

       Law Review: “To Serve and Yet To Be Protected: The Unconstitutional Use of Coerced Statements In Subsequent Criminal Proceedings Against Law Enforcement Officers, by Andrew M. Herzig, William & Mary Law Review, Fall 1993, 35 Wm and Mary L. Rev. 401 (22,551 words).

       Law Review: “To serve and yet to be protected: the unconstitutional use of coerced statements in subsequent criminal proceedings against law enforcement officers,” by Andrew M. Herzig, College of William & Mary Law Review, Fall, 1993, 35 Wm. and Mary L. Rev. 401 (22,551 words).

       Law Review: “Police Officers Accused of Crime: Prosecutorial and Fifth Amendment Risks Posed by Police-Elicited ‘Use Immunized’ Statements,” by Kate E. Bloch, Univ. of Illinois Law Review, 1992, 1992 U. Ill. L. Rev. 625 (46,737 words).

       Law Review: “A Procedural and Substantive Guide to Civilian Employee Discipline,” Major Gerard St. Amand, Army Lawyer, Dec. 1986, 1986 Army Law. 6 (16,063 words).

       Law Review: “Public Employees or Private Citizens: The Off-Duty Sexual Activities of Police Officers and the Constitutional Right of Privacy,” Michael A. Woronoff, Univ. of Michigan, Fall 1984, 18 U. Mich. J.L. Ref. 195 (15,342 words, 997 footnotes).

       Law Review: “Public employees or private citizens: the off-duty sexual activities of police officers and the constitutional right of privacy,” Univ. of Michigan, Fall 1984, 18 U. Mich. J.L. Ref. 195 (15,342 words).

DISCOVERY, CONFIDENTIALITY AND RECORDS PRIVACY

Also see News Media.

       Law Review: “Keeping Files on the File Keepers: When Prosecutors are Forced to Turn Over the Personnel Files of Federal Agents to Defense Lawyers,” by Lis Wiehl, Univ. of Washington Law Review, January, 1997, 72 Wash. L. Rev. 73 (29,810 words).

       Article: “Confidentially of internal reports on personnel matters,” 37 (11) For the Defense 3-7 (Nov. 1995). Defense Research Instit., www.dri.org, dri@mcs.net.

DNA

       Law Review: “DNA Fingerprinting - Justifying the Special Need for the Fourth Amendment’s Intrusion into the Zone of Privacy,” by Deborah F. Barfield, Univ. of Richmond, VA, Richmond Journal of Law & Technology, 6 Rich. J.L. & Tech. 27, Spring 2000; http://www.richmond.edu/jolt/v6i5/note2.html.

DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIPS

        Law Review: “Questioning the Marriage Assumptions: The Justifications for Opposite-Sex Only Marriage as Support for the Abolition of Marriage,” by Summer L. Nastich, Law and Inequality (Winter 2003), Boston Univ. Sch. of Law, 21 Law & Ineq. J. 114 (21,458 words).

       Law Review: “Domestic Partnership Benefits: Why not offer them to same-sex partners and unmarried opposite sex Partners?” by Debbie Zielinski, Clev. St. Univ. Jour. of Law and Health, 13 J.L. & Health 281, 1998-99 (25,010 words).

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

       Law article: “Administrative Orders of Protection: A Chief’s Best Tool for Victim Safety,” by Glenn Valle, NYSP, Police Chief (IACP) Nov. 2000.

       Law Review: “Abuse Your Spouse and Lose Your Job: Federal Law Now Prohibits Some Soldiers From Possessing Military Weapons,” Army Lawyer, 1997 Army Law. 25 (4,617 words); also see articles on 18 U.S. Code 922g at: 19 Pace L. Rev. 445 (1999); 30 St. Mary’s L. J. 801 (1999); 29 Rutgers L. J. 607 (1998); and 39 S. Tex. L. Rev. 1029 (1998).

DRUG ENFORCEMENT

       Law Review: “Good Cop, Bad Cop: Federal Prosecution of State-Legalized Medical Marijuana After U.S. v. Lopez,” Univ. of Calif., Oct. 2000, 88 Calif. L. Rev. 1575.

DUE PROCESS (FOR EMPLOYEES)

      Law Review: “Procedural Due Process Rights of Public Employees: Basic Rules and a Rationale for a Return to Rule-Oriented Process,” by J. Michael McGuinness, 33 New Eng.L. Rev. 931 (Summer, 1999 (20,002 words).

       Law Review: “Substantive Due Process Limits on Public Officials’ Power to Terminate State-Created Property Interests,” by David H. Armistead, Univ. of Georgia, Spring, 1995, 29 Ga. L. Rev. 769 (25,739 words).

EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND INCENTIVES

       Article: “Post-secondary education of the police officer and its effects on the frequency of citizen’s complaints,” 33 (4) J. of Calif. Law Enf. 3-10; http://www.cpoa.org/.  A ten-year study of 500 officers revealed that “officers with fewer college units tended to have significantly more complaints than officers with higher numbers of units.”

ELEVENTH AMENDMENT

       Article: “States as defendants in employment litigation: Beyond Alden v. Maine,” 88 (5) Ill. Bar J. 280 (May 2000); www.isba.org/.

E MAIL AND INTERNET USE

Also see Workplace Privacy

       Law Review: “Electronic Communication: Union Access and Employer Rights,” by Susan Robfogel, 16 (2) The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 231-252 (Fall 2000); info: abasvcctr@abanet.org.

       Law Review: “Defamatory E-Mail and Employer Liability: Why Razing Zeran v. America Online is a Good Thing,” by Michael H. Spencer, 6 Rich. J.L. & Tech. 25, Spring 2000; http://jolt.richmond.edu/v6i5/article4.html.

       Article: “Communications technology in the workplace,” Amer. Bar Assn., available in PDF format at www.bna.com/bnabooks/ababna/stdev/2000/stdevplace.pdf.

       Law Review: “Employer Monitoring of Employee Electronic Mail and Internet Use,” by Charles Morgan, McGill Law Journal, December, 1999, 44 McGill L.J. 849 (29,940 words).

       Law Review: “Privacy in Public and Private E-Mail and On-Line Systems,” Pace Law Review, Fall, 1998, 19 Pace L. Rev. 95 (20,478 words).

       Law Review: “‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell;’ A Discussion of Employee Privacy in Cyberspace in Light of McVeigh v. Cohen,” by Clifford T. Karafin, Virginia Journal of Law and Technology, Fall, 1998, 3 Va. J.L. & Tech. 7 (16,123 words).

       Law Review: “All bark, no byte: employee e-mail privacy rights in the private sector workplace,” by Alexander Rodriguez, Emory Univ. Law Journal, Fall, 1998, 47 Emory L.J. 1439 (19,894 words)

       Law Review: “Windows Nine-to-Five: Smyth v. Pillsbury and the Scope of an Employee’s Right of Privacy,” by Rod Dixon, Univ. Virginia Journal of Law and Technology Fall 1997, 2 Va. J.L. & Tech. 4.

       Article: “Legal issues associated with electronic messaging,” by AELE staff; contains a model policy for local use, Police Chief, June 1997 pp. 10-12 and at www.aele.org/electmess.html.

       Law Review: “Note: Keeping Secrets in Cyberspace: Establishing Fourth Amendment Protection for Internet Communication,” Harvard Law Review, May, 1997, 110 Harv. L. Rev. 1591 (11,582 words).

       Booklet: “Guide to E-Mail and the Internet in the Workplace,” by Susan Gindin, examines the legal issues that can arise as a result of e-mail and Internet use in the workplace, and is written to aid employers to avoid or resolve disputes.  It includes a description of the type of information that should be included in an employer’s policy on e-mail and Internet usage and an example of such a policy. To purchase the guide, call BNA Publications at 1-800-372-1033.

       Article: “Employer rights in monitoring employee e-mail,” and “Employer rights and obligations under the FMLA,” 40 (11) For the Defense 17-20 and 21-26.  Defense Research Institute, www.dri.org, dri@mcs.net.

       Law Review: “Electronic communications and the law: help or hindrance to telecommuting?” by Jennifer C. Dombrow, 50 (3) Fedl. Cmnctns. L. J. (Ind. Univ.) 686.  A well-researched article on workplace electronic privacy, with 170 footnotes.  The article is free and online at:  www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v50/no3/dombrow.html.

       Article: “E-mail policy by the letter,” 40 (4) Security Management (A.S.I.S.) 69-75 (Apr. 1996). Download on the Internet at www.securitymanagement.com.

       Article: “Employers, employees and e-mail,” Spring 1996 The Job Description (DRI) 9-11. www.dri.org, dri@mcs.net.

       Article: “Employers, employees and e-mail,” DRI The Job Description 9-11 (Spring 1996). Defense Research Institute, Inc; www.dri.org, dri@mcs.net.

       Law Review: Witt, “Terminally nosy: are employers free to access our electronic mail?”  Dickinson Law Review (Spring 1992).

       Law Review: “An Affront to Human Dignity: Electronic Mail Monitoring in the Private Sector Workplace,” by Larry O. Natt Gantt, Harvard Law School, Sprint, 1995, 8 Harv. J. Law & Tec 345, (57,503 words).

       Booklet: “Managing records in e-mail systems,” N.Y. State Archives and Records Administration, State Education Dept., Cultural Education Center, Albany NY 12230 (1995).  A 45 pp. booklet with a sample policy, guide to etiquette and selected bibliography.

       Book: “Computer Privacy Handbook,” by A. Bacard. Peachpit Press, 274 pp. (1995).

       Book: “The Law of Electronic Commerce: EDI, E-mail and Internet,” by B. Wright, looseleaf, Little Brown & Co. (2d edit., 1995).

       Book: “E-mail Security: How to Keep Your Messages Private,” by Bruce Schneider - J. Wiley & Sons, 365 pp. (1995).

       Booklet: “Privacy Tool Kit,” by D. Johnson et al. Electronic Messaging Assn., 45 pp. (1994).

       Report: “Directive on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data,” European Union: Brussels, OJC93 (13 April 1995).

       Book: “Regulating Privacy,” by Colin Bennett, - Data protection and public policy in Europe and the United States, Ithaca NY, Cornell Univ. Press (1992).

       Catalog: “Information Security,” a 48 pp. color catalog that contains books on viruses, encryption, computer fraud, website and PC security, disaster recovery, firewalls, ethics, etc. (717) 258-1816.

EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES

      Law Review: “Demotion and discharge of municipal employees in Utah,” by Ellen Kitzmiller, 16 Utah Bar J. 20 (April, 2003).

      Law Review: “Legal Regulation of Employment Reference Practices,” by J. Hoult Verkerke, Univ. of Chicago Law Review, Winter, 1998, 65 U. Chi. L. Rev. 115 (37,033 words).

       Law Review: “A practical guide to hiring and firing public employees,” 29 (2) The Urban Lawyer (ABA) 293-308 (Spring, 1997);  abasvcctr@abanet.org.

       Article: “Employment Information Release Agreements,” by Daniel J. Schofield, FBI Law Enf. Bulletin Dec. 1996; www.fbi.gov/ (full text).

ENGLISH-ONLY RULES

       Law Review: “English only rules in the workplace,” 15 (2) The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 295-308 (Fall 1999), abasvcctr@abanet.org.

       Article: “EEOC ‘English-only’ challenges rising,” 66 Law Week (BNA) 2375.  EEOC challenges rose from 8 per quarter in FY 96/7 to 14 filed between Oct/Dec 1997. Under the agency’s guidelines, a worker establishes a prima facie disparate impact cause of action by showing the very existence of the policy; see 29 CFR §1606.7(a),(b).  

ETHICS

       Law Review: “The New Policing,” Philip B. Heymann, Fordham University School of Law, Fordham Urban Law Journal, Dec. 2000, 28 Fordham Urb. L.J. 407 (23,369 words).

       Law Review: “Police Reform and the Department of Justice: An Essay on Accountability,” by Debra Livingston, Buffalo Criminal Law Review, 1999, 2 Buff. Crim. L. R. 815 (18,039 words).

       Article: “Disclosing officer misconduct: a constitutional duty,” 65 (6) FBI Law Enf. Bull. 27-32 (July 1996); Internet URL www.fbi.gov/ (full text).

EVIDENCE

       Law Review, “The consequences of false confessions,” Northw. Univ. Sch. of Law, Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, Winter, 1998, 88 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 429 (32,242 words).

       Report: “Hair assays for drugs of abuse in a probation population: implementation of a pilot study in a correctional field setting,” NCJ 152420.  Dept. of Justice.

       Article: “Hair analysis as a drug detector,” NCJ 156434.  Dept. of Justice.

       Law Review: “Comment: Corroborating Confessions: An Empirical Analysis of Legal Safeguards Against False Confessions,” by Corey J. Ayling, Univ. of Wisconsin, Jul-Aug. 1984, 1984 Wis. L. Rev. 1121 (52,035 words).

EXCESSIVE FORCE (BY PEACE OFFICERS)

       Article: “ ‘We Own the Night’- Amadou Diallo’s Deadly Encounter with New York City’s Street Crimes Unit,” Cato Institute Briefing Paper No. 56, Mar. 31, 2000, www.cato.org/.

       Article: “Warrior Cops: The Ominous Growth of Paramilitarism in American Police Departments,” Cato Institute Briefing Paper No. 50, Aug 26, 1999, www.cato.org/.

       Law Review: “Patterns of Injustice: Police Brutality in the Courts,” by Prof. Susan Bandes, DePaul Univ. Col. of Law, 47 Buffalo L. Rev. 1275, Buffalo Law Review, Fall, 1999 (33,784 words).

       Law Symposium: “Police violence: Causes and cures,” Brooklyn Law School  Journal of Law and Policy, 7 J.L. & Pol’y 111 (1998).

       Law review: “Can Soldiers Be Peace Officers? The Waco Disaster and the Militarization of American Law Enforcement,” by David Kopel and Paul Blackman, Akron Law Review, 1997, 30 Akron L. Rev. 619 (23,235 words).

       Law Note: “Psychological health tests for violence-prone police officers: Objectives, shortcomings, and alternatives,” Stanford Law Review, 46 Stan. L. Rev. 1717 (1994).

       Law Review: “Psychological Health Tests for Violence-Prone Police Officers: Objectives, Shortcomings, and Alternatives” by Michelle A. Travis, 46 Stanford L. Rev. 1717 July, 1994 (36,405 words).

       Law Review: “Bifurcation of Civil Rights Defendants: Undermining Monell in Police Brutality Cases,” Hastings Law Journal, 44 Hastings L.J. 499 (1993).

EXCLUSIONARY RULE

       Law Review: “Why Liberals Should Chuck the Exclusionary Rule,” by Christopher Slobogin, University of Illinois Law Review, 1999 U. Ill. L. Rev. 363 (56,522 words).

       Law Symposium: “Reform of the Exclusionary Rule: It is Broken: Breaking the Inertia of the Exclusionary Rule,” Pepperdine Univ. Law Review, 1999, 26 Pepp. L. Rev. 971 (28,639 words).

       Law Review, “Confessions, search and seizure and the Rehnquist court,” Univ. of Tulsa Law Journal, Spring, 1999, 34 Tulsa L.J. 465 (25,438 words).

FAMILY, MEDICAL AND PERSONAL LEAVE  

 

       Law Note: “The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993: Proving or defending a claimed violation,” by Richard Stevens, Suffolk Journal of Trial & Appellate Advocacy, 1999, 4 Suffolk J. Trial & App. Adv. 253 (6432 words).

       Law Review: “Absenteeism under the Family and Medical Leave Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act,” 50 DePaul L. Rev. 183 (2000).

FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHTS OF PUBLIC EMPLOYEES

       Law Review: “Constitutional Law -- Supreme Court Restricts First Amendment Rights of Public Employees,” by Stevan Dittman, Tulane Law Review, Jan., 1984, 58 Tul. L. Rev. 831 (10,814 words).

GANGS AND POLICE ACTION

       Law Review: “Gang Loitering, the Court, and Some Realism about Police Patrol,” by Debra Livingston, Univ. of Chicago, 1999 Supreme Court Review, 1999 Sup. Ct. Rev. 141 (30,014 words).

GENETIC TESTING AND PRIVACY

Also see Workplace Privacy.

       Law Note: “Medical Records and Your Privacy: Developing Federal Legislation to Protect Patient Privacy Rights,” (2000) 26 Am. J. L. and Med. 453, Boston University School of Law and American Journal of Law & Medicine (16,721 words).

       Law Review: “A Critical Analysis of Health and Human Services’ Proposed Health Privacy Regulations in Light of The Health Insurance Privacy and Accountability Act of 1996,” 9 Ann. Health L. 1, Annuals of Health Law, Loyola University Chicago Institute for Health Law 2000 (34,642 words).

       Law Review: “Health and human services’ privacy proposal: A failed attempt at health information privacy  protection,” 40 Brandeis L.J. 1065, Brandeis Law Journal, Univ. of Louisville, Summer 2002 (10,287 words).

       Law Review: “The Vulnerability of HIPPA Regulations to First and Fourth Amendment Attack: An Addendum to Evolving Constitutional Privacy Doctrines Affecting Healthcare Enterprises,” 56 Food Drug L.J. 281, The Food and Drug Law Institute, Food and Drug Law Journal, 2001  (16,497 words).

       Law Review: “Is too much privacy bad for your health? An introduction to the law, ethics, and HIPPA rule on medical privacy,” 17 Ga. St. U.L. Rev. 481, Georgia State Univ. Law Review, Winter 2000 (22,897 words).

       Law Review: “Privacy rights in personal information: HIPPA and the privacy gap between fundamental privacy rights and medical information,” 19 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 535, The John Marshall Law School Journal of Computer & Information Law, Summer 2001 (12,208 words).

       Law Review: “Genetic privacy and discrimination: a survey of state legislation,” 39 (3) Jurimetrics (ABA) 317-326 (1999). ABA Sci. & Techn. Sec., abasvcctr@abanet.org.  A comparison of the 44 states that had genetic privacy and/or discrimination legislation as of Jan. 1999.

       Law Review: “Symposium on genetic privacy,” nine articles covering laws, insurance, privacy, etc., 40 (1) Jurimetrics (ABA) 1-152, Fall 1999. ABA Sci. & Techn. Sec., abasvcctr@abanet.org.

       Law Review: “Genetic privacy and discrimination: a survey of state legislation,” 39 (3) Jurimetrics (ABA) 317-326 (1999), ABA Sci. & Techn. Section, abasvcctr@abanet.org.  This is a comparison of the 44 states that had genetic privacy and/or discrimination legislation as of Jan. 1999.

HAIRSTYLE AND APPEARANCE

       Law Review: “Avoiding claims of discrimination based on personal appearance, grooming and hygiene standards,” 15 (1) The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 19-45 (1999); abasvcctr@abanet.org.

       Law Review: “No shoes, no shirt, no education: dress codes and freedom of expression behind the postmodern schoolhouse gates,” 9 Seton Hall Const. L.J. 337 (1999).

       Law Review: “Secondhand Codes: An Analysis of the Constitutionality of Dress Codes in the Public Schools,” 80 Minn. L. Rev. 715 (1996).

       Law Review: “Employees’ personal appearance,” 11 (2) The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 261-272 (Summer 1995); abasvcctr@abanet.org.

       Law Review: “Suits for the hirsute: defending against America’s undeclared war on beards in the workplace,” 63 Fordham L. Rev. 1203 (1995).

       Article: “Grooming and weight standards for law enforcement: the legal issues,” 63 (7) FBI Law Enfor. Bull. 27-32 (Jul. 1994); www.fbi.gov/ (full text).

       Law Review: “Only girls wear barrettes: dress and appearance standards, community norms, and workplace equality,” 92 Mich. L. Rev. 2541 (1994).

       Law Review: “A hair piece: perspectives on the intersection of race and gender,” 1991 Duke L.J. 365 (1991).

       Law Review: “Restricting gang clothing in public schools: does a dress code violate a student’s right of free expression?,” 64 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1321 (1991).

       Law Review: “Soul Rebels: The Rastafarians and the Free Exercise Clause,”72 Geo. L.J. 1605 (1984).

HEALTH CARE

       Article: “Chronic serious health impairments and worker absences under federal employment law,” 14 (1) The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 1-22 (Summer, 1998); abasvcctr@abanet.org.

       Article: Law enforcement officers in Iowa were found to have nearly double the risk for cardiovascular disease than the general population; 1998 (40) Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 441-444 (May, 1998).  Multiple factors contributed to the toll: 81 percent reported stress, 24 percent mentioned poor eating habits, and 14 percent complained of rotating shift work.  Poor eating habits contribute to being overweight, hyper-cholesterolemia, and diabetes.

       Article: “Managing Sick and Injured Employees,” by C, McNaught and D. Schofield, FBI Law Enfor. Bull., Jan. 1998; www.fbi.gov/ (full text).

       Article: “Carcinogenic corrections: environmental health conditions impact correction employees,”14 (12) Crime & Jus. Intrntl. 9 (Jan. 1998).  Reprints: UIC/OICJ, Box 53, 1333 S. Wabash, Chicago IL 60605.

       Article: “Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Health-Care Worker Exposures to HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure,” was published by the Centers for Disease Control in May, and can be downloaded in PDF format at ftp://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/Publications/mmwr/rr/rr4707.pdf.

       Article: “Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS),” 274 (12) JAMA 956-60 (9/27/95).  Amer. Medical Assn., (800) 262-2350. Various worksites including fire stations and offices were used to measure ETS.  Using three different evaluation methods, all indicated that exposure to ETS “presents a substantial risk to workers in the absence of a policy restricting or banning smoking.”

       Law Note: “Involuntary Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke in Prison Supports a Valid Cruel and Unusual Punishment Claim if the Risk to One’s Health is Unreasonable and Prison Officials are Indifferent to that Risk - Helling v. McKinney, 113 S. Ct. 2475 (1993), Seton Hall Univ. Law Review, 1994, 25 Seton Hall L. Rev. 314 (27,744 words).

       Law Note: “Pregnant Inmates’ Right to Health Care,” by Mary McGurrin, New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement, Winter, 1993, 20 N. E. J. on Crim. & Civ. Con. 163 (16,298 words).

       Article: “The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, by J. Higginbotham, FBI Law Enfor. Bull., Dec. 1993; www.fbi.gov/ (full text).

MENTAL ILLNESS - POLICE RESPONSE TO

 

        Article: “Law Enforcement’s Response to People with Mental Illness,” by Michael Klein, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March, 2002).

 

        Article: “Civil Liability and Mental Illness: A Proactive Model to Mitigate Claims,” by Rodney Hill, Esq., Police Chief (June 2001).

 

        Booklet: “The Police Response to People with Mental Illnesses -- Including Information on the Americans with Disabilities Act Requirements and Community Policing Approaches: A Trainers Guide and Model Policy,” Police Executive Research Forum, Libr. of Congr. Catalogue No 97-75599, ISBN 1-878734-55-5 (1997).

 

        Training materials: “Dealing with the Mentally Ill,” Training Key #487 (1998) and “Dealing with the Mentally Ill, IACP Model Policy, Intern. Assn. of Chiefs of Police (1997).

        Law Review: “Employees with Mental and Emotional Problems -- Workplace Security and Implications of State Discrimination Laws, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Rehabilitation Act, Workers’ Compensation, and Related Issues,” by Janet E. Goldberg, Stetson Law Review (Fall 1994) 24 Stetson L. Rev. 201 (21,010 words, 240 notes).

MOTOR VEHICLE LAWS AND SEARCHES

Also see Canines (use of police dogs),  Race Relations and the Police; Profiling and Search and Seizure.

       Article: “The Motor Vehicle Exception: When and Where to Search,” by Lisa Regini, FBI Law Enfor. Bull., July, 1999; www.fbi.gov/ (full text).

       Law Review: “Without a warrant, probably cause or reasonable suspicion: Is there any meaning to the Fourth Amendment while driving a Car?,” Houston Law Review, Spring, 1999, 35 Hous. L. Rev. 1683 (27,692 words).

       Law Review: “Beyond privacy, beyond probable cause, beyond the Fourth Amendment: New strategies for fighting pretext arrests,” Univ. of Colorado Law Review, Summer, 1998, 69 U. Colo. L. Rev. 693 (21,383 words).

       Law Note: People v. Barnes: George Orwell’s 1984 Revisited: Unbridled and Impermissible Police Use of Computer Power in the Modern Age,” by Sam L. Amirante, Loyola Univ. Chicago Law Journal, Summer, 1997,28 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 667 (10,002 words).

       Law Note: “The Unreasonable Expectation of Privacy: The ‘New’ New Jersey Supreme Court Reevaluates State Constitutional Protections, by Scott Carbone, Seton Hall Univ. Law Review, 30 Seton Hall L. Rev. 361 (19,873 words).

       Law Note: “Mobile data terminals and random license plate checks: the need for uniform guidelines and reasonable suspicion requirement,” by Darlene Cedres, Rutgers Computer and Technology Law Journal, 1997, 23 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 391 (12,434 words).

       Article: “Pretext Traffic Stops: Whren v. United States,” by John C. Hall, FBI Law Enfor. Bull., Nov. 1996; www.fbi.gov/ (full text).

NEGELIGENT FAILURE TO PROTECT CRIME VICTIMS

       Law Review: “Note: ATM Crime: Expanding the Judicial Approach to a Bank’s Liability for Third Party Crimes Against ATM Patrons, Valparaiso Univ. Law Review, Fall, 1995, 30 Val. U.L. Rev. 99 (42,285 words).

NEPOTISM

       Article: “No-spouse rules in the workplace under Illinois and Federal law,” 82 (8) Ill. Bar J. 414-420 (Aug. 1994).

NEWS MEDIA

       Article: “Media Ride-Alongs,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, July, 2000, FBI Law Enfor. Bull.; www.fbi.gov/ (full text).

       Law Review: “The Unusual Suspects: Journalists as Thieves,” by William E. Lee, College of William and Mary William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal, Dec. 1999, 8 Wm. & Mary Bill of Rts. J. 53 (50,343 words)

       Law Review: “Privacy and the First Amendment Right to Gather News,” by Rodney A. Smolla, George Washington Law Review, Jun-Aug, 1999, 67 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1097 (29,736 words).

       Law Review: “Comment: Much Ado About Newsgathering: Personal Privacy, Law Enforcement,” and the Law of Unintended Consequences for Anti-Paparazzi Legislation, by Andrew D. Morton, Univ. of Pennsylvania, June, 1999, 147 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1435 (22,206 words).

       Law Symposium: “Privacy and the Law: The Media’s Intrusion of Privacy: Privacy and the First Amendment Right to Gather News,” by Rodney A. Smolla, George Washington Law Review, Jun/Aug 1999, 67 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1097 (29,736 words).

       Law Review: “Secrets and Lies: News Media and Law Enforcement Use of Deception as an Investigative Tool, by Bernard Bell, Univ. of Pittsburgh Law Review, Spring, 1999, 60 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 745 (57,867 words).

       Law Review: “Secrets and Lies: News Media and Law Enforcement Use of Deception as an Investigative Tool,” by Bernard W. Bell, Univ. of Pittsburgh Law Review, Spring, 1999, 60 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 745 (57,867 words).

       Law Note: “Police Liability for the Media ‘Ride-Along,’” by David E. Bond, Boston Univ. Law Review, October, 1997, 77 B.U.L. Rev. 825(31024 words).  

       Law Review: “Note: Outtakes, Hidden Cameras, and the First Amendment: A Reporter’s Privilege,” by Alison Lynn Tuley, William & Mary Law Review, July, 1997, 38 Wm and Mary L. Rev. 1817 (18,183 words).

PERJURY BY POLICE OFFICERS

        Law Review: : “Unnecessary evil: Police lying in interrogations,” by Deborah Young, Univ. of Chicago, Journal of Law & Economics (Apr. 2002) 45 J. Law & Econ. 69 (9021 words).

        Law Symposium: the Rampart scandal: “Policing the criminal justice system: an independent analysis of the Los Angeles Police Department's board of inquiry report on the Rampart scandal,” by Erwin Chemerinsky, Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review (Jan. 2001) 34 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 545 (41,244 words).   

        Law Symposium: the Rampart scandal: “Policing the criminal justice system: Changing police culture: the sine qua non of reform,” by Robert W. Benson, Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review (Jan. 2001) 34 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 681 (3,694 words).

       Law Note: “The Failure to Breach the Blue Wall of Silence: The Circling of the Wagons to Protect Police Perjury,” by Jennifer E. Koepke, Washburn Law Journal, Winter 2000, 39 Washburn L.J. 211 (24,920 words).

       Law Review: “Breaking the Code of Silence: Rediscovering “Custom” in Section 1983 Municipal Liability,” by Myriam Gilles, Boston University Law Review, Feb. 2000, 80 B.U.L. Rev. 17 (49,382 words).

       Law Review: “The ‘blue wall of silence’ as evidence of bias and motive to lie: a new approach to police perjury,”  Univ. of Pittsburgh Law Review, 59 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 233 (1998).

       Law Review: “Deceit, pretext, and trickery: Investigate lies by the police,” Univ. of Oregon Law Review, 76 Or. L. Rev. 775 (1997).

       Law Review: “Is legal ethics asking the right questions?” by A. Dershowitz, Hofstra Univ. School of Law, Journal of the Institute for the Study of Legal Ethics, 1 J. Inst. Stud. Leg. Eth. 15 (1996).

       Law Note: “Reform: The Police: Testilying: Police Perjury and What to do About It,” by Christopher Slobogin, Fall, 1996, 67 U. Colo. L. Rev. 1037 (11,845 words).  

POLITICAL ACTIVITY OF POLICE PERSONNEL

       Law Review: “Blue by Day and White by Knight: Regulating the Political Affiliations of Law Enforcement and Military Personnel, “ by Robin D. Barnes, Iowa Univ. Law Review, May, 1996, 81 Iowa L. Rev. 1079 (60,710 words).

POLYGRAPH

       Annotation: “Refusal to submit to polygraph examination as ground for discharge or suspension of public employees or officers,” 15 A.L.R.4th 1207, §2.

       Book:  “Detection of Deception”, Electrodermal Activity in Psychological Research, W. Prokasky & D. Raskin (1973).

       Article: “The Case Against the Polygraph,” 51 Amer. Bar Assn. Journal 855 (1965); abasvcctr@abanet.org.

PRISONER RIGHTS

Also see Health Care

      Law Comment: “Kirsch v. Wisconsin Dept. of Corrections: will the Supreme Court say “hands off” again?” Akron Law Review (2002) 35 Akron L. Rev. 305 (7640 words). 

       Article: “The malleability of constitutional doctrine and its ironic impact on prisoners’ rights,” The Boston Public Interest Law Journal (Fall, 2001) 11 B.U. Pub. Int. L.J. 73 (13611 words).

       Law Comment: “A decade after Smith: an examination of the New York Court of Appeals’ stance on the free exercise of religion in relation to Minnesota, Washington, and California,” Albany Law Review ( 2000) 63 Alb. L. Rev. 1305 (26853 words).

       Law Review: “First Amendment law: in contempt of contempt? Religious motivation as a reason to mitigate contempt sanctions,” New York Univ. School of Law, Annual Survey of American Law  (1999) Ann. Surv. Am. L. 295 (16404 words). 

       Law Review: “Cruel and Unusual Punishment in United States Prisons: Sexual Harassment Among Male Inmates,” by James E. Robertson, Amer. Criminal Law Review, Winter 1999, 36 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 1 (37,465 words).

       Article: “Prison Management Trends, 1975-2025,” Crime and Justice, 1999, 26 Crime & Just. 163 (16,983 words).

       Article: “Medical Care in Prisons,” Crime and Justice, 1999, 26 Crime & Just. 427 (23,245 words).

       Law Comment: The Eighth Amendment and Solitary Confinement: The Gap in Protection from Psychological Consequences, DePaul Law Review, Winter, 49 DePaul L. Rev. 567 (31,238 words).

       Law Review: “Substantive Rights Retained by Prisoners,” Georgetown Law Journal, May, 1999, 87 Geo. L.J. 1904 (43,307 words).  

       Law Review: “The failure of RFRA,” Univ. of Arkansas Law Journal, (Spring, 1998) 20 U. Ark. Little Rock L.J. 575 (24669 words).

       Law Review: “Prisoners’ Rights, Georgetown Law Journal, April, 1997, 85 Geo. L.J. 1561 (65,732 words).

       Law Article: History Repeats Itself in the Resurrection of Prisoner Chain Gangs: Alabama’s Experience Raises Eighth Amendment Concerns,” Law and Inequality, (Winter, 1997) 15 Law & Ineq. J. 127 (16,504 words).

       Law Comment: “International Protection of the Rights of Prisoners: Is Solitary Confinement in the United States a Violation of International Standards?” California Western International Law Journal, Fall, 1995, 26 Cal. W. Int’l L.J. 139 (19,961 words).

       Law Review: “Federal Standards for Sex Offender Registration: Public Disclosure Confronts the Right to Privacy,” William & Mary Law Review, Fall 1995, 37 Wm. and Mary L. Rev. 299 (23,964 words).

       Law Comment: “Prisoner Health Care: Is it Proper to Charge Inmates for Health Services?” Houston Law Review, Summer, 1995, 32 Hous. L. Rev. 271 (17,774 words).

       Law Note: “Constitutional law-Free exercise clause-sacrificial rites become Constitutional rights on the altar of Babalu Aye,” Univ. of Arkansas Law Journal (Fall, 1994) 16 U. Ark. Little Rock L.J. 623 (21,064 words).

       Law Review: “Prisoners and the FLSA: Can the American taxpayer afford extending prison inmates the federal minimum wage?” by Alexander Wellen, Temple Univ. Law Review, Spring, 1994, 67 Temple L. Rev. 295 (26,719 words).

PRIVACY

See Surveillance, Infiltration and Monitoring and Workplace Privacy

PRIVATE SECURITY

       Book, “Protective Security Law, 2nd Edition,” by Prof. Fred E. Inbau, Bernard J. Farber, & David W. Arnold (330 pages, $39.95, Butterworth Heinemann, 1996), a text covering legal areas of interest to those in private security industry. (ISBN: 0750692790). http://www.bh.com/

       Law Review: “To Catch a Thief: The Private Employer’s Guide to Getting and Keeping an Honest Employee,” by Rochelle B. Ecker, Univ. of Missouri at Kansas City Law Review, Winter 1994, 63 UMKC L. Rev. 251 (18,624 words).

PRIVATIZATION OF  PRISONS AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

       Law Review: “The Private Police,” by David A. Sklansky, UCLA Law Review, 46 UCLA L. Rev. 1165, April, 1999 (76,683 words).

       Law Note: “The Impact of Constitutional Liability on the Privatization Movement After Richardson v. McKnight,” by Paul Howard Morris, Vanderbilt Law Review, March, 1999, 52 Vand. L. Rev. 489 (17,618 words).

       Law Review: “Prison Management Trends 1975-2025,” by Chase Riveland, Univ. of Chicago, Crime and Justice, 1999, 26 Crime & Just. 163 (16,983 words).

       Law Note: Should Qualified Immunity Be Privatized?: The Effect of Richardson v. McKnight on Prison Privatization and the Applicability of Qualified Immunity Under 42 U.S.C. §1983,” By Alyssa Van Duizend, Connecticut Law Review, Summer, 1998, 30 Conn. L. Rev. 1481 (18,003 words).

       Law Note: “Richardson v. McKnight” (qualified immunity to privately contracted prison guards), by Dena Haggerty-Spaan, Ohio Northern Univ. Law Review, 1998, 24 Ohio N.U.L. Rev. 357 (6,260 words).

       Law Comment: “Private Jails in Oklahoma: An Unconstitutional Delegation of Legislative Authority, by Laura Suzanne Farris, Univ. of Tulsa Law Journal, Spring/Summer, 1998, 33 Tulsa L.J. 959 (13,276 words).

       Law Review: “Recent Development: Privatizing Section 1983 Immunity: The Prison Guard’s Dilemma After Richardson v. McKnight, 117 S.Ct. 2100 (1997)” Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, Fall, 1997, 21 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y 251 (14,497 words).

       Law Review: “The Due Process Failure of America’s Prison Privatization Statutes,” by Warren L. Ratliff, Seton Hall Univ. Legislative Journal, 1997, 21 Seton Hall Legis. J. 371 (26,402 words).

       Law Review: “Privatizing Section 1983 Immunity: The Prison Guard’s Dilemma,” by Daniel J. Juceam, Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, Fall, 1997, 21 Harv. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 251 (14,497 words).

       Law Review: “Furthering The Accountability  Principle In Privatized Federal Corrections: The Need For Access To Private Prison Records,” by Nicole B. Casarez, Univ. of Michigan Law School, Winter, 1995, 28 U. Mich. J.L. Ref. 249 (29,035 words).

       Law Note: “Private Prisons: Can They Work?  Panopticon in the Twenty-First Century,” by John G. DiPiano, New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement, Winter, 1995, 21 N.E. J. on Crim. & Civ. Con. 171 (16,155 words).

       Law Review: “To Catch a Thief: The Private Employer’s Guide to Getting and Keeping an Honest Employee,” by Rochelle B. Ecker, Univ. of Missouri at Kansas City Law Review, Winter 1994, 63 UMKC L. Rev. 251 (18,624 words).

       Law Review: “The Legal Dimensions of Private Incarceration,” by Ira P. Robbins, American Univ. Law Review, Spring, 1989, 38 Am. U.L. Rev. 531 (53,529 words).

       Law Review: “The Impact of the Delegation Doctrine on Prison Privatization,” by Ira P. Robbins, Univ. of California Law Review, June, 1988, 35 UCLA L. Rev. 911 (21,585 words).

       Law Symposium: “Privatization of Prisons: The Privatization of Correctional Institutions: The Tennessee Experience,” by Cody and Bennett, Vanderbilt Law Review, May, 1987, 40 Vand. L. Rev. 829 (10,177 words).

PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING

  Article, “Psychological Fitness for Duty Evaluations in Law Enforcement,” by Cary Rostow and Robert Davis, Police Chief (Sep. 2002).

 

        Law Review: “Unconscious bias and self-critical analysis: The case for a qualified evidentiary equal employment opportunity privilege,” 74 Wash. L. Rev. 913 (1999).

 

        Law Note: “Is a personality test a pre-job-offer medical examination under the ADA?,” 93 Nw. U.L. Rev. 597 (1999).

 

        Law Note: “Beyond Jaffee v. Redmond: Should the Federal Courts Recognize a Right to Physician-Patient Confidentiality?,” 58 Ohio St. L.J. 1809 (1998).

 

        Law Note: “The Quest For the Honest Worker: A Proposal for Regulation of Integrity Testing,” 49 SMU L. Rev. 329 (1996).

 

        Law Note: “Integrity tests: do they have any integrity?,” 6 Cornell J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 211 (1996).

 

        Law Review: “Employees with mental and emotional problems -- workplace security and implications of state discrimination laws, the ADA (etc.),” 24 Stetson L. Rev. 201 (1994).

 

        Law Review: “Preplacement Examinations and ob-Relatedness: How to Enhance Privacy and Diminish Discrimination in the Workplace,” 49 U. Kan. L. Rev. 517.

 

        Law Note: “To catch a thief: The Private Employer’s Guide to Getting and Keeping an Honest Employee,” 63 UMKC L. Rev. 251 (1994).

 

        Law Review: “Privacy regulation of computer-assisted testing and instruction,” 63 Wash. L. Rev. 841 (1988).

        Law Review: “Medical and Psychotherapy Privileges and Confidentiality: On Giving With One Hand and Removing With the Other,” 75 Ky. L.J. 473 (1986).

       Article: “The development, marketing and use of integrity tests in the American workplace,” by William Harris, University of Iowa (1997). http://www.testpublishers.org/Documents/iowa.pdf

       Book: “Mandating psychological evaluation of employees,” National Safe Workplace Institute, Charlotte NC, $49 ea. (704) 841-1175. (Oct. 1996).

      Article: A Cross-Validation Study of Police Recruit Performance as Predicted by the IPI and MMPI, 15 (2) Journal of Police Science & Adm. (IACP) 162 (June 1987) with many additional references listed on p. 169.

RACE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT

       Law Review: “Unconscious bias and self-critical analysis: the case for a qualified evidentiary equal employment opportunity privilege,” by Deana A. Pollard, Washington Law Review - October, 1999, 74 Wash. L. Rev. 913 (63,746 words).

RACE RELATIONS AND THE POLICE; PROFILING

Also see Motor Vehicle Laws and Searches

        Law Review: “Law enforcement by stereotypes and serendipity: Racial profiling and stops and searches without cause,” by David Rudovsky, Rutgers Race & the Law Review (2001) 3 Rutgers Race & L. Rev. 223 (25,270 words).

 

        Law Review: “Driving While Black: A Skeptical Note,” by Stephan Michelson, Jurimetrics, American Bar Assn. (Winter 2004) 44 Jurimetrics J. 161-179 (9758 words)

 

        Law Review: “Stop in the Name of the Law”: What Law? Racial Profiling and Police Practice in Canada: E-Racing Racial Profiling, by David M. Tanovich, The Alberta Law Review (Apr. 2004), 41 Alberta L. Rev. 905 (14,748 words)

 

        Law Review: “Defining Racial Profiling in a Post-September 11 World,” by Ramirez, Hoopes and Quinlan, American Criminal Law Review, Georgetown Univ. (Summer 2003) 40 (3) Am. Crim. L. Rev. 1195.

 

        Law Review: “Remedying Racial Profiling,” by Brandon Garrett, Columbia Human Rights Law Review (Fall 2001) 33 Colum. Human Rights L. Rev. 41 (34,380 words).  

        Law Review: “Road Work: Racial Profiling and Drug Interdiction on the Highway,”by Gross and Barnes,” Michigan Law Review (Dec. 2002) 101 Mich. L. Rev. 651 (43,347 words). 

       Article: “Breaking the pattern of racial profiling, by David Rudovsky, Trial, Aug. 2002, p. 28-37, Assn. of  Trial Lawyers of America, www.atla.org

       Law Review: “Race-Based Suspect Selection and Colorblind Equal Protection Doctrine and Discourse,” by R. Richard Banks (Asst. Prof. Stanford Law School) UCLA Law Review (June 2001) 48 UCLA L. Rev. 1075 [19,203 words].  

       Law Review: “Street Stops and Broken Windows: Terry, Race, and Disorder in New York City,” by Jeffrey Fagan and Garth Davies, Fordham University School of Law, Fordham Urban Law Journal, Dec. 2000, 28 Fordham Urb. L.J. 457 (17,600 words).

       Law Review: “Is America a Systematic Violator of Human Rights in the Administration of Criminal Justice?” St. Louis Univ. Law Journal, Summer 2000, 44 St. Louis L.J. 999 (13,758 words).

       Law Review: “Cops, Community Policing and the Social Norms Approach to Crime Control,” by Sarah E. Waldeck, Univ, of Georgia, Spring 2000, 34 Ga. L. Rev. 1253 (24,512 words).

       Law Review: “Prosecuting Violence: A Colloquy on Race, Community, and Justice,” by Richard Delgado, Leland Stanford Univ. Law Review, Apr. 2000, 52 Stan. L. Rev. 751, (12,910 words).

       Law Review: “Roundtable: Law and Disorder: Is Effective Law Enforcement Inconsistent With Good Police-Community Relations?” Fordham University School of Law, Fordham Urban Law Journal, Dec. 2000, 28 Fordham Urb. L.J. 363 (20,414 words).

       Law Review: “Standing While Black: Distinguishing Lyons in Racial Profiling Cases,” by Brandon Garrett, 100 Colum. L. Rev. 1815, Columbia Law Review, Nov. 2000 (12,456 words).

       Law Note: “Why Modest Proposals Offer the Best Solution for Combating Racial Profiling,” by Sean P. Trende, 2000 Duke Law Journal, Duke Law Journal, Oct. 2000, 50 Duke L.J. 331 (19,792 words).

       Law Review: “Fear and Fairness In The City: Criminal Enforcement and Perceptions of Fairness in Minority Communities,” by Richard R.W. Brooks, Southern California Law Review, Univ. of So. Cal., Sept. 2000, 73 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1219 (20,084 words).

       Law Review: “Is America a Systematic Violator of Human Rights in the Administration of Criminal Justice?” St. Louis Univ. Law Journal, Summer 2000, 44 St. Louis L.J. 999 (13,758 words).

       Law Review: “Cops, Community Policing and the Social Norms Approach to Crime Control,” by Sarah E. Waldeck, Univ, of Georgia, Spring 2000, 34 Ga. L. Rev. 1253 (24,512 words).

       Law Review: Prosecuting Violence: A Colloquy on Race, Community, and Justice,” by Richard Delgado, Leland Stanford Junior Univ., Stanford Law Review, April 2000, 52 Stan. L. Rev. 751 (12,910 words).

       Report: “Race, Ethnicity, and Serious and Violent Juvenile Offending,” June 2000, DoJ Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

       Report: “Punishment and Prejudice: Racial Disparities in the War on Drugs,” Human Rights Watch, June 2000 http://www.hrw.org/press/.

       Report: “Scope of Race-Based Inequality in American Criminal Justice System,” Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, May 2000, www.civilrights.org/.

       Law Review: “With an Evil Eye and an Unequal Hand:  Pretextual Stops and Doctrinal Remedies to Racial Profiling,” Wesley MacNeil Oliver, 74 Tul. L. Rev. 1409, Tulane Law Review, March, 2000 (40,381 words).

       Law Review: “Eradicating Racial Stereotyping From Terry Stops:  The Case For An Equal Protection Exclusionary Rule,” 71 U. Colo. L. Rev. 255, Colorado Law Review, Winter, 2000 (19,266 words).

       Book: “No Equal Justice: Race and Class in the American Criminal Justice System,”  by Prof. David Cole, published by The New Press (1999).

       Law Review: “Civil Rights in The Next Millennium: Any Way You Slice it: Why Racial Profiling is Wrong,” by Reginald T. Shuford, Saint Louis University School of Law, S.L.U. Public Law Review, 1999, 18 St. Louis U. Pub. L. Rev. 371 (4,248 words).

       Law Review: “The Stories, the Statistics, and the Law: Why ‘Driving While Black’ Matters,” by David A. Harris, 84 Minn. L. Rev. 265, 1999 (31,305 words).

       Law Review: “The Stories, the Statistics, and the Law: Why ‘Driving While Black’ Matters,” by David A. Harris, 84 Minn. L. Rev. 265, 265-75, 1999.

       Law Review: “Stopping the Usual Suspects: Race and the Fourth Amendment,” by Anthony C. Thompson, 74 N.Y.U.L. Rev. 956, New York Univ. Law Review, October, 1999 (33,043 words).

       Law Review: “Neutrality of the Equal Protection Clause,” by K.G. Jan Pillai, Hastings Coll. of the Law, Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly, Fall 1999, 27 Hastings Const. L.Q. 89 (37,066 words).

       Law Review: “Driving While Black”: Corollary Phenomena and Collateral Consequences,” by Katheryn K. Russell, Boston College Law Review, May 1999, 40 B.C. L. Rev 717 (8,155 words).

       Law Review: “New Jersey Law and Police Response to the Exclusion of Minority Patrons, from Retail Stores Based on the Mere, Suspicion of Shoplifting,” James L. Fennessy, 9 Seton Hall Const. L.J. 549, Constitutional Law Journal,  Seton Hall University, Spring, 1999 (34,470 words).

       Law Review: “Race, Vagueness, and The Social Meaning of Order-Maintenance Policing,” Northw. Sch. of Law, Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, Spring 1999, 89 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 775 (29,165 words).

       Law Review: “Challenging Selective Enforcement of Traffic Regulations ... and the Evolution of Police Discretion,” by Christopher Hall, 76 Tex. L. Rev. 1083, 1088-1123, 1998.

       Law Review: “Challenging Selective Enforcement of Traffic Regulations ... and the Evolution of Police Discretion,” by Christopher Hall, 76 Tex. L. Rev. 1083, Univ. of Texas Law Review, 1998 (27,459 words).

       Law Review: “Eliminating Consent From the Lexicon of Traffic Stop Interrogations, 27 Cap. U.L. Rev. 79,” Capital Univ. Law Review, 1998 (31,310 words).

       Law Review: “Just Another Gang: When the Cops  Are Crooks Who Can You Trust?” by Andre Cummings, Howard Univ. Sch. of Law, 41 How. L.J. 383, Howard University, Washington DC, Winter, 1998 (14,926 words)

       Law Review: “Race and the Fourth Amendment,” by Prof. Tracey Maclin, Boston Univ. Sch. of Law, 51  Vand. L. Rev. 333, Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN, March 1998 (37,303 words).

       Law Review: “Terry and Race: Black Men and Police Discretion,” by Prof. Tracey Maclin, Boston Univ. Sch. of Law, 72 St. John’s L. Rev. 1271, St. John’s Univ., Jamaica, NY, Summer / Fall, 1998 (26,113 words).

       Law Review: “Prosecution and Race: the Power, and Privilege of Discretion,” by Prof. Angela J. Davis,  Amer. Univ., 67 Fordham L. Rev. 13, Fordham Law Review, October, 1998 (34,607 words).

       Law Review: “Driving While Black and All Other Traffic offenses: The Supreme Court and Pretextual Traffic Stops,” by David A. Harris, 87 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 544, Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, Northw. School of Law, Winter, 1997 (22,006 words).

       Law Review: “Traffic Stops, Minority Motorists, and the Future of the Fourth Amendment,” by David A. Sklansky, Univ. of Chicago, 1997 Supreme Court Review, 1997 Sup. Ct. Rev. 271  (34,875 words).

       Law Review: “Race and Pretextual Traffic Stops,” by Sean Hecker, Esq., 28 Colum. Human Rights L. Rev. 551, Columbia University, New York NY, Spring 1997 (24,827 words).

       Law Review: “DWB (Driving While Black)” and Equal Protection: The Realities of An Unconstitutional Police Practice, 6 J.L. & Pol’y 291, Journal of Law and Policy, 1997 (17,669 words).

       Law Comment: “The Birth of the Crime: Driving While Black (DWB),” 25 S.U. L. Rev. 195, Southern Univ. Law Review, Southern Univ. Law Center, Fall, 1997 (17,570 words).

       Law Review: “The Age of Unreason: The Impact of Reasonableness, Increased Police Force, and Colorblindness on Terry ‘Stop And Frisk’,” by Omar Saleem, Winter, 1997, 50 Okla. L. Rev. 451 (30,304 words).

       Law Review: “After Whren v. U.S.: Applying the Equal Protection Cluase to Racially Discriminatory Enforcement of the Law,” by Carl J. Schifferle, 2 Mich. L. & Pol’y Rev. 159, Univ. of Mich. Law School, Mich. Law & Policy Review, 1997 (15,564 words).

       Law Review: “Race, Cops, and Traffic Stops,” by Angela J. Davis, 51 U. Miami L. Rev. 425, Univ. of Miami Law Review, Jan. 1997 (11,147 words).

       Law Review: “The Myth of the Good Cop and the Inadequacy of, Fourth Amendment Remedies for Black Men,” by Prof. Robin K. Magee, Hamline Univ. Sch. of Law (St Paul MN), 23 Cap. U.L. Rev. 151, Capital University, Columbus OH, 1994 (38,065 words).

       Law Review: “Frisking Every Suspect: The Withering of Terry,” by Prof. David A. Harris, Univ. of Toledo, 28 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 1, Univ. of California at Davis, Fall, 1994 (27,789 words).

       Law Review: “‘The Black Community,’ Its Lawbreakers, and A Politics Of Identification,” by Regina Austin, Univ. of So. Calif., May, 1992, 65 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1769 (26,612 words).

RESISTANCE TO ARREST

       Law Review: “Not a Law at All: A Call for a Return to the Common Law Right to Resist Unlawful Arrest, by Craig Hemmens and Daniel Levin, 29 Sw. U. L. Rev. 1, Southwestern Univ. Law Review, 1999 (27,842 words).

RESIDENCY REQUIREMENTS

       Law Review: “In Defense of Resident Hiring Preferences: A Public Spending Exception to the Privileges and Immunities Clause,” California Law Review, December, 1998, 86 Calif. L. Rev. 1335 (24,824 words).

SCHOOL LAW

       Law Review: “Law Enforcement Officers in Public Schools: Student Citizens in Safe Havens?” by J. Stefkovich & J. Miller, Brigham Young Univ. Law School, B.Y.U. Educ. and Law Jour., Winter 1999, 1999 BYU Educ. & L. J. 25 (21,864 words).

       Law Review: “Law Enforcement Officers in Public Schools: Student Citizens in Safe Havens?” by J. Stefkovich & J. Miller, Brigham Young Univ. Educ. and Law Journal, Winter 1999, 1999 BYU Educ. & L. J. 25 (21,864 words).

       Law Review: “Searches in the Absence of Individualized Suspicion: The Case of Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton” by Charles Neil Floyd, Arkansas Law Review, 1997, 50 Ark. L. Rev. 335 (12,841 words).

SEARCH AND SEIZURE

Also see Motor Vehicle Laws and Searches and Workplace Privacy

       Law Review: “The warrantless use of thermal imaging and ‘intimate details’: Why growing pot indoors and washing dishes are similar activities under the Fourth amendment.” Catholic Univ. Law Review, Winter, 2000, 49 Cath. U.L. Rev. 575 (23,745 words, 262 footnotes).

       Law Review: “The Development of Search and Seizure Law in Public Schools,” by Bill O. Heder, Brigham Young University Law School Education and Law Journal, Winter, 1999, 1999 BYU Educ. & L. J. 71 (22,521 words).

       Law Review: “Comment: Concealed Weapon Detectors and the Fourth Amendment: TheConstitutionality of Remote Sense-Enhanced Searches,” by Laura B. Riley, Univ. of California Law Review, Oct., 1997, 45 UCLA L. Rev. 281 (31,674 words).

       Law Review: “Superman’s X-Ray Vision and the Fourth Amendment: The New Gun Detection Technology,” by David A. Harris, Temple Univ. Law Review, Spring, 1996, 69 Temple L. Rev. 1 (42,096 words).

       Law Review: “Police tactics, drug trafficking, and gang violence: why the no-knock warrant is an idea whose time has come,” by Donald B. Allegro, University of Notre Dame, 1989, 64 Notre Dame L. Rev. 552 (14,109 words).

SEX DISCRIMINATION

       Article: “Pregnancy and maternity leave policies - the legal aspects,” by J. Higginbotham, 62 (3) FBI Law Enf. Bull. 27-32 (Mar. 1993); www.fbi.gov/ (full text).

       Law Review: Radford, “Sex stereotyping and the promotion of women to positions of power,” 41 Hastings L.J. 471 (1990).

       Law Review: Struth, “Permissible sexual stereotypings versus impermissible sexual stereotyping: a theory of causation, 34 N.Y.L. Sch. L.Rev. 679 (1989).

       Annotation:  “Sex Discrimination in Law Enforcement and Corrections Employment,” 53 ALR Fed. 31-109 (1981); this is a 79 page collection of cases; also see 29 ALR Fed. 13.

       Annotation: Sex Discrimination - Police § 5 “Minimum height or weight,” 53 ALR Fed. 45-54 (1981).

SEXUAL HARASSMENT

       Law Review: “Employer Defenses to Sexual Harassment Claims,” 6 (1) Duke Univ. Journ. of Gender Law & Policy 27 (Spring, 1999).  Focuses on the legal defenses that management lawyers use to defeat sexual harassment claims. http://www.law.duke.edu/journals/

       Law Review:  “Past sexual conduct in sexual harassment cases,” 75 (1) Chicago-Kent Law Rev. (1999), lawreview.kentlaw.edu/.

       Law Review:  “Employer defenses to sexual harassment claims,” 6 Duke J. of Gender L. & Policy 27 (1999).

       Law Review: “Sexual harassment in California law enforcement: a survey of women police officers,” 30 (4) J. Calif. Law Enf. 82-87 (1997) http://www.cpoa.org/.

       Law Review: Hope A. Comisky Esq., “Beware of the alleged harasser - lawsuits by those accused of sexual harassment,” 12 (2) The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 277-290 (1996), abasvcctr@abanet.org.

SEXUAL ORIENTATION

       Law Review: “Note: “‘Megan’s Laws’ Reinforcing Old Patterns of Anti-Gay Police Harassment,” by Robert L. Jacobson, Georgetown Law Journal, July, 1999, 87 Geo. L.J. 2431 (25,472 words).

       Law Review: “Homosexual Discrimination and Government Employment: Shahar v. Bowers - The Government Employers’ Shield of Public Animosity,” by Jeremy C. Lowe, Washington Univ. Journal of Urban and Contemporary Law, Winter 1999, 55 Wash. U. J. Urb. & Contemp. L. 191 (23,377 words).

       Law Review: “‘Don’t ask, don’t tell;’ A discussion of employee privacy in cyberspace in light of McVeigh v. Cohen,” by Clifford T. Karafin, Virginia Journal of Law and Technology, Fall, 1998, 3 Va. J.L. & Tech. 7 (16,123 words).

       Article: “Homosexuals in law enforcement: a contemporary study,” 30 (4) J. Calif. Law Enf. (CPOA) 77-81 (1997) http://www.cpoa.org/.

       Law Review: “Sexual orientation discrimination in the workplace: a legal reference guide,” 2 (1) Natl. J. of Sexual Orient. L 38-84 (an online electronic journal; covers employment. discrimination cases, laws and harassment). Internet: http://www.ibiblio.org/gaylaw/

       Law Review: “Reorienting the workplace: Examining California’s new labor code section 1102.1 and other legal protections against employment discrimination based on sexual orientation,” by Todd R. Dickey, Univ. of Southern Calif. Law Review, July, 1993, 66 S. Cal. L. Rev. 2297 (16,663 words).

SMOKING

       Article: “Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS),” Journal of the Amer. Medical Assn., 274 (12) JAMA 956-60.

SURVEILLANCE, INFILTRATION, MONITORING AND FACIAL RECOGNITION

See also Workplace Privacy

       Law Note: “What big eyes and ears you have!: A new regime for covert governmental surveillance,” by Mark G. Young, Fordham Law Review (Dec. 2001) 70 Fordham L. Rev. 1017 (38,561 words).  

      Law Review: “Clones, bones and twilight zones: Protecting the digital persona of the quick, the dead and the imaginary,” by Joseph J. Beard, Berkeley Technology Law Journal (Fall 2001) 16 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1165 (53,997 words).

      Law Comment: “Banking on biometrics: Your bank’s new high-tech method of identification may mean giving up your privacy,” by Lisa Jane McGuire, Akron Law Review (2000) 33 Akron L. Rev. 441 (23,132 words).

      Law Review: “Privacy and the reasonable paranoid: The protection of privacy in public places,” by Elizabeth Paton-Simpson, Univ. of Toronto Law Journal (Summer 2000) 50 Univ. of Toronto L.J. 305 [23,895 words).

      Law Review: “Privacy or Dignity?: Electronic Monitoring in the Workplace,” by Lawrence E. Rothstein, New York Law Journal of International & Comparative Law, 2000, 19 N.Y.L. Sch. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 379 (17,550 words).

       Law Review: “Global trends in privacy protection: an international survey of privacy, data protection, and surveillance laws and developments,” 18 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 1, The John Marshall Law School Journal of Computer & Information Law, Fall, 1999 (59409 words).

      Law Review: “Technology arms peeping toms with a new and dangerous arsenal: a compelling need for new legislation,” 17 J. Mar. J. Cmptr. & Info. L. 1167 (1999).

      Law Review: “Permitting Systems Protection Monitoring: When the Government Can Look and What It Can See,” by Lt. Col. LeEllen Coacher, Air Force JAG School, The Air Force Law Review, 46 A. F. L. Rev. 155, 1999 (22862 words).

       Law Review: “Electronic Surveillance,” by Stephanie Goldstein, Georgetown Law Journal, May, 1999, 87 Geo. L.J. 1201 (23,958 words).

       Law Review: “Secrets and Lies: News Media and Law Enforcement Use of Deception as an Investigative Tool,” by Bernard W. Bell, Univ. of Pittsburgh Law Review, Spring 1999, 60 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 745 (57,867 words).

      Law Note: “Facial recognition technology, video surveillance, and privacy,” by Christopher S. Milligan, So. Calif. Interdisciplinary Law Journal (Winter 1999) 9 S. Cal. Interdis. L.J. 295 (18,962 words).

      Law Review: “Video surveillance and privacy: Implications for wearable computing,” by Amy M. Intille,Suffolk Univ. Law Review (1999) 32 Suffolk U. L. Rev. 729 (18,620 words).  

       Law Review: “Global Trends in Privacy Protection: An International Survey of Privacy, Data Protection, and Surveillance Laws and Developments,”  by David Banisar and Simon Davies of Privacy International, The John Marshall Journal of Computer & Information Law, Fall 1999, 18 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 1 (59,409 words).

       Law Review: “Electronic Surveillance,” by Kropf and Brainard, Georgetown Law Journal, June, 1998, 86 Geo. L.J. 1289 (23,091 words).

       Law Review: “Intelligence agencies, law enforcement, and the prosecution team,” by Jonathan Fredman, Yale Law & Policy Review, 1998, 16 Yale L. & Pol’y Rev. 331 (24,611 words).

       Law Review: “Investigation and police practice: Electronic surveillance,” by Sara Kropf and J. Owen Brainard, Georgetown Law Journal, June, 1998, 86 Geo. L.J. 1289 (23,091 words).

       Law Review: “Revisiting the Public/Private Distinction: Employee Monitoring in the Workplace,” by S. Elizabeth Wilborn, Univ. of Georgia, Spring, 1998, 32 Ga. L. Rev. 825 (38,184 words).

      Law Review: “Technology assisted physical surveillance,” 10 Harv. J. Law & Tech. 383 (1997).

      Law Review: “Biometric scanning, law & policy: identifying the concernsb -- drafting the biometric blueprint,” by John D. Woodward, Univ. of Pittsburgh Law Review (Fall 1997) 59 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 97 [30,266 words).  

      Law Note: “Scowl because you’re on candid camera: Privacy and video surveillance.” By Quentin Burrows, Valparaiso Univ. Law Review (Summer 1997) 31 Val. U.L. Rev. 1079 (38,324 words).  

       Law Review: “Note: Outtakes, Hidden Cameras, and the First Amendment: A Reporter’s Privilege,” by Alison Lynn Tuley, William & Mary Law Review, July, 1997, 38 Wm and Mary L. Rev. 1817  (18,183 words).

       Law Review: “Re-Examining the Attorney General’s Guidelines for FBI Investigations of Domestic Groups, by David M. Park, Arizona Law Review, Summer, 1997, 39 Ariz. L. Rev. 769 (14,565 words).

       Article: “Warrantless search in the law enforcement workplace: court interpretation of employer practices and employee privacy rights under the Ortega doctrine,” 1 (2) Police Quarterly 51-69, PERF/ACJS (888) 202-4563.

       Article: “Use and Abuse of Surveillance Videos,” 85 (1) Ill. Bar. J. 22-27 (Jan. 1997).

       Law Review: “Informants and the Fourth Amendment: a reconsideration,” by Tracey Maclin, Washington Univ. Law Quarterly, Fall, 1996, 74 Wash. U. L. Q. 573 (38,500 words).

       Law Review: “The Comprehensive Terrorism Prevention Act of 1995,” by Thomas C. Martin, Seton Hall Univ. Legislative Journal, 1996, 20 Seton Hall Legis. J. 201 (31,299 words).

       Law Review: “Jihad and the Constitution: The First Amendment Implications of Combating Religiously Motivated Terrorism,” by Joseph Grinstein, Yale Law Journal, March, 1996, 105 Yale L.J. 1347 (21,724 words).

       Law Review: “Note: In God We Trust; All Others Who Enter This Store Are Subject to Surveillance,” by Karen A. Springer,  Federal Communications Law Journal, December, 1995, 48 Fed. Comm. L.J. 187 (16,585 words).

       Law Review: “Comment: Electronic Surveillance and the Resulting Loss of Privacy in the Workplace,” by Donald R. McCartney, Univ. of Missouri at K.C. Law Review, Summer, 1994, 62 UMKC L. Rev. 859  (19,802 words).

       Law Review: “The religious freedom restoration act: letting the fox into the henhouse under cover of section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment,” Cardozo Law Review (Dec. 1994) 16 Cardozo L. Rev. 357 (25748 words). 

       Law Review: “Note: Restricting Electronic Monitoring in the Private Workplace,” by Julie A. Flanagan, April, 1994, 43 Duke L.J. 1256 (14275 words).

       Law Review: “Investigation and Police Practice: Electronic Surveillance,” by Daniel Chepaitis, Georgetown Law Journal, Mar-Apr, 1994, 82 Geo. L.J. 698 (24,560 words).

       Law Review: “Privacy Issues in the Private-Sector Workplace: Protection From Electronic Surveillance and the Emerging Privacy Gap,” by David Neil King, Univ. of So. Calif., Jan. 1994, 67 S. Cal. L. Rev. 441 (18,282 words).

       Law Review: “Civilian Demonstrations Near the Military Installation: Restraints On Military Surveillance and Other Intelligence Activities,” by Major Paul M. Peterson, Military Law Review, Spring, 1993, 140 Mil. L. Rev. 113 (37558 words).

       Law Review: “Who’s Watching the Watcher?: The Law of Conspiracy in the Context of the FBI’s Record of Surveillance of Black Folk in America, Western State Univ. Law Review, Fall, 1993, 21 W. St. U.L. Rev. 219 (11,044 words).

       Law Review: “After Abscam: An Examination of Congressional Proposals to Limit Targeting Discretion in Federal Undercover Investigations,” by Katherine Goldwasser, Emory Univ. Law Journal, Winter, 1987, 36 Emory L.J. 75 (41,133 words).

       Law Note: “Alliance to End Repression v. City of Chicago: Judicial Abandonment of Consent Decree Principles,” Northwestern Univ. Law Review, 1986, 80 Nw. U. L. Rev. 1675.

       Law Symposium: “National Security and Civil Liberties: FBI Surveillance: Past and Present,” Cornell Law Review, April, 1984, 69 Cornell L. Rev. 785 (17,602 words) and 69 Cornell L. Rev. 883 (7,235 words).

       Law Review: “The Justiciability and Constitutionality of Political Intelligence Gathering, by Eric Lardiere, UCLA Law Review, June, 1983, 30 UCLA L. Rev. 976 (47,394 words).

       Law Review: “The First Amendment and Law Enforcement Infiltration of Political Groups,” by David Berry, Univ. of So. Calif. Law Review, Nov., 1982, 56 S. Cal. L. Rev. 207 (17,699 words).

STRESS

       Article: “British Policing and the Ottawa Shift System Easing the Stress of Rotating Shifts,” Jan. 2000, FBI Law Enfor. Bull.; www.fbi.gov/ (full text).

       Book: “Stress management in law enforcement,” by Leonard Territo and James Sewell, Carolina Academic Press, Durham, N.C., 1999. The text is organized into eight sections, starting with the psychological, physiological, and social consequences of stress. The sections that follow focus on coping behaviors, suicide and its impact on the family, trauma and vicarious traumatization. The last two parts discuss the psychological services in law enforcement that can assist an officer.

       Article: “The FBI’s critical incident stress management program and “Managing undercover stress: the supervisor’s role” Feb. 1999, FBI Law Enfor. Bull.; www.fbi.gov/ (full text).

       Article: “Ranking police stressors,” 75 (2) Psychological Reports 824-826. Top stressors were from killing someone in the line of duty and experiencing the line-of-duty death of a fellow officer (1994).

       Article: “Stressful events, work-family conflict, coping, psychological burnout, and well-being among police officers,” 75 (2) Psychological Reports 787-800 (1994). Anonymous responses from 828 officers who responded to a survey in Toronto.

       Article: “Patterns of PTSD among police officers following shooting incidents: a two-dimensional model and treatment implications,” 2 (3) Journal of Traumatic Stress 247-257 (1989).

       Article: “Psychiatric morbidity in policemen and the effect of brief psychotherapeutic intervention,”  10 (3) Stress Medicine 151-157 (1994).

       Article: “Shooting incidents: does the memory ever fade?”, by Andrew Smotzer, 9 (2) The ASLET Journal 52 (Mar/Apr 1994). Discusses the effects of ‘post shooting trauma’ and ‘critical incident syndrome’ which is the subject of a FLETC course (Lesson plan 6190.02).

       Book: “Critical Incidents in Policing,” Dr. James Reese, Editor. U.S. DoJ / FBI (1990).

SWAT OPERATIONS

 

        Law Note: “Treading the Thin Blue Line: Military Special-Operations Trained Police SWAT Teams and the Constitution,” by Karan R. Singh, William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal (Apr. 2001) 9 Wm. & Mary Bill of Rts. J. 673 (23,313 words).

 

        Law Review: “Can Soldiers Be Peace Officers? The Waco Disaster and the Militarization of American Law Enforcement,” Akron Law Review (1997) 30 Akron L. Rev. 619 (23,235 words).   

 

TERRORISM

        Law Article: “Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Before and After the USA PATRIOT Act,” by Michael J. Bulzomi, 72 (6) FBI Law Enf. Bull. 25-32 (June, 2003); www.fbi.gov/

TESTING (non psychological)

Also see Genetic Testing and Medical Privacy

       Article: “Screen tests: critics view resume-scanning software as newest form of employment discrimination,” 85 (3) ABA Journal 36. Resume scanning software uses artificial intelligence to find “key blocks of data” on a resume.  Walt Disney Productions is one of the larger corporate users of this software, and uses a product produced by Resumix, www.resumix.com/.  

       Article: “Denver police and firefighter medical screening study,” a 9 pp. executive summary of a 1993 study, using EEOC Guidelines and ADA criteria, www.medtox.com

TRANSSEXUAL INMATES

 

        Law Review: “Transsexual Prisoners: How Much Treatment is Enough?” Bradley A. Sultan, New England Law Review (Summer, 2003) 37 New Eng.L. Rev. 1195 (17074 words).

 

        Law Review: “Female  Inmates  Living in Fear: Sexual Abuse by Correctional Officers in the District of Columbia,” by Katherine C. Parker, American Univ. Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law (2002) 10 Am. U.J.  Gender  Soc. Pol’y & L. 443 (16402 words).

 

        Law Review: “Categorical Exclusions: Exploring Legal Responses to Health Care Discrimination Against  Transsexuals,” by Kari E. Hong, Columbia Journal of Gender and Law (2002) 11 Colum. J. Gender & L. 88 (20905 words).

 

        Law Review: “When is an Attempted Rape Not an Attempted Rape? When the Victim is a Transsexual,” by Katrina C. Rose, American Univ. Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law (2001) 9 Am. U.J.  Gender  Soc. Pol’y & L. 505 (15920 words)

 

        Law Review: “Trapped” in Sing Sing: Transgendered Prisoners Caught in the Gender Binarism,” by Darren Rosenblum, Michigan Journal of Gender & Law (2000) 6 Mich. J. Gender & L. 499 (31657 words).

 

        Law Review: “The Sexual Continuum: Transsexual Prisoners,” by Anita C. Barnes, New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement (Summer, 1998) 24 N.E. J. on Crim. & Civ. Con. 599 (23378 words).

        Law Review: “The Predicament of the Transsexual Prisoner,” by Debra Sherman Tedeschi, Temple Political & Civil Rights Law Review (Fall, 1995) 5 Temp. Pol. & Civ. Rts. L. Rev. 27 (12787 words).

VISION STANDARDS

       Article: Vision Standards for Law Enforcement:  A Descriptive Study. Journal of Police Science and Administration. (June, 1984).

       Article: Optics professor publishes job-related performance oriented eyesight standards study for police departments. Journal of Police Science and Administration (Sept. 1980).

WAGE AND HOUR CLAIMS

       Book: “Guide to Wage and Hour Regulation,” 2d edit. It discusses coverage, exemptions, calculation of wage and overtime payments, FLSA administration and enforcement of the act.  BNA Books, 1-800-372-1033 or www.bna.com/new/cpswhord.htm.

       Article: “Equal benefits for equal work? The law of domestic partner benefits,” 14 (1) The Labor Lawyer (ABA)  1-22 and 23-52 (Summer, 1998); abasvcctr@abanet.org.

       Law Review: “The impact of electronic paging and on-call policies on overtime pay under the FLSA,” 11 (2) The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 231-246 (Summer, 1995); abasvcctr@abanet.org.

       Law Review: “Exempt or not exempt under the administrative exemption of the FLSA,” 11 (2) The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 209-230 (Summer 1995); abasvcctr@abanet.org.

       Law Review: “The impact of electronic paging and on-call policies on overtime pay under the FLSA,” 11 (2) The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 231-246 (Summer 1995); abasvcctr@abanet.org.

       Article: E. Randels, “The Fair Labor Standards Act: An Administrative Nightmare.” 59 (5) The Police Chief 28-32 (May 1992). Discusses in-shift meal periods, and standby on-call time.

WORKPLACE PRIVACY

Also see E Mail and Internet Use , Genetic Testing and Medical Privacy  and Surveillance and Monitoring

        Law Review: “Video Surveillance and the Constitution of Public Space: Fitting the Fourth Amendment to a World that Tracks Image and Identity,” by Marc Jonathan Blitz, 82 Tex. L. Rev. 1349, Texas Law Review, 2004 (65,754 words).

 

        Article: “Employer rights and obligations under the FMLA,” 40 (11) For the Defense 21-26, 2004. Defense Research Institute, www.dri.org

 

        Law Review: “Beyond Privacy: Confronting Locational Surveillance in Wireless Communication,” by David J. Phillips, 8 Comm. L. & Pol’y 1, Communication Law and Policy, 2003 (10,484 words).

 

        Law Review: “Information Technology and Workers’  Privacy:  A Comparative Study: Part II: National Studies: Information Technology and Workers’  Privacy: The United States Law,” by Matthew W. Finkin, 23 Comp. Lab. L. & Pol’y J. 471, Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journal, 2002 (16,992 words).

 

        Law Review: “Satellite Tracking and the Right to  Privacy,” by Aaron Renenge, 53 Hastings L.J. 549, U.C. Hastings College of Law, 2002 (9,480 words).

 

        Law Review: “Fourth Amendment Privacy Interests,” by William C. Heffernan, 92 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 1, Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology (Fall 2001/ Winter 2002), Northwestern Univ. School of Law (54091 words).

 

        Law Review: “Who Knows Where You Are? Privacy and Wireless Services,” BY Ellen Traupman, 10 CommLaw Conspectus 133, Catholic University of America, 2001 (15,776 words).

 

        Law Review: “With Nowhere to Hide: Workers are Scrambling for  Privacy  in the Digital Age,” by Rod Dixon, 4 J. Tech. L. & Pol’y 1, Journal of Technology Law and Policy, 1999 (15,431 words).

 

        Law Review: “Global Trends in Privacy Protection: An International Survey of Privacy, Data Protection, and Surveillance Laws and Developments,” by Banisar & Davies, The John Marshall Journal of Computer & Information Law (Fall 1999) 18 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 1 (59,409 words, 324 endnotes).

 

        Law Review: “Is employee privacy an oxymoron?,” 15 Delaware Lawyer 20 (1997).

 

        Law Note: “A Constitutional Right to Avoid Disclosure of Personal Matter: Perfecting Privacy Analysis in J.P. v. DeSanti, 653 F.2d 1080 (6th Cir.),” 71 Geo. L.J. 219 (1982).

 

        Law Note: “The constitutional right to confidentiality,” 51 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 133 (1982).

        Law Review: “Lights, Camera, Action! - Surveillance Cameras, Facial Recognition Systems and the Constitution,” 49 Loy. L. Rev. 773, Loyola Law Review, Winter, 2003 (10790 words).

       Article: “Privacy in the workplace: On the frontier between the rights of employees and employers,” Amer. Bar Assn., available in PDF format at www.bna.com/bnabooks/ababna/rnr/2000/rnrpriv.pdf.

       Report: “Subcommittee of Privacy and Collateral Torts,” 1999, ABA Committee on Employee Rights and Responsibilities, www.bna.com/bnabooks/ababna/rnr/2000/rnrpriv.pdf.

       Law Review: “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell; a discussion of employee privacy in cyberspace in light of McVeigh v. Cohen,” by Clifford T. Karafin, Univ. Virginia Journal of Law and Technology, Fall 1998, 3 Va. J.L. & Tech. 7.

       Article: “The Workplace Privacy of Law Enforcement and Public Employees,” by Michael Bulzomi, FBI Law Enfor. Bull., June, 1998; www.fbi.gov/ .

       Article: “Electronic monitoring in the workplace: How arbitrators have ruled,” 52 (4) Dispute Resolution Journal (AAA) 36-44 (Fall 1997).  Discusses privacy, e-mail interception, wiretapping and surveillance.  Contact: usadrpub@arb.com

       Law Review: “It’s my life - Leave me alone: off the-job employee associational privacy rights,” by Terry Morehead Dworkin, American Business Law Journal, Fall, 1997, 35 Am. Bus. L.J. 47(35,039 words).

       Law Review: “Privacy in the Workplace,” by Kevin J. Conlon, Chicago-Kent Law Review, 1996, 72 Chi.-Kent. L. Rev. 285 (6,066 words).

       Law Review: “The Boss’s Eyes and Ears: A Case Study of Electronic Employee Monitoring and the Privacy for Consumers and Workers Act,” 12 The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 93, Spring 1996 (10257 words).

       Law Review: “Employee Privacy Rights in the United States,” by Paul F. Gerhart,  Fall, 1995, 17 Comp. Lab. L. 175 (16,049 words).

WORKPLACE VIOLENCE

        Law Review: “Employees with Mental and Emotional Problems -- Workplace Security and Implications of State Discrimination Laws, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Rehabilitation Act, Workers’ Compensation, and Related Issues,” by Janet E. Goldberg, Stetson Law Review (Fall 1994) 24 Stetson L. Rev. 201 (21,010 words, 240 notes).

       Booklet: “Workplace violence:  “1996 Workplace violence survey,” Society for Human Resource Mgmt. It summarizes data compiled on the number of incidents involving a threat, battery, or armed assault in more than 1,000 organizations.  Copies: (703) 548-3440.

       Article: “Violence against women in the workplace,” 26 (1) The Brief (ABA) 14-19 (Fall 1996); abasvcctr@abanet.org.

       Article: “Kangas, “The fundamentals of parking lot protection,”  40 (7) Security Management (ASIS) 44-50 (July 1996). www.securitymanagement.com.

       Law Review: Workplace violence: navigating thru the minefield of legal liab., 11 (2) The Labor Lawyer (ABA) 171-188 (Summer 1995); abasvcctr@abanet.org.

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